Does Intra-articular Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection Provide Clinically Superior Outcomes Compared With Other Therapies in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis? A Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analyses
Campbell, Kirk A; Saltzman, Bryan M; Mascarenhas, Randy; Khair, M Michael; Verma, Nikhil N; Bach, Bernard R Jr; Cole, Brian J
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were (1) to perform a systematic review of meta-analyses evaluating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection in the treatment of knee joint cartilage degenerative pathology, (2) to provide a framework for analysis and interpretation of the best available evidence to provide recommendations for use (or lack thereof) of PRP in the setting of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and (3) to identify literature gaps where continued investigation would be suggested. METHODS: Literature searches were performed for meta-analyses examining use of PRP versus corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or placebo. Clinical data were extracted, and meta-analysis quality was assessed. The Jadad algorithm was applied to determine meta-analyses that provided the highest level of evidence. RESULTS: Three meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria and ranged in quality from Level II to Level IV evidence. All studies compared outcomes of treatment with intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (IA-PRP) versus control (intra-articular hyaluronic acid or intra-articular placebo). Use of PRP led to significant improvements in patient outcomes at 6 months after injection, and these improvements were seen starting at 2 months and were maintained for up to 12 months. It is unclear if the use of multiple PRP injections, the double-spinning technique, or activating agents leads to better outcomes. Patients with less radiographic evidence of arthritis benefit more from PRP treatment. The use of multiple PRP injections may increase the risk of self-limited local adverse reactions. After application of the Jadad algorithm, 3 concordant high-quality meta-analyses were selected and all showed that IA-PRP provided clinically relevant improvements in pain and function compared with the control treatment. CONCLUSIONS: IA-PRP is a viable treatment for knee OA and has the potential to lead to symptomatic relief for up to 12 months. There appears to be an increased risk of local adverse reactions after multiple PRP injections. IA-PRP offers better symptomatic relief to patients with early knee degenerative changes, and its use should be considered in patients with knee OA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, systematic review of Level II through IV studies.
Acceptable clinical outcomes despite high reoperation rate at minimum 12-month follow-up after concomitant arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and medial meniscal allograft transplantation
Shankar, Dhruv S.; Vasavada, Kinjal D.; Avila, Amanda; DeClouette, Brittany; Aziz, Hadi; Strauss, Eric J.; Alaia, Michael J.; Jazrawi, Laith M.; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Campbell, Kirk A.
Background: Single-stage medial meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is a technically challenging procedure for management of knee pain and instability in younger patients, but clinical and functional outcomes data are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess surgical and patient-reported outcomes following concomitant ACLR and medial MAT. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case series of patients who underwent medial MAT with concomitant primary or revision ACLR at our institution from 2010 to 2021 and had minimum 12-month follow-up. Complications, reoperations, visual analog scale (VAS) pain, satisfaction, Lysholm score, return to sport, and return to work outcomes were assessed. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Interference, Pain Intensity, and Physical Function Scores were used to measure patients"™ functional status relative to the US population. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The cohort consisted of 17 knees of 16 individual patients. The cohort was majority male (82.4%) with mean age of 31.9 years (range 19"“49 years) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.9 kg/m2 (range 22.5"“53.3 kg/m2). Mean follow-up time was 56.8 months (range 13"“106 months). Most patients underwent revision ACLR (64.7%). The 1-year reoperation rate was high (23.5%), with two patients (11.8%) tearing their meniscus graft. Patient-reported outcomes indicated low VAS pain (mean 2.2), high satisfaction (mean 77.9%), and fair Lysholm score (mean 81.1). Return to work rate was high (92.9%), while return to sport rate was low (42.9%). Postoperative PROMIS scores were comparable or superior to the national average and correlated significantly with patient satisfaction (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The concomitant ACLR and MAT procedure is associated with excellent knee pain and functional outcomes and high rate of return to work after surgery, though the 1-year reoperation rate is high and rate of return to sport is low. Level of evidence: IV.
Poor Psychological Readiness Inhibits Return to Play Following Operative Management of Superior-Labrum Anterior-Posterior Tears
Colasanti, Christopher A; Akpinar, Berkcan; Rynecki, Nicole; Anil, Utkarsh; Hurley, Eoghan T; Virk, Mandeep S; Simovitch, Ryan W; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Campbell, Kirk A
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:The purposes of this study were to determine why athletes did not return to play (RTP) following operative management of superior-labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears, compare these athletes to those who did RTP, and evaluate the SLAP-Return to Sport after Injury (SLAP-RSI) score to assess the psychological readiness of athletes to RTP after operative management of SLAP tears. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective review of athletes who underwent operative management of SLAP tears with a minimum of 24-month follow-up was performed. Outcome data, including visual analog scale (VAS) score, Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), American Shoulder & Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, patient satisfaction, and whether they would undergo the same surgery again was collected. Additionally, the rate and timing of return to work (RTW), the rate and timing of RTP, SLAP-RSI score, and VAS during sport were evaluated, with subgroup analysis among overhead and contact athletes. The SLAP-RSI is a modification of the Shoulder Instability-Return to Sport after Injury (SI-RSI) score, with a score >56 considered to be a passing score for being psychologically ready to RTP. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = .001) were all associated with greater likelihood of return to sports at final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Following the operative management of SLAP tears, patients who are unable to RTP exhibit poor psychological readiness to return, which may be due to residual pain in overhead athletes or fear of reinjury in contact athletes. Lastly, the SLAP-RSI tool in combination with ASES proved to be useful in identifying patients' psychological and physical readiness to RTP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Level IV, prognostic case series.
Despite Equivalent Clinical Outcomes, Patients Report Less Satisfaction With Telerehabilitation Versus Standard In-Office Rehabilitation After Arthroscopic Meniscectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Mojica, Edward S; Vasavada, Kinjal; Hurley, Eoghan T; Lin, Charles C; Buzin, Scott; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem; Alaia, Michael J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Campbell, Kirk A
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate functional outcomes and satisfaction in patients who underwent telerehabilitation (telerehab) compared with in-person rehabilitation after arthroscopic meniscectomy. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A randomized-controlled trial was conducted including patients scheduled to undergo arthroscopic meniscectomy for meniscal injury by 1 of 5 fellowship-trained sports medicine surgeons between September 2020 and October 2021. Patients were randomized to receive telerehab, defined as exercises and stretches provided by trained physical therapists over a synchronous face-to-face video visit or in-person rehabilitation for their postoperative course. International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) score and satisfaction metrics were collected at baseline and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = .044) if there were in the in-person group. Satisfaction differed significantly between the 2 groups at the end of their rehabilitation course, and only 64% of those in the telerehab group would elect to undergo telerehab again for future indications. Furthermore, they believed that future rehabilitation would benefit from a hybrid model. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Telerehab showed no difference versus traditional in-person rehabilitation in terms of functional outcomes up to 3 months after arthroscopic meniscectomy. However, patients were less satisfied with telerehab. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:I, randomized controlled trial.
Evaluation of Health-related Quality of Life Improvement in Patients Undergoing Cervical Versus Shoulder Surgery
Zabat, Michelle A; Elboghdady, Islam; Mottole, Nicole A; Mojica, Edward; Maglaras, Constance; Jazrawi, Laith M; Virk, Mandeep S; Campbell, Kirk A; Buckland, Aaron J; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fischer, Charla R
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis of outcomes in cervical spine and shoulder arthroscopy patients. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to assess differential improvements in health-related quality of life for cervical spine surgery compared with shoulder surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:An understanding of outcome differences between different types of orthopedic surgeries is helpful in counseling patients about expected postoperative recovery. This study compares outcomes in patients undergoing cervical spine surgery with arthroscopic shoulder surgery using computer-adaptive Patient-reported Outcome Information System scores. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients undergoing cervical spine surgery (1-level or 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, cervical disc replacement) or arthroscopic shoulder surgery (rotator cuff repairÂ±biceps tenodesis) were grouped. Patient-reported Outcome Information System scores of physical function, pain interference, and pain intensity at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months were compared using paired t tests. RESULTS:Cervical spine (n=127) and shoulder (n=91) groups were similar in sex (25.8% vs. 41.8% female, P=0.731) but differed in age (51.6Â±11.6 vs. 58.60Â±11.2, P<0.05), operative time (148.3Â±68.6 vs. 75.9Â±26.9Â min, P<0.05), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASAs) (2.3Â±0.6 vs. 2.0Â±0.5, P=0.001), smoking status (15.7% vs. 4.4%, P=0.008), and length of stay (1.1Â±1.0 vs. 0.3Â±0.1, P=0.000). Spine patients had worse physical function (36.9 Â±12.6 vs. 49.4Â±8.6, P<0.05) and greater pain interference (67.0Â±13.6 vs. 61.7Â±4.8, P=0.001) at baseline. Significant improvements were seen in all domains by 3 months for both groups, except for physical function after shoulder surgery. Spine patients had greater physical function improvements at all timepoints (3.33 vs. -0.43, P=0.003; 4.81 vs. 0.08, P=0.001; 6.5 vs. -5.24, P=<0.05). Conversely, shoulder surgery patients showed better 6-month improvement in pain intensity over spine patients (-8.86 vs. -4.46, P=0.001), but this difference resolved by 12 months. CONCLUSIONS:Cervical spine patients had greater relative early improvement in physical function compared with shoulder patients, whereas pain interference and intensity did not significantly differ between the 2 groups after surgery. This will help in counseling patients about relative difference in recovery and improvement between the 2 surgery types. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
Variability of MRI reporting in proximal hamstring avulsion injuries: Are musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopedic surgeons utilizing similar landmarks?
Bloom, David A; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Alaia, Michael J; Youm, Thomas; Campbell, Kirk A; Alaia, Erin F
BACKGROUND:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an integral component of the treatment algorithm for proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to survey orthopedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists on the reporting and analysis of proximal hamstring avulsions on MRI. METHODS:Two online surveys were developed to evaluate musculoskeletal radiologists' and orthopedic surgeons' perceptions of MRI-reporting for proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Each survey was designed to provide information on physicians' best practices with respect to four primary questions (1) ischial tuberosity landmark determination (2) difficulties associated with measuring tendon retraction, (3) important ancillary findings, and (4) perceived clinical impact of measured retraction. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all categorical variables, which were reported as frequencies with percentages. Chi-squared test was utilized to compare rates of responses between surgeons and radiologists. Statistically significant differences were analyzed with post-hoc Fisher's exact tests; p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS:218-Musculoskeletal radiologists and 33-orthopedic surgeons responded to their respective surveys. There were statistically significant differences with responses to two of the questions asked in both surveys; (1) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion (avulsion of both the semimembranosus and conjoint tendon), which arrow represents the tendon gap measurement used for planning surgery? p = 0.028; (2) in cases of avulsion of only the conjoint tendon, which arrow represents the tendon gap measurement used for planning surgery? p = 0.013. Post-hoc testing demonstrated that for either partial or complete hamstring avulsions, more surgeons use the conjoint tendon origin to measure tendon retraction than radiologists (p < 0.05 for both). Significantly more radiologists use the semimembranosus origin to measure hamstring retraction for partial or complete hamstring tears (p < 0.05 for both). However, for each of these questions, both radiologists and surgeons most frequently stated that the conjoint tendon landmark should be used for surgical planning. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopedists frequently utilize the conjoint tendon origin as an anatomic landmark for measuring complete and partial proximal hamstring avulsion injuries; though, orthopedists are more likely to utilize this landmark. Additionally, the broad surface area of the ischial tuberosity may lead to variability in measurement. CLINICAL IMPACT/CONCLUSIONS:Standard landmarks at the ischial tuberosity and/or detailed descriptions of tendon retractions would improve communication between radiologists and surgeons for proximal hamstring avulsions.
Primary Biceps Tenodesis Is Superior to Revision Following Failed SLAP Repair
Lorentz, Nathan A; Hurley, Eoghan T; Markus, Danielle H; Colasanti, Christopher A; Campbell, Kirk A; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To compare satisfaction and return to play (RTP) rates between patients undergoing primary biceps tenodesis for a symptomatic SLAP tear and patients undergoing secondary biceps tenodesis following a failed SLAP repair. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:value of <.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = .9529) between patient groups. Patients reported playing tennis, swimming, golf, rock climbing, and basketball. No patients required a further shoulder surgery after undergoing biceps tenodesis. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:In this study, patients undergoing primary biceps tenodesis had significantly better functional outcomes compared with secondary biceps tenodesis following a failed SLAP repair. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:III, retrospective comparative study.
The State of Meniscal Allograft Transplantation in New York Over the Last Decade
Liu, James; Bloom, David A; Dai, Amos Z; Mahure, Siddharth A; McAllister, Delon; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Campbell, Kirk A
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate for changes in the incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures, especially meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) in New York State (NYS) between 2005 to 2014. METHODS:The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative Systems (SPARCS) database was queried from 2005 through 2014 to identify patients undergoing meniscetomies, meniscal repairs, and MAT. Patients were followed longitudinally to determine the incidence of subsequent ipsilateral knee procedures. The impact of patient demographics and surgeon volume on reoperation was explored. RESULTS:From 2005 through 2014, there were 524,737 arthroscopic meniscal procedures. Of these, there were 510,406 meniscectomies, 14,214 meniscal repairs, and 117 MATs. The number of MATs increased 15.5% per year, with the largest increase being between 2013 to 2014 (an increase of 86.5%). Average MAT patient age was 29.8 Â± 11.1 years; 65.0% of patients were male; 66% were Caucasian; 84% were privately-insured; and 23% of surgeons met the criteria for high-volume (five or more MATs in a year). A total of 25.6% (30/117) patients underwent subsequent surgery; 26 patients underwent knee procedures at mean of 18.9 Â± 18.3 months after initial MAT, the most common of which were ipsilateral meniscectomies (19/26). Four patients underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at a mean of 21.0 Â± 9.2 months after initial MAT. Patients undergoing TKA after MAT were significantly older (42.0 Â± 15.0 years vs, 29.3 Â± 10.7 years; p = 0.0242) than patients who did not. Neither demographics nor surgeon volume were statistically significant factors for undergoing subsequent surgery (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Meniscal allograft transplantation, though relatively uncommon, is being performed with greater frequency in NYS. Surgeons should counsel patients regarding the likelihood of requiring subsequent knee surgery after MAT, with repeat arthroscopic partial meniscectomy being the most commonly performed procedure.
Testosterone Levels Before and After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction A Prospective Observational Study
Thompson, Kamali; Klein, David; Sreekumar, Swathy; Kenny, Lena; Campbell, Kirk; Alaia, Michael; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Over 200,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are performed in the US each year. The recovery process following surgery can be slow and difficult with patients suffering persistent strength and endurance deficits. Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone responsible for maintenance and development of muscle mass. While the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) to surgery has been investigated, no studies exist tracking the HPA response, specifically that involved in testosterone homeostasis, to ACL reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to explore the response of endogenous testosterone production after ACL reconstruction and determine a possible correlation between perioperative testosterone levels in males and postoperative strength and clinical outcomes. METHODS:This was a single-center, prospective observational study measuring preoperative and postoperative testosterone levels. Plasma testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and lutenizing hormone (LH) were measured before 10:30 am on the day of surgery. These were then checked at the same time of day at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Patients were also evaluated with the visual analog scale for pain (VAS), Tegner, and Lysholm scales preoperatively and at postoperative visits. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and were considered significant at p < 0.05. RESULTS:Twenty male patients with a mean age of 34.0 Â± 9.2 years undergoing ACL reconstruction were enrolled between October 2017 and April 2018. Results showed a decrease in testosterone (3.7 ng/mL vs. 2.9 ng/mL, p = 0.05), free testosterone (8.2 pg/mL vs. 6.8 pg/mL, p = 0.05), and follicle stimulated hormone (1.8 mIU/mL vs. 1.7 mIU/ mL, p = 0.83) between the preoperative plasma draw and 1-week postoperative follow-up visit. Luteinizing hormone (1.1 mIU/mL vs. 1.5 mIU/mL, p = 0.11) increased postoperatively. By week 6, testosterone returned to baseline (3.7 ng/mL vs. 3.9 ng/mL), while free testosterone continued to increase through week 12. Lutenizing hormone peaked at the 1-week postoperative visit and trended downward until week 6 (1.5 mIU/mL vs. 1.4 mIU/mL, p = 0.79). Follicle stimulating hormone continued to increase after the week-1 visit through week 12. Patient reported outcomes exhibited a trend similar to hormone levels, with the lowest patient reported outcome (PRO) scores reported at week 1 and a constant trend upward. Although there were similar trends, there were no significant correlations between change in hormone levels and change in PRO scores. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study emphasizes the crucial period of hormonal decrease and their return to baseline. This knowledge will contribute to the understanding and timing of hormone therapy supplementation. Short-term testosterone replacement may be beneficial to return patients to work and physical activity at a faster rate.
A Surgeon-Volume Comparison of Opioid Prescribing Patterns to Adolescents Following Outpatient Shoulder, Hip, and Knee Arthroscopy
Luthringer, Tyler; Bloom, David A; Manjunath, Amit; Hutzler, Lorraine; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Campbell, Kirk; Bosco, Joseph A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Given the wide variation that exists in the amount and duration of postoperative opioid medication prescribed by orthopedic surgeons, the purpose of the current study was to analyze the opioid prescribing patterns at our institution for adolescent patients undergoing outpatient sports medicine procedures Methods: A total of 468 adolescent patients (between the ages of 13 and 18 years old) who underwent outpatient shoulder, hip, or knee arthroscopy (including ACL reconstruction) between 2016 and 2018 were retrospectively identified, and demographic data were collected. Opioid prescriptions following surgery were converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME) for direct comparison. Prescribing patterns of the 44 surgeons included in our cohort were evaluated with respect to procedures performed and overall surgical volume. High-dose prescriptions were defined as â‰¥ 300 MME (equivalent to 40 tabs of oxycodone/ acetaminophen [Percocet] 5/325 mg) and low-dose prescriptions were defined as < 300 MME. RESULTS:The mean discharge prescription following outpatient arthroscopy in this patient population was 299.8 Â± 271 MME. When each individual case-type was analyzed, there were significant positive correlations between surgeonvolume and MME prescribed following shoulder arthroscopy (r = 0.387, p < 0.001) and knee arthroscopy, (r = 0.350, p < 0.001). Results of logistic regression demonstrated that for every 10 additional cases performed, the odds that a given surgeon would prescribe â‰¥ 300 MME postoperatively increased by a factor of 1.14 (p < 0.001). There were no significant correlations observed following hip arthroscopy, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, or meniscus repair. Over the course of the observation period, a significant reduction in opioid prescribing was seen among the participating surgeons. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgeons who perform a greater volume of outpatient shoulder and knee arthroscopy on adolescent patients were more likely to prescribe high opioid dosages postoperatively. Awareness of existing variation in narcotic prescribing patterns for patients in this age group is important for quality of care and safety improvement amidst the opioid epidemic.