Elevated Levels of Urinary Biomarkers TIMP-2 and IGFBP-7 Predict Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates after Congenital Heart Surgery
Inferior Right Ventricular Wall Thickness by Echocardiogram: A Novel Method of Assessing Hypertrophy in Neonates and Infants
An established echocardiographic (echo) standard for assessing the newborn right ventricle (RV) for hypertrophy has not been thoroughly developed. This is partially due to the RV's complex architecture, which makes quantification of RV mass by echo difficult. Here, we retrospectively evaluate the thickness of the inferior RV wall (iRVWT) by echo in neonates and infants with normal cardiopulmonary physiology. Inferior RVWT was defined at the medial portion of the inferior wall of the RV at the mid-ventricular level, collected from a subxiphoid, short axis view. iRVWT was indexed to body surface area (BSA) to the 0.5 power and normalized to iLVWT to explore the best normalization method. Ninety-eight neonates and 32 infants were included in the final analysis. Mean age for neonates and infants was 2Â days and 59Â days, respectively. Meanâ€‰Â±â€‰SD for neonate and infant end-diastole iRVWT was 2.17â€‰Â±â€‰0.35Â mm and 1.79â€‰Â±â€‰0.28Â mm, respectively. There was no residual relationship between the index iRVWT and BSA (râ€‰=â€‰0.03, pâ€‰=â€‰NS). In the infant cohort, the iRVWT was significantly lower and iLVWT was significantly higher compared to neonate, consistent with known physiologic changes of RV and LV mass. Thus, iRVWT may serve as a reliable and accurate proxy for RV mass and the parameter warrants further evaluation.
Use of Tolvaptan in a Patient With Palliated Congenital Heart Disease
Heart failure is a common problem in the ever growing population of patients with palliated congenital heart disease. It is frequently complicated by hyponatremia that has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Tolvaptan is a vasopressin receptor antagonist that has been effective in improving hyponatremia and congestive symptoms in adults with chronic heart failure. We describe the short-term use of tolvaptan to treat hyponatremic hypervolemia in an adolescent patient with chronic heart failure in the setting of palliated congenital heart disease prior to definitive surgical intervention. In this case, the patient had improvement in hyponatremia and a decrease in body weight, without any adverse effects.
Complexity of ranolazine and phenytoin use in an infant with long QT syndrome type 3
Embryonic caffeine exposure induces adverse effects in adulthood
The purpose of this study was to determine both the short-term effects on cardiac development and embryo growth and the long-term effects on cardiac function and body composition of in utero caffeine exposure. Pregnant mice (C57BL/6) were exposed to hypoxia (10% O(2)) or room air from embryonic days (E) 8.5-10.5, and treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (normal saline, 0.9% NaCl). This caffeine dose results in a circulating level that is equivalent to 2 cups of coffee in humans. Hypoxic exposure acutely reduced embryonic growth by 30%. Exposure to a single dose of caffeine inhibited cardiac ventricular development by 53% in hypoxia and 37% in room air. Caffeine exposure resulted in inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF1alpha protein expression in embryos by 40%. When offspring from dams treated with a single dose of caffeine were studied in adulthood, we observed that caffeine treatment alone resulted in a decrease in cardiac function of 38%, as assessed by echocardiography. We also observed a 20% increase in body fat with male mice exposed to caffeine. Caffeine was dissolved in normal saline, so it was used as a control. Room air controls were used to compare to the hypoxic mice. Exposure to a single dose of caffeine during embryogenesis results in both short-term effects on cardiac development and long-term effects on cardiac function.