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Single-Dose of Postoperative Ketamine for Postoperative Pain After Mastectomy: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Doan, Lisa V.; Li, Anna; Brake, Lee; Ok, Deborah; Jee, Hyun Jung; Park, Hyung; Cuevas, Randy; Calvino, Steven; Guth, Amber; Schnabel, Freya; Hiotis, Karen; Axelrod, Deborah; Wang, Jing
Background and Objectives: Perioperative ketamine has been shown to reduce opioid consumption and pain after surgery. Ketamine is most often given as an infusion, but an alternative is single-dose ketamine. Single-dose ketamine at up to 1 mg/kg has been shown to reduce symptoms of depression, and a wide range of dosages has been used for pain in the emergency department. However, limited data exists on the tolerability and efficacy of a single-dose of ketamine at 0.6 mg/kg for pain when administered immediately after surgery. We conducted a pilot study of single-dose ketamine in patients undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction, hypothesizing that a single-dose of ketamine is well tolerated and can relieve postoperative pain and improve mood and recovery. Methods: This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm parallel, single-center study. Thirty adult women undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction for oncologic indication received a single-dose of ketamine (0.6mg/kg) or placebo after surgery in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Patients were followed through postoperative day (POD) 7. The primary outcome was postoperative pain measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain subscale on POD 1 and 2. Secondary outcomes include effects on opioid use, PROMIS fatigue and sleep, mood, Quality of Recovery-15, and the Breast Cancer Pain Questionnaire. Results: Side effects were minor and not significantly different in frequency between groups. The ketamine group reported lower scores on the BPI pain severity subscale, especially at POD 7; however, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between ketamine and placebo groups for the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: A single-dose of ketamine at 0.6mg/kg administered postoperatively in the PACU is well tolerated in women undergoing mastectomy and may confer better pain control up to one week after surgery. Future studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to adequately characterize the effect of postoperative single-dose ketamine on pain control in this population.
ISSN: 1178-7090
CID: 5447712


Castro, Martha; Patel, M; Calvino, S
ISSN: 1533-2500
CID: 5297982

Effects of a single subanaesthetic dose of ketamine on pain and mood after laparoscopic bariatric surgery: A randomised double-blind placebo controlled study

Wang, Jing; Echevarria, Ghislaine; Doan, Lisa; Ekasumara, Nydia; Calvino, Steven; Chae, Floria; Martinez, Erik; Robinson, Eric; Cuff, Germaine; Franco, Lola; Muntyan, Igor; Kurian, Marina; Schwack, Bradley F; Bedrosian, Andrea S; Fielding, George A; Ren-Fielding, Christine J
BACKGROUND:When administered as a continuous infusion, ketamine is known to be a potent analgesic and general anaesthetic. Recent studies suggest that a single low-dose administration of ketamine can provide a long-lasting effect on mood, but its effects when given in the postoperative period have not been studied. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesised that a single low-dose administration of ketamine after bariatric surgery can improve pain and mood scores in the immediate postoperative period. DESIGN/METHODS:We performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to compare a single subanaesthetic dose of ketamine (0.4 mg kg) with a normal saline placebo in the postanaesthesia care unit after laparoscopic gastric bypass and gastrectomy. SETTING/METHODS:Single-centre, tertiary care hospital, October 2014 to January 2018. PATIENTS/METHODS:A total of 100 patients were randomised into the ketamine and saline groups. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Patients in the ketamine group received a single dose of ketamine infusion (0.4 mg kg) in the postanaesthesia care unit. Patients in the placebo groups received 0.9% saline. OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:The primary outcome was the visual analogue pain score. A secondary outcome was performance on the short-form McGill's Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). RESULTS:There were no significant differences in visual analogue pain scores between groups (group-by-time interaction P = 0.966; marginal group effect P = 0.137). However, scores on the affective scale of SF-MPQ (secondary outcome) significantly decreased in the ketamine group as early as postoperative day (POD) 2 [mean difference = -2.2 (95% bootstrap CI -2.9 to 1.6), Bonferroni adjusted P < 0.001], compared with placebo group in which the scores decreased only by POD 7. Scores on the total scale of SF-MPQ for the ketamine group were smaller compared with the placebo group (P = 0.034). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although there was no significant difference between ketamine and placebo for the primary outcome measure, patients who received ketamine experienced statistically and clinically significant improvement in their comprehensive evaluation of pain, particularly the affective component of pain, on POD 2. However, future studies are needed to confirm the enduring effects of ketamine on the affective response to postoperative pain. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:NCT02452060.
PMID: 30095550
ISSN: 1365-2346
CID: 3226762

A retrospective study of opioid prescribing patterns at hospital discharge in surgical patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Kendale, Samir M; Wang, Jing; Blitz, Jeanna D; Calvino, Steven; Cuff, Germaine; Barone, Nicholas; Rosenberg, Andrew D; Doan, Lisa
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for complications with postoperative opioid use, and in those patients with known or suspected OSA, minimization of postoperative opioids is recommended. We hypothesize that despite these recommendations, surgical patients with known or suspected OSA are prescribed postoperative opioids at hospital discharge at similar doses to those without OSA. METHODS:This was a retrospective analysis of the electronic health records of surgical patients from 1 November 2016 to 30 April 2017 at a single academic institution. Patients with a known diagnosis of OSA or a STOP-Bang score ≥ 5 were compared with those without OSA for the amount of postoperative discharge opioid medication using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS:Of the 17,671 patients analyzed, 1,692 (9.6%) had known or suspected OSA with 1,450 (86%) of these patients discharged on opioid medications. Of the 15,979 patients without OSA, 12,273 (77%) were discharged on opioid medications. The total median [interquartile range (IQR)] oral morphine equivalents (OME) for all patients was 150 [0-338] mg and for patients with known or suspected OSA was 160 [0-450] mg, an unadjusted comparison showing an 18% difference in OME (95% confidence interval [CI], 3% to 35%; P = 0.02). The analysis, after adjusting for confounders, showed no significant difference in the amount of opioids prescribed to OSA or non-OSA patients (8% difference in total OME; 95% CI, -6% to 25%; P = 0.26). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that surgical patients at risk for OSA or confirmed OSA are prescribed opioids at similar rates and doses upon discharge despite guidelines that recommend minimizing opioid use in OSA patients. These findings indicate a need to implement different strategies to reduce the prescription of opioids to patients with OSA.
PMID: 29777388
ISSN: 1496-8975
CID: 3120822

Interventional diagnostic procedures : nerve blocks and discography

Chapter by: Calvino, Steven; Ng, Jessie
in: Spinal disorders and treatments : the NYU-HJD comprehensive textbook by Errico, Thomas J; Cheriyan, Thomas; Varlotta, Gerard P [Eds]
New Delhi : Jaypee Brothers, 2015
pp. 120-125
ISBN: 9351524957
CID: 2709112

Intradiscal electrothermal therapy, nucleoplasty and biacuplasty

Chapter by: Calvino, Steven; Bannis, Rohan; Shah, Sachin
in: Spinal disorders and treatments : the NYU-HJD comprehensive textbook by Errico, Thomas J; Cheriyan, Thomas; Varlotta, Gerard P [Eds]
New Delhi : Jaypee Brothers, 2015
pp. 259-263
ISBN: 9351524957
CID: 2709332

Two patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension who underwent epidural blood patches [Meeting Abstract]

Malayil, R.; Doan, L.; Calvino, S.; Forzani, B.
ISSN: 1526-5900
CID: 348492