person:cadwek01 or axelrj01 or changs05 or chodoj01 or jad292 or fayea02 or feskes01 or holmea09 or hongs08 or hudesd01 or kirath01 or koides01 or korals01 or littmd01 or maltel01 or naiks06 or nazzal01 or nowosc01 or lup03 or remzif01 or rugglk01 or sarkas04 or scherj01 or schluj05
Phosphorylation-dependent pseudokinase domain dimerization drives full-length MLKL oligomerization
The necroptosis pathway is a lytic, pro-inflammatory mode of cell death that is widely implicated in human disease, including renal, pulmonary, gut and skin inflammatory pathologies. The precise mechanism of the terminal steps in the pathway, where the RIPK3 kinase phosphorylates and triggers a conformation change and oligomerization of the terminal pathway effector, MLKL, are only emerging. Here, we structurally identify RIPK3-mediated phosphorylation of the human MLKL activation loop as a cue for MLKL pseudokinase domain dimerization. MLKL pseudokinase domain dimerization subsequently drives formation of elongated homotetramers. Negative stain electron microscopy and modelling support nucleation of the MLKL tetramer assembly by a central coiled coil formed by the extended, ~80 Å brace helix that connects the pseudokinase and executioner four-helix bundle domains. Mutational data assert MLKL tetramerization as an essential prerequisite step to enable the release and reorganization of four-helix bundle domains for membrane permeabilization and cell death.
Cognitive impairment and outcomes in older adults with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to explore the prognostic impact of cognitive impairment on the long-term risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in older patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) undergoing invasive treatment. METHODS:Patients aged ≥75 years with NSTEACS undergoing an invasive strategy were included in the multicentre prospective study (NCT01933581). Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to evaluate cognitive status at baseline (scores ≥26 classified as normal, <26 as cognitive impairment). Long-term follow-up data were obtained from electronic patient care records. The primary endpoint was MACE as a composite of all-cause deaths, reinfarction, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, urgent revascularisation and significant bleeding. RESULTS:239 patients with baseline cognitive assessment completed long-term follow-up. Median age was 80.9 years (IQR 78.2-83.9 years) and 62.3% were male. On 5-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of MACE between the cognitively impaired group and the normal cognition group (p=0.155). Cognition status was not associated with MACE (HR 1.37 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.95); p=0.082). However, there was significantly more deaths (p=0.005) in those with cognitive impairment. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (log-rank p=0.003) and Cox regression analysis (aHR 1.85 (95% CI 1.11 to 3.08); p=0.018) revealed increased risk of all-cause mortality, even after adjusting for frailty and GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) score. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive impairment in older patients with NSTEACS undergoing an invasive strategy was associated with long-term all-cause mortality. Routine cognitive screening may aid risk stratification and further studies are needed to identify how this should influence management strategies and individual decision-making in this patient group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER/BACKGROUND:NCT01933581.
Cis-regulatory arbitrators of regeneration
Mammals favor healing with scaring over functional tissue regeneration.1 In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Mack et al. use "super-healer" mice to identify cis-regulatory variations that direct regenerative versus fibrotic gene expression in wound fibroblasts and they uncover complement factor H as a molecular driver of skin regeneration.2.
Messaging Clearly and Effectively About Hearing Loss and Increased Dementia Risk
Multimodal single-cell datasets characterize antigen-specific CD8+ T cells across SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and infection
The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 antigen after infection or vaccination is defined by the durable production of antibodies and T cells. Population-based monitoring typically focuses on antibody titer, but there is a need for improved characterization and quantification of T cell responses. Here, we used multimodal sequencing technologies to perform a longitudinal analysis of circulating human leukocytes collected before and after immunization with the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Our data indicated distinct subpopulations of CD8+ T cells, which reliably appeared 28 days after prime vaccination. Using a suite of cross-modality integration tools, we defined their transcriptome, accessible chromatin landscape and immunophenotype, and we identified unique biomarkers within each modality. We further showed that this vaccine-induced population was SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific and capable of rapid clonal expansion. Moreover, we identified these CD8+ T cell populations in scRNA-seq datasets from COVID-19 patients and found that their relative frequency and differentiation outcomes were predictive of subsequent clinical outcomes.
Immunomodulation by Enteric Viruses
Enteric viruses display intricate adaptations to the host mucosal immune system to successfully reproduce in the gastrointestinal tract and cause maladies ranging from gastroenteritis to life-threatening disease upon extraintestinal dissemination. However, many viral infections are asymptomatic, and their presence in the gut is associated with an altered immune landscape that can be beneficial or adverse in certain contexts. Genetic variation in the host and environmental factors including the bacterial microbiota influence how the immune system responds to infections in a remarkably viral strain-specific manner. This immune response, in turn, determines whether a given virus establishes acute versus chronic infection, which may have long-lasting consequences such as susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in the interaction between enteric viruses and the immune system that underlie the impact of these ubiquitous infectious agents on our health. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology, Volume 10 is September 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Integrative multi-omic cancer profiling reveals DNA methylation patterns associated with therapeutic vulnerability and cell-of-origin
DNA methylation plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cellular identity. However, it is frequently dysregulated during tumor development and is closely intertwined with other genetic alterations. Here, we leveraged multi-omic profiling of 687 tumors and matched non-involved adjacent tissues from the kidney, brain, pancreas, lung, head and neck, and endometrium to identify aberrant methylation associated with RNA and protein abundance changes and build a Pan-Cancer catalog. We uncovered lineage-specific epigenetic drivers including hypomethylated FGFR2 in endometrial cancer. We showed that hypermethylated STAT5A is associated with pervasive regulon downregulation and immune cell depletion, suggesting that epigenetic regulation of STAT5A expression constitutes a molecular switch for immunosuppression in squamous tumors. We further demonstrated that methylation subtype-enrichment information can explain cell-of-origin, intra-tumor heterogeneity, and tumor phenotypes. Overall, we identified cis-acting DNA methylation events that drive transcriptional and translational changes, shedding light on the tumor's epigenetic landscape and the role of its cell-of-origin.
Proteogenomic insights suggest druggable pathways in endometrial carcinoma
We characterized a prospective endometrial carcinoma (EC) cohort containing 138 tumors and 20 enriched normal tissues using 10 different omics platforms. Targeted quantitation of two peptides can predict antigen processing and presentation machinery activity, and may inform patient selection for immunotherapy. Association analysis between MYC activity and metformin treatment in both patients and cell lines suggests a potential role for metformin treatment in non-diabetic patients with elevated MYC activity. PIK3R1 in-frame indels are associated with elevated AKT phosphorylation and increased sensitivity to AKT inhibitors. CTNNB1 hotspot mutations are concentrated near phosphorylation sites mediating pS45-induced degradation of β-catenin, which may render Wnt-FZD antagonists ineffective. Deep learning accurately predicts EC subtypes and mutations from histopathology images, which may be useful for rapid diagnosis. Overall, this study identified molecular and imaging markers that can be further investigated to guide patient stratification for more precise treatment of EC.
Suboptimal Guideline Adherence and Biomarker Underutilization in Monitoring of Post-operative Crohn"™s Disease
Background: Crohn"™s disease recurrence after ileocecal resection is common. Guidelines suggest colonoscopy within 6"“12 months of surgery to assess for post-operative recurrence, but use of adjunctive monitoring is not protocolized. We aimed to describe the state of monitoring in post-operative Crohn"™s. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with Crohn"™s after ileocolic resection with â‰¥ 1-year follow-up. Patients were stratified into high and low risk based on guidelines. Post-operative biomarker (C-reactive protein, fecal calprotectin), cross-sectional imaging, and colonoscopy use were assessed. Biomarker, radiographic, and endoscopic post-operative recurrence were defined as elevated CRP/calprotectin, active inflammation on imaging, and Rutgeerts â‰¥ i2b, respectively. Data were stratified by surgery year to assess changes in practice patterns over time. P-values were calculated using Wilcoxon test and Fisher exact test. Results: Of 901 patients, 53% were female and 78% high risk. Median follow-up time was 60 m for LR and 50 m for high risk. Postoperatively, 18% low and 38% high risk had CRPs, 5% low and 10% high risk had calprotectins, and half of low and high risk had cross-sectional imaging. 29% low and 38% high risk had colonoscopy by 1 year. Compared to pre-2015, time to first radiography (584 days vs. 398 days) and colonoscopy (421 days vs. 296 days) were significantly shorter for high-risk post-2015 (P < 0.001). Probability of colonoscopy within 1 year increased over time (0.48, 2011 vs. 0.92, 2019). Conclusion: Post-operative colonoscopy completion by 1 year is low. The use of CRP and imaging are common, whereas calprotectin is infrequently utilized. Practice patterns are shifting toward earlier monitoring.
Single-Cell Analysis of CX3CR1+ Cells Reveals a Pathogenic Role for BIRC5+ Myeloid Proliferating Cells Driven by Staphylococcus aureus Leukotoxins
Our previous studies identified a population of stem cell-like proliferating myeloid cells within inflamed tissues that could serve as a reservoir for tissue macrophages to adopt different activation states depending on the microenvironment. By lineage-tracing cells derived from CX3CR1+ precursors in mice during infection and profiling by single-cell RNA sequencing, in this study, we identify a cluster of BIRC5+ myeloid cells that expanded in the liver during chronic infection with either the parasite Schistosoma mansoni or the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In the absence of tissue-damaging toxins, S. aureus infection does not elicit these BIRC5+ cells. Moreover, deletion of BIRC5 from CX3CR1-expressing cells results in improved survival during S. aureus infection. Hence the combination of single-cell RNA sequencing and genetic fate-mapping CX3CR1+ cells revealed a toxin-dependent pathogenic role for BIRC5 in myeloid cells during S. aureus infection.