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Sleep, Classroom Behavior, and Achievement Among Children of Color in Historically Disinvested Neighborhoods

Ursache, Alexandra; Robbins, Rebecca; Chung, Alicia; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Children of color are more likely to have poor sleep health than White children, placing them at risk for behavioral problems in the classroom and lower academic performance. Few studies, however, have utilized standardized measures of both classroom behavior and achievement. This study examined whether children's sleep (parent and teacher report) in first grade concurrently related to independent observations of classroom behavior and longitudinally predicted achievement test scores in second grade in a sample of primarily Black (86%) children (n = 572; age = 6.8) living in historically disinvested neighborhoods. Higher teacher-reported child sleepiness was associated with lower adaptive behaviors and higher problem behaviors in the classroom, and predicted lower achievement. Parent-reported bedtime resistance and disordered breathing also predicted lower achievement.
PMID: 34041742
ISSN: 1467-8624
CID: 4940582

Family Strengths and Latinx Youth Externalizing Behavior: Modifying Impacts of an Adverse Immigration Environment

Calzada, Esther J; Roche, Kathleen M; White, Rebecca M B; Partovi, Roushanac; Little, Todd D
In recent years, the federal administration has ramped up efforts to curb and enforce immigration laws, in essence redefining how immigration, particularly in the Latinx population, is viewed and dealt with in the United States. The aim of the present study was to examine Latinx family strengths in relation to youth externalizing behavior, considering the modifying impacts of the current anti-immigration environment. Data were drawn from a study of 547 mother-adolescent dyads. Adolescents were 12.80 years old (SD = 1.03) on average and 55% female; 88% were U.S. born. Adolescents completed measures of family strengths, including parental behavioral control, parental support, and respeto. They also reported on their own externalizing behavior. Mothers completed a measure of their affective and behavioral responses to immigration actions and news. Results showed that in families of mothers who reported adverse responses to the immigration context, parental behavioral control, parental support (boys only), and respeto were more strongly related to youth behavior. Results align with the family compensatory effects model, in which strengths at the family level help to offset adversities outside the home. Discussion focuses on ways to support families in establishing and maintaining high levels of protective processes and on the need to challenge anti-immigration rhetoric, practices, and policies that undermine healthy youth development in the Latinx population.
PMID: 34056564
ISSN: 2163-0070
CID: 4890942

Early Emotion Knowledge and Later Academic Achievement Among Children of Color in Historically Disinvested Neighborhoods

Ursache, Alexandra; Kiely Gouley, Kathleen; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J; Goldfeld, Keith S; Brotman, Laurie M
This study examined longitudinal relations between emotion knowledge (EK) in pre-kindergarten (pre-K; Mage  = 4.8 years) and math and reading achievement 1 and 3 years later in a sample of 1,050 primarily Black children (over half from immigrant families) living in historically disinvested neighborhoods. Participants were part of a follow-up study of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Controlling for pre-academic skills, other social-emotional skills, sociodemographic characteristics, and school intervention status, higher EK at the end of pre-K predicted higher math and reading achievement test scores in kindergarten and second grade. Moderation analyses suggest that relations were attenuated among children from immigrant families. Findings suggest the importance of enriching pre-K programs for children of color with EK-promotive interventions and strategies.
PMID: 32865229
ISSN: 1467-8624
CID: 4578012

Bilingual language broker profiles and academic competence in Mexican-origin adolescents

Kim, Su Yeong; Zhang, Minyu; Chen, Shanting; Song, Jiaxiu; Lopez, Belem G; Rodriguez, Erin M; Calzada, Esther J; Hou, Yang; Yan, Jinjin; Shen, Yishan
We advance a tripartite framework of language use to encompass language skills, the practice of language skills, and the subjective experiences associated with language use among Mexican-origin adolescents who function as language brokers by translating and interpreting for their English-limited parents. Using data collected over 2 waves from a sample of 604 adolescents (Wave 1: Mage = 12.41, SD = 0.97), this study identified 4 types of bilingual language broker profiles that capture the tripartite framework of language use: efficacious, moderate, ambivalent, and nonchalant. All 4 profiles emerged across waves and brokering recipients (i.e., mothers, fathers), except for Wave 1 brokering for mother, in which case only 3 profiles (i.e., efficacious, moderate, and ambivalent) emerged. Three profiles emerged across time: stable efficacious, stable moderate, and other. The efficacious and stable efficacious profiles showed the most consistent relation to adolescents' academic competence. Improving bilingual language proficiency, together with fostering more frequently positive brokering experiences, may be an avenue to improving academic competence among Mexican-origin adolescents in the United States. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 32525330
ISSN: 1939-0599
CID: 4478522

Association of Family Member Detention or Deportation With Latino or Latina Adolescents' Later Risks of Suicidal Ideation, Alcohol Use, and Externalizing Problems

Roche, Kathleen M; White, Rebecca M B; Lambert, Sharon F; Schulenberg, John; Calzada, Esther J; Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Little, Todd D
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Policy changes since early 2017 have resulted in a substantial expansion of Latino or Latina immigrants prioritized for deportation and detention. Professional organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, and Society for Research in Child Development, have raised concerns about the potentially irreversible mental health effects of deportations and detentions on Latino or Latina youths. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To examine how family member detention or deportation is associated with Latino or Latina adolescents' later mental health problems and risk behaviors. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:Survey data were collected between February 14 and April 26, 2018, and between September 17, 2018, and January 13, 2019, and at a 6-month follow-up from 547 Latino or Latina adolescents who were randomly selected from grade and sex strata in middle schools in a suburban Atlanta, Georgia, school district. Prospective data were analyzed using multivariable, multivariate logistic models within a structural equation modeling framework. Models examined how family member detention or deportation within the prior 12 months was associated with later changes in suicidal ideation, alcohol use, and clinical externalizing symptoms, controlling for initial mental health and risk behaviors. Exposure/UNASSIGNED:Past-year family member detention or deportation. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Follow-up reports of suicidal ideation in the past 6 months, alcohol use since the prior survey, and clinical level of externalizing symptoms in the past 6 months. Results/UNASSIGNED:A total of 547 adolescents (303 girls; mean [SD] age, 12.8 [1.0] years) participated in this prospective survey. Response rates were 65.2% (547 of 839) among contacted parents and 95.3% (547 of 574) among contacted adolescents whose parents provided permission. The 6-month follow-up retention rate was 81.5% (446 of 547). A total of 136 adolescents (24.9%) had a family member detained or deported in the prior year. Family member detention or deportation was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (38 of 136 [27.9%] vs 66 of 411 [16.1%]; adjusted odds ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.06-5.29), alcohol use (25 of 136 [18.4%] vs 30 of 411 [7.3%]; adjusted odds ratio, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.26-7.04), and clinical externalizing behaviors (31 of 136 [22.8%] vs 47 of 411 [11.4%]; adjusted odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.11-6.84) at follow-up, controlling for baseline variables. Conclusion and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:This study suggests that recent immigration policy changes may be associated with critical outcomes jeopardizing the health of Latino or Latina adolescents. Since 95% of US Latino or Latina adolescents are citizens, compromised mental health and risk behavior tied to family member detention or deportation raises concerns regarding the association of current immigration policies with the mental health of Latino and Latina adolescents in the United States.
PMID: 32176245
ISSN: 2168-6211
CID: 4352432

Examining the Longitudinal Effect of Spanking on Young Latinx Child Behavior Problems

O'Gara, Jaimie L.; Calzada, Esther J.; LaBrenz, Catherine; Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela
Spanking is a divisive discipline practice in the USA and is considered an inappropriate and harmful discipline tactic by some scholars and practitioners. However, increased diversity in the USA has contributed to varying cultural beliefs regarding discipline, which in turn influences child development. While prior literature has examined correlates of spanking, few studies have examined its impact on Latinx children over time. We examined the use of spanking by Mexican-American (n = 185) and Dominican-American mothers (n = 141) across three time points. The main objective was to investigate whether maternal spanking predicted externalizing problems in young Latinx youth overtime. Families were recruited from public urban schools. Data were collected when children were 4-, 5- and 6-years old. A three-wave cross-lagged multi-group path analysis examined the potential reciprocal relationships between maternal spanking and child externalizing behaviors. According to cross-sectional linear regression models, spanking was concurrently associated with behavior problems at all three time points. However, the results of the cross-lagged multi-group path analyses showed that spanking did not predict subsequent behavior problems, nor did behavior problems predict subsequent spanking. The impact of spanking on child behavior may not be long-lasting in all Latinx families. Spanking and youth externalizing problems are concurrently and positively related; however, maternal use of spanking as a means of discipline did not result in negative and long term effects on child externalizing problems. Implications for practice with Latinx families are explored.
ISSN: 1062-1024
CID: 4613282

The father's role in risk and resilience among Mexican-American adolescents

O'Gara, Jaimie L; Calzada, Esther J; Kim, Su Yeong
Research suggests fathers are important to adolescent well-being, yet there is limited information regarding how fathering is associated with adolescent risk and resilience in Mexican American families. This cross-sectional study utilized a structural equation model to examine whether parent-child alienation mediated the relations between parental displays of warmth and hostility and the outcomes of adolescent resilience and delinquency in Mexican American families (N = 272). Results indicated that adolescent-perceived alienation from parents was a significant predictor of both resilience and delinquency. Additionally, alienation mediated the relations between father warmth and resilience and father warmth and delinquency, as well as the relations between mother hostility and adolescent outcomes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 30628806
ISSN: 1939-0025
CID: 3681732

Internalizing behavior problems in Latinx children : patterns and correlates of anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms from Pre-K through 3rd grade

Chapter by: Barajas-Gonzalez, RG; Calzada, E; Huang, KY
in: Mental and behavioral health of immigrants in the United States : cultural, environmental, and structural factors by Hall, Gordon C (Ed)
Amsterdam : Academic Press, 2020
pp. 253-278
ISBN: 9780128163009
CID: 4578312

Skin color as a predictor of mental health in young Latinx children

Calzada, Esther J; Kim, Yeonwoo; O'Gara, Jaimie L
RATIONALE/BACKGROUND:Racial phenotype shapes the ways in which others perceive and interact with children, with implications for their immediate and long-term well-being. Still, few empirical studies have examined these links in Latinx children. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between skin color, as a salient marker of racial phenotype, and the mental health of young, Latinx children. METHODS:The present study was conducted in the United States between 2010 and 2013. Participants (N = 684) were Mexican- and Dominican origin 4 - 5-year olds who were rated based on their skin tone as "moderately dark" (54%), "honorary white" (35%), and "collective black" (11%). Regression models were used to estimate the association between skin color (measured at age 4-5) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors (measured at the end of first grade). RESULTS:By the end of first grade, "collective black" children had higher ratings on several indicators of internalizing and externalizing problems compared to their "honorary white" peers; this pattern was particularly pronounced for girls. Moreover, the association between externalizing behaviors at baseline and first grade was stronger among children with dark, relative to light, skin color. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that darker-skinned Latinx children may be at increased risk for more severe and/or more persistent mental health problems, perhaps due to discrimination based on their skin color. In order to develop intervention strategies to prevent mental health problems in the Latinx child population, future research is needed to examine how racism may manifest, particularly in teacher-student and parent-child interactions, in the everyday experiences of young children.
PMID: 31473575
ISSN: 1873-5347
CID: 4066852

Parental socialization profiles in Mexican-origin families: Considering cultural socialization and general parenting practices

Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Shanting; Hou, Yang; Zeiders, Katharine H; Calzada, Esther J
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Recognizing that immigrant parents socialize their children in specific ways, the current study examines Mexican-origin families' parental socialization profiles using both parental cultural socialization and general parenting dimensions. We seek to understand how these dimensions interact to form culturally grounded parental socialization profiles in a sample of Mexican-origin parents and adolescents. METHOD/METHODS:There were 604 adolescents, 595 mothers, and 293 fathers within Mexican-origin families self-reporting on 2 cultural socialization dimensions (respeto, independence) and 4 general parenting dimensions (warmth, hostility, monitoring, reasoning). Adolescent outcomes were assessed 1 year later. RESULTS:Latent profile analysis revealed eight parental socialization profiles representing distinct combinations of cultural socialization and parenting dimensions. Relative to other profiles, the Integrative-Authoritative profile (high on socialization toward respeto and independence; high on warmth, monitoring, and reasoning; and relatively low on hostility) was the most common parenting pattern and was also associated with more optimal adolescent outcomes. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Examining cultural socialization alongside general parenting dimensions can better capture parental socialization strategies among Mexican-origin parents. The various parental socialization profiles that characterize Mexican-origin parents have important implications for adolescent outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
PMID: 30382707
ISSN: 1099-9809
CID: 3399892