Modeling of clinical phenotypes in systemic lupus erythematosus based on the platelet transcriptome and FCGR2a genotype
BACKGROUND:The clinical heterogeneity of SLE with its complex pathogenesis remains challenging as we strive to provide optimal management. The contribution of platelets to endovascular homeostasis, inflammation and immune regulation highlights their potential importance in SLE. Prior work from our group showed that the Fcγ receptor type IIa (FcγRIIa)-R/H131 biallelic polymorphism is associated with increased platelet activity and cardiovascular risk in SLE. The study was initiated to investigate the platelet transcriptome in patients with SLE and evaluate its association across FcγRIIa genotypes and distinct clinical features. METHODS:Fifty-one patients fulfilling established criteria for SLE (mean age = 41.1 ± 12.3, 100% female, 45% Hispanic, 24% black, 22% Asian, 51% white, mean SLEDAI = 4.4 ± 4.2 at baseline) were enrolled and compared with 18 demographically matched control samples. The FCGR2a receptor was genotyped for each sample, and RNA-seq was performed on isolated, leukocyte-depleted platelets. Transcriptomic data were used to create a modular landscape to explore the differences between SLE patients and controls and various clinical parameters in the context of FCGR2a genotypes. RESULTS:There were 2290 differentially expressed genes enriched for pathways involved in interferon signaling, immune activation, and coagulation when comparing SLE samples vs controls. When analyzing patients with proteinuria, modules associated with oxidative phosphorylation and platelet activity were unexpectedly decreased. Furthermore, genes that were increased in SLE and in patients with proteinuria were enriched for immune effector processes, while genes increased in SLE but decreased in proteinuria were enriched for coagulation and cell adhesion. A low-binding FCG2Ra allele (R131) was associated with decreases in FCR activation, which further correlated with increases in platelet and immune activation pathways. Finally, we were able to create a transcriptomic signature of clinically active disease that performed significantly well in discerning SLE patients with active clinical disease form those with inactive clinical disease. CONCLUSIONS:In aggregate, these data demonstrate the platelet transcriptome provides insight into lupus pathogenesis and disease activity, and shows potential use as means of assessing this complex disease using a liquid biopsy.
Autoimmune Congenital Complete Heart Block: How Late Can It Occur?
P2Y12 Inhibition Suppresses Proinflammatory Platelet-Monocyte Interactions
BACKGROUND: Monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) represent the crossroads between thrombosis and inflammation, and targeting this axis may suppress thromboinflammation. While antiplatelet therapy (APT) reduces platelet-platelet aggregation and thrombosis, its effects on MPA and platelet effector properties on monocytes are uncertain. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of platelets on monocyte activation and APT on MPA and platelet-induced monocyte activation. METHODS:, GP IIb/IIIa, and COX-1 inhibitors and assessed for platelet and monocyte activity via flow cytometry. RNA-Seq of monocytes incubated with platelets was used to identify platelet-induced monocyte transcripts and was validated by RT-qPCR in monocyte-PR co-incubation ± APT. RESULTS:inhibition attenuates platelet-induced monocyte activation.
The modifying influence of HLA class II DQB1âˆ—06:02 on the Streptococcus and clinical phenotype correlation among anti-Ro+ mothers of children with neonatal lupus
Knowledge is power: regarding SMFM Consult Series #64: Systemic lupus erythematosus in pregnancy
Contribution of S100A4-expressing fibroblasts to anti-SSA/Ro-associated atrioventricular nodal calcification and soluble S100A4 as a biomarker of clinical severity
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Fibrosis and dystrophic calcification disrupting conduction tissue architecture are histopathological lesions characterizing cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac-NL) associated with maternal anti-SSA/Ro antibodies. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:Increased appreciation of heterogeneity in fibroblasts encourages re-examination of existing models with the consideration of multiple fibroblast subtypes (and their unique functional differences) in mind. This study addressed fibroblast heterogeneity by examining expression of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (myofibroblasts) and of S100 Calcium-Binding Protein A4 (S100A4). METHODS/UNASSIGNED:, supported by the evaluation of cord blood from cardiac-NL neonates and their healthy (anti-SSA/Ro-exposed) counterparts, and autopsy tissue from fetuses dying with cardiac-NL, the current study was initiated to more clearly define and distinguish the S100A4-positive fibroblast in the fetal cardiac environment. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:fibroblasts expressed pro-angiogenic cytokines and proteases that degrade collagen. Cord blood levels of S100A4 in anti-SSA/Ro-exposed neonates tracked disease severity and, in discordant twins, distinguished affected from unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:fibroblast alongside the canonical myofibroblast in the pathogenesis of cardiac-NL. Neonatal S100A4 levels support a novel biomarker of poor prognosis.
Immunology of pregnancy and reproductive health in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Update from the 11th International Conference on Reproduction, Pregnancy and Rheumatic Diseases
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) can affect women and men during fertile age, therefore reproductive health is a priority issue in rheumatology. Many topics need to be considered during preconception counselling: fertility, the impact of disease-related factors on pregnancy outcomes, the influence of pregnancy on disease activity, the compatibility of medications with pregnancy and breastfeeding. Risk stratification and individualized treatment approach elaborated by a multidisciplinary team minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). Research has been focused on identifying biomarkers that can be predictive of APO. Specifically, preeclampsia and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy tend to develop more frequently in women with ARD. Placental insufficiency can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and small-for-gestational age newborns. Such APO have been shown to be associated with maternal disease activity in different ARD. Therefore, a key message to be addressed to the woman wishing for a pregnancy and to her family is that treatment with compatible drugs is the best way to ensure maternal and fetal wellbeing. An increasing number of medications have entered the management of ARD, but data about their use in pregnancy and lactation are scarce. More information is needed for most biologic drugs and their biosimilars, and for the so-called small molecules, while there is sufficient evidence to recommend the use of TNF inhibitors if needed for keeping maternal disease under control. Other issues related to the reproductive journey have emerged as "unmet needs", such as sexual dysfunction, contraception, medically assisted reproduction techniques, long-term outcome of children, and they will be addressed in this review paper. Collaborative research has been instrumental to reach current knowledge and the future will bring novel insights thanks to pregnancy registries and prospective studies that have been established in several Countries and to their joint efforts in merging data.
High incidence of proliferative and membranous nephritis in SLE patients with low proteinuria in the Accelerating Medicines Partnership
OBJECTIVE:Delayed detection of lupus nephritis associates with worse outcomes. There are conflicting recommendations regarding a threshold level of proteinuria at which biopsy will likely yield actionable management. This study addressed the association of urine protein creatinine ratios (UPCR) with clinical characteristics and investigated the incidence of proliferative and membranous histology in patients with a UPCR between 0.5 and 1. METHODS:275 SLE patients (113 first biopsy, 162 repeat) were enrolled in the multicentre multi-ethnic/racial Accelerating Medicines Partnership across 15â€‰U.S. sites at the time of a clinically indicated renal biopsy. Patients were followed for 1â€‰year. RESULTS:At biopsy, 54 patients had UPCR <1 and 221 had UPCR >1. Independent of UPCR or biopsy number, a majority (92%) of patients had class III, IV, V or mixed histology. Moreover, patients with UPCR <1 and class III, IV, V, or mixed had a median activity index of 4.5 and chronicity index of 3, yet 39% of these patients had an inactive sediment. Neither anti-dsDNA nor low complement distinguished class I or II from III, IV, V, or mixed in patients with UPCR <1. Of 29 patients with baseline UPCR <1 and class III, IV, V or mixed, 23 (79%) had a UPCR <0.5 at one year. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this prospective study three quarters of patients with UPCR <1 had histology showing class III, IV, V or mixed with accompanying activity and chronicity despite an inactive sediment or normal serologies. These data support renal biopsy at thresholds lower than a UPCR of 1.
Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, morbidity, and seroreactivity following initial COVID-19 vaccination series and additional dose in patients with SLE in New York City
Erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (ECR1) and erythrocyte-bound C4d (EC4d) in the prediction of poor pregnancy outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
BACKGROUND:Complement activation has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in SLE. Pregnant women with SLE were studied to evaluate whether complement dysregulation within the first two pregnancy trimesters predicts APO. METHODS:Pregnant women fulfilled classification criteria for SLE. APO included neonatal death, preterm delivery before 36 weeks and small for gestational age newborn. Pre-eclampsia was also evaluated. Erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (ECR1) and erythrocyte-bound C4d (EC4d) were measured by flow cytometry. Complement proteins C3 and C4 were measured by immunoturbidimetry and anti-double-stranded DNA by ELISA in serum. Statistical analysis consisted of t-test, confusion matrix-derived diagnostic analysis, and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS:Fifty-one women had 57 pregnancies and 169 visits during the study. Baseline visits occurred mainly in the first (n=32) and second trimester (n=21). Fourteen (24.6%) pregnancies resulted in 21 APO with preterm delivery being the most common (n=10). ECR1 <5.5 net mean fluorescence intensity in the first trimester predicted APO with a diagnostic OR (DOR) of 18.33 (95% CI: 2.39 to 140.4; t-test p=0.04). Other individual biomarkers did not reach statistical significance. To estimate the likelihood of APO, we developed an algorithm that included the week of pregnancy, ECR1 and EC4d. From this algorithm, a Pregnancy Adversity Index (PAI) was calculated, and a PAI >0 indicated an elevated likelihood of pregnancy complications (DOR: 20.0 (95% CI: 3.64 to 109.97)). CONCLUSIONS:Low levels of ECR1 in early or mid-pregnancy are predictive of an APO. Incorporating the weeks of gestation and both ECR1 and EC4d generated a PAI, which further predicted serious pregnancy complications.