Does Intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Provide Clinically Superior Outcomes Compared With Other Therapies in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis? A Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analyses
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were (1) to perform a systematic review of meta-analyses evaluating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in the treatment of knee joint cartilage degenerative pathology, (2) to provide a framework for analysis and interpretation of the best available evidence to provide recommendations for use (or lack thereof) of PRP in the setting of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and (3) to identify literature gaps where continued investigation would be suggested. METHODS: Literature searches were performed for meta-analyses examining use of PRP versus corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or placebo. Clinical data were extracted, and meta-analysis quality was assessed. The Jadad algorithm was applied to determine meta-analyses that provided the highest level of evidence. RESULTS: Three meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria and ranged in quality from Level II to Level IV evidence. All studies compared outcomes of treatment with intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (IA-PRP) versus control (intra-articular hyaluronic acid or intra-articular placebo). Use of PRP led to significant improvements in patient outcomes at 6 months after injection, and these improvements were seen starting at 2 months and were maintained for up to 12 months. It is unclear if the use of multiple PRP injections, the double-spinning technique, or activating agents leads to better outcomes. Patients with less radiographic evidence of arthritis benefit more from PRP treatment. The use of multiple PRP injections may increase the risk of self-limited local adverse reactions. After application of the Jadad algorithm, 3 concordant high-quality meta-analyses were selected and all showed that IA-PRP provided clinically relevant improvements in pain and function compared with the control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: IA-PRP is a viable treatment for knee OA and has the potential to lead to symptomatic relief for up to 12 months. There appears to be an increased risk of local adverse reactions after multiple PRP injections. IA-PRP offers better symptomatic relief to patients with early knee degenerative changes, and its use should be considered in patients with knee OA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of Level II through IV studies.
Preoperative Opioid Education has No Effect on Opioid Use in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine whether a preoperative video-based opioid education reduced narcotics consumption after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in opioid-naive patients. METHODS:This was a single-center randomized controlled trial. Preoperatively, the control group received our institution's standard of care for pain management education, whereas the experimental group watched an educational video on the use of opioids. Patients were discharged with 30 Ã— 5 mg/325 mg oxycodone-acetaminophen prescribed: 1 to 2 tablets every 4 to 6 hours. They were contacted daily and asked to report opioid use and visual analog scale pain. A chart review at 3 months post-op was used to analyze for opioid refills. RESULTS:A total of 130 patients completed the study (65 control and 65 experimental). No statistically significant differences were noted in patient demographics between groups (P > 0.05). Patients in the education group did not use a statistically significant different number of narcotics than the control group throughout the first postoperative week (14.0 pills experimental versus 13.7 pills control, P = 0.60). No statistically significant differences were noted between groups at follow-regarding the rate of prescription refills (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that preoperative video-based opioid education may have no effect on reducing the number of narcotic pills consumed after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Data exist to suggest that preoperative video-based opioid education has an effect on postoperative consumption; however, the effect of this education in the setting of already-limited opioid-prescribing is not known. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER/UNASSIGNED:NCT04018768.
Open Subpectoral Biceps Tenodesis May Be an Alternative to Arthroscopic Repair for SLAP Tears in Patients Under 30
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the current study is to compare the outcomes of open subpectoral biceps tenodesis (BT) to arthroscopic repair (AR) for SLAP tears in patients under the age of 30 years. METHODS:A retrospective review of patients under the age of 30 years who underwent either isolated BT or AR for a diagnosis of a SLAP tear between 2011 and 2019 was performed. Patients were included if they were >16 years old at the time of surgery, had an isolated SLAP tear involving instability of the biceps-labral anchor (types II-IV), were skeletally mature, and had a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The American Shoulder & Elbow Surgeons score, visual analog scale, Subjective Shoulder Value, patient satisfaction, willingness to undergo surgery again, revisions, and return to play (RTP) were evaluated. A P value of <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:Our study included 103 patients in total; 29 patients were treated with BT, and 74 were treated with AR. The mean age was 24.8 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 60 months. At final follow-up, there was no difference between treatment groups in any of the functional outcome measures assessed (PÂ >Â .05). Overall, there was no significant difference in the total rate of RTP (BT: 76.3%, AR: 85%; PÂ = .53), timing of RTP (BT: 8.8 months, AR: 9.4 months; PÂ = .61), and total rate of RTP among overhead athletes (BT: 84.2%, AR: 83.3%; PÂ >Â .99). Among those undergoing AR, 9 required a revision procedure (11.5%) compared to none treated with BT (PÂ =Â .11). CONCLUSIONS:In patients under the age of 30 years with a symptomatic isolated SLAP tear, BT may be a reliable alternative to AR. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III, retrospective comparative study.
Posterior Glenoid Bone-Block Transfer for Posterior Shoulder Instability - A Systematic Review
PUPROSE/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature and evaluate patient-reported outcomes and complication/revision rates of bone-block augmentation in the treatment of posterior shoulder instability (PSI). METHODS:PUBMED was searched according to PRIMSA guidelines to find clinical studies evaluating patient-report outcomes, revision and complication rates in posterior bone block for posterior shoulder instability. A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines. Clinical studies reporting on the complications following posterior bone block were included. RESULTS:Overall, 11 (LOE III: 2, LOE IV: 9) studies met inclusion criteria, with 225 shoulders. Recurrent instability after the posterior bone block was found to be 9.8%. The overall complication rate was 13.8%, with 0.89% having graft complications, 11.1% having hardware complications, 0.4% having wound complications, 0.4% having nerve complications, and 0.89% having other complications. Residual pain was found in 11.6% of shoulders operated on. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated most commonly by Rowe (81.4), Constant (84.6), and Walch - Duplay (81.6). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There is a moderate rate of recurrence following posterior bone block for PSI. However, the patient-reported outcomes are high despite there being commonly reported persistent shoulder pain postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV; Systematic Review.
Short-term complications of the Latarjet procedure: a systematic review
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term complication rate following the open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures and to meta-analyze the studies comparing the 2 approaches. METHODS:PubMed was searched according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to find clinical and biomechanical studies comparing complication rates in open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures. A literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines. Clinical studies reporting on the complications following the open or arthroscopic Latarjet were included. Meta-analysis was performed for comparative studies using Review Manager, version 5.3. A P value of <.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:Overall, 89 studies (Level of Evidence [LOE] I: 2, LOE II: 2, LOE III: 24, LOE IV: 61) met inclusion criteria, with 7175 shoulders. Following the open Latarjet procedure, the overall complication rate was 6.1%, with a 1.9% occurrence of graft-related complications, 1.1% hardware, 1.1% wound, 0.9% nerve, and 1.2% other complications. Following the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure, the overall complication rate was 6.8%, with a 3.2% occurrence of graft-related complications, 1.9% hardware, 0.5% wound, 0.7% nerve, and 0.5% other complications. Complications were reported in 7 studies comparing 379 patients treated with the open Latarjet and 531 treated with the arthroscopic Latarjet, with no statistically significant difference between the two (P = .81). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study established that the overall complication rate following the Latarjet procedure was 6%-7%, with the most common complication being graft-related. Furthermore, based on the current evidence, there is no significant difference in the complication rate between the open and arthroscopic Latarjet procedures.
Author Reply to "Regarding 'Tranexamic Acid Has No Effect on Postoperative Hemarthrosis or Pain Control After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial'" [Letter]
No Difference in Outcomes Following Osteochondral Allograft with Fresh Precut Cores Compared to Hemi-Condylar Allografts
OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes at early to midterm follow-up between fresh precut cores versus hemi-condylar osteochondral allograft (OCAs) in the treatment of symptomatic osteochondral lesions. DESIGN/METHODS:A retrospective review of patients who underwent an OCA was performed. Patient matching between those with OCA harvested from an allograft condyle/patella or a fresh precut allograft core was performed to generate 2 comparable groups. The cartilage at the graft site was assessed with use of a modified Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) scoring system and patient-reported outcomes were collected. RESULTS:= 0.93). CONCLUSIONS:This study found that there was no difference in patient-reported clinical outcomes or MOCART scores following OCA implantation using fresh precut OCA cores or size matched condylar grafts at early to midterm follow-up.
The Use and Acceptance of Telemedicine in Orthopedic Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Tranexamic Acid Has No Effect on Post-operative Hemarthrosis or Pain Control Following ACL Reconstruction Using Bone Patella Tendon Bone Autograft: A Double-Blinded Randomized Control Trial
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this double-blinded randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the use of intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients undergoing primary bone-patella tendon-bone (BTB) ACLR with regard to post-operative hemarthrosis, pain, opioid consumption, quadriceps atrophy and activation. METHODS:A controlled, randomized, double-blinded trial was conducted in 110 patients who underwent ACLR with BTB autograft. Patients were equally randomized to the control and experimental groups. The experimental group received two 1-gram boluses of IV TXA, one prior to tourniquet inflation and one prior to wound closure; the control group did not receive TXA. If a clinically significant hemarthrosis was evident, the knee was aspirated, and the volume of blood (ml) was recorded. Additionally, perioperative blood loss (ml); Visual Analog Scale (VAS) on postoperative days (POD) 1-7 and post-operative weeks (POW) 1, 6 and 12; postoperative opioid consumption POD 1-7; range of motion (ROM) and ability to straight leg raise (SLR) at POW 1, 6, 12; and pre and postoperative thigh circumference ratio (TCR). RESULTS:There was no significant difference in perioperative blood loss between the TXA and control groups (32.5ml v. 35.6ml, p=0.47). The TXA group had 23 knees aspirated; control group had 26 knees aspirated (p=0.56). No significant difference seen in postoperative hemarthrosis volume with IV TXA compared to those without (26.7ml v. 37.3ml, p=0.12). There was no significant difference in VAS score between the two groups (p=0.15), additionally, there was no difference in postoperative opioid consumption (p=0.33). There was no significant difference in ROM or ability to SLR, or post-operative TCR (p > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:IV TXA in patients who undergo ACLR with BTB autograft does not significantly impact perioperative blood loss, postoperative hemarthrosis, or postoperative pain levels. Additionally, no significant differences were seen in early post-operative recovery regarding ROM or quadriceps reactivation.
Return to Play Criteria Among Shoulder Surgeons Following Shoulder Stabilization
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study is to survey the members of North American and European shoulder surgery & sports medicine societies to evaluate their criteria for deciding when an athlete can safely return to play (RTP) following shoulder stabilization surgery. METHODS:A survey was sent to the members of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM), European Society for Sports & Knee Arthroscopy (ESSKA), and European Society for Surgery of the Shoulder and the Elbow (SECEC). Surgeons were asked which criteria they used to determine when an athlete can RTP following the arthroscopic Bankart repair and Latarjet procedures, with additional questions on how time from surgery and participation in collision sports affect return. RESULTS:Overall, 317 surgeons responded to the survey. Following arthroscopic Bankart repair, the most common criteria used were time (98.7%), strength (74.8%), and range of motion (70%). The most commonly-reported time point was 4 months (43.8%), and the majority used an additional time period, most commonly 2 months (38.2%), before allowing a collision athlete to RTP (75.4%). Interestingly, the addition of a Remplissage procedure did not affect decision-making regarding RTP in most cases (92.1%). Following the Latarjet procedure, the most common criteria used were time (98.4%), strength (67.5%), and range of motion (65.9%). Less than half reported using imaging to assess for radiographic union before allowing patients to RTP (47%), and the most common modality was plain radiography (80%). The most common time point was 4 months (33.1%), and the majority reported waiting an additional period of time, most commonly by 2 months (25.9%), before allowing a collision athlete to RTP (59.6%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite the absence of evidence-based guidelines on when athletes can safely return to play following shoulder stabilization surgery, there exists minimal variability in recommendations between North American and European shoulder surgeons. Further research is required to better define criteria for return to play after the arthroscopic Bankart repair and Latarjet procedures.