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Accelerated 3-Year MD Pathway Programs: Graduates' Perspectives on Education Quality, the Learning Environment, Residency Readiness, Debt, Burnout, and Career Plans

Leong, Shou Ling; Gillespie, Colleen; Jones, Betsy; Fancher, Tonya; Coe, Catherine L; Dodson, Lisa; Hunsaker, Matthew; Thompson, Britta M; Dempsey, Angela; Pallay, Robert; Crump, William; Cangiarella, Joan
PURPOSE:To compare perception of accelerated and traditional medical students, with respect to satisfaction with education quality, and the learning environment, residency readiness, burnout, debt, and career plans. METHOD:Customized 2017 and 2018 Medical School Graduation Questionnaires (GQs) were analyzed using independent samples t tests for means and chi-square tests for percentages, comparing responses of accelerated MD program graduates (accelerated pathway [AP] students) from 9 schools with those of non-AP graduates from the same 9 schools and non-AP graduates from all surveyed schools. RESULTS:GQ completion rates for the 90 AP students, 2,573 non-AP students from AP schools, and 38,116 non-AP students from all schools in 2017 and 2018 were 74.4%, 82.3%, and 83.3%, respectively. AP students were as satisfied with the quality of their education and felt as prepared for residency as non-AP students. AP students reported a more positive learning climate than non-AP students from AP schools and from all schools as measured by the student-faculty interaction (15.9 vs 14.4 and 14.3, respectively; P < .001 for both pairwise comparisons) and emotional climate (10.7 vs 9.6 and 9.6, respectively; P = .004 and .003, respectively) scales. AP students had less debt than non-AP students (P < .001), and more planned to care for underserved populations and practice family medicine than non-AP students from AP schools (55.7% vs 33.9% and 37.7% vs 9.4%; P = .002 and < .001, respectively). Family expectations were a more common influence on career plans for AP students than for non-AP students from AP schools and from all schools (26.2% vs 11.3% and 11.7%, respectively; P < .001 for both pairwise comparisons). CONCLUSIONS:These findings support accelerated programs as a potentially important intervention to address workforce shortages and rising student debt without negative impacts on student perception of burnout, education quality, or residency preparedness.
PMID: 34380931
ISSN: 1938-808x
CID: 5166762

A Preliminary Evaluation of Students' Learning and Performance Outcomes in an Accelerated 3-Year MD Pathway Program

Cangiarella, Joan; Eliasz, Kinga; Kalet, Adina; Cohen, Elisabeth; Abramson, Steven; Gillespie, Colleen
Background/UNASSIGNED:Little outcome data exist on 3-year MD (3YMD) programs to guide residency program directors (PDs) in deciding whether to select these graduates for their programs. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To compare performance outcomes of 3YMD and 4-year MD (4YMD) students at New York University Grossman School of Medicine. Methods/UNASSIGNED:In 2020, using the Kirkpatrick 4-level evaluation model, outcomes from 3 graduating cohorts of 3YMD students (2016-2018) were compared with the 4YMD counterparts. Results/UNASSIGNED:=.03), other metrics and overall intern ratings did not differ by pathway. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Exploratory findings from a single institution suggest that 3YMD students performed similarly to 4YMD students in medical school and the first year of residency.
PMID: 35222827
ISSN: 1949-8357
CID: 5174042

TERT Promoter Mutation in Indeterminate Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: An Indicator of Unfavorable Disease? [Meeting Abstract]

Chen, F; Xia, R; Sun, W; Liu, C; Givi, B; Cangiarella, J; Simsir, A; Brandler, T
Introduction: TERT promoter mutations in thyroid carcinoma suggest worse prognosis based on findings of a small number of studies. Additionally, pathologic features and clinical behavior of indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN) with TERT promoter mutations remain less studied. Our study aims to explore the clinicopathologic features of ITN with TERT promoter mutations.
Material(s) and Method(s): A search conducted in our electronic medical record between 2015-2018 identified 18 cases with indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology (Bethesda Class III, IV, and V) and a TERT mutation on molecular testing. 17 patients underwent thyroidectomy and were the subjects of this study.
Result(s): The mean age was 65 (range 38-83) with a female to male ratio of 9:8. The FNA Bethesda diagnoses were Class III in 9, IV in 8, and V in 1. Majority of patients who underwent thyroidectomy had malignant nodules (14,78%). Thyroidectomy diagnoses included classic PTC (5,29%), FVPTC (5,29%), follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (3,17%), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (1, 6%), follicular adenoma (2,11%) and NIFTP (1,6%). Additional alterations were present in 11 cases, including NRAS(6), KRAS(2), and BRAF V600E (3). Of three cases with concurrent BRAF V600E mutation, two were metastatic, and one had tall cell features. Of two follicular adenoma cases, one had a concomitant NRAS mutation, and the other displayed negative results on Afirma testing. Malignant cases tended to occur in older patients, the majority exhibited follicular architecture, frequent oncocytic morphology, and higher pathologic stage (pT3 in 92%, pT2 in 8%).
Conclusion(s): Most TERT promoter mutations in ITN cytology are associated with high risk of malignancy and these malignancies are associated with unfavorable features such as advanced stage, capsular/vascular invasion, and metastatic disease. Few TERT promoter mutations have a benign outcome. Further studies on ITNs with TERT mutations are needed to determine the optimal management of these nodules.
ISSN: 2213-2945
CID: 5184152

Early Results from SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing of Healthcare Workers at an Academic Medical Center in New York City

Nagler, Arielle R; Goldberg, Eric R; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Cangiarella, Joan; Kalkut, Gary; Monahan, Carolyn Rooke; Cerfolio, Robert J
COVID-19 RT-PCR employee-testing was implemented across NYU Langone. Over eight-weeks, 14,764 employees were tested: 33% of symptomatic employees, 8% of asymptomatic employees reporting COVID-19 exposure, 3% of employees returning to work were positive. Positivity rates declined over time possibly reflecting the importance of community transmission and efficacy of PPE.
PMID: 32594114
ISSN: 1537-6591
CID: 4503762

Breaking Tradition to Bridge Bench and Bedside: Accelerating the MD-PhD-Residency Pathway

Modrek, Aram S; Tanese, Naoko; Placantonakis, Dimitris G; Sulman, Erik P; Rivera, Rafael; Du, Kevin L; Gerber, Naamit K; David, Gregory; Chesler, Mitchell; Philips, Mark R; Cangiarella, Joan
PROBLEM/OBJECTIVE:Physician-scientists are individuals trained in both clinical practice and scientific research. Often, the goal of physician-scientist training is to address pressing questions in biomedical research. The established pathways to formally train such individuals are, mainly, MD-PhD programs and physician-scientist track residencies. Although graduates of these pathways are well equipped to be physician-scientists, numerous factors, including funding and length of training, discourage application to such programs and impede success rates. APPROACH/METHODS:To address some of the pressing challenges in training and retaining burgeoning physician-scientists, New York University Grossman School of Medicine formed the Accelerated MD-PhD-Residency Pathway in 2016. This pathway builds on the previously established accelerated three-year MD pathway to residency at the same institution. The Accelerated MD-PhD-Residency Pathway conditionally accepts MD-PhD trainees to a residency position at the same institution through the National Resident Matching Program. OUTCOMES/RESULTS:Since its inception, 2 students have joined the Accelerated MD-PhD-Residency Pathway, which provides protected research time in their chosen residency. The pathway reduces the time to earn an MD and PhD by one year and reduces the MD training phase to three years, reducing the cost and lowering socioeconomic barriers. Remaining at the same institution for residency allows for the growth of strong research collaborations and mentoring opportunities, which foster success. NEXT STEPS/UNASSIGNED:The authors and institutional leaders plan to increase the number of trainees that are accepted into the Accelerated MD-PhD-Residency Pathway and track the success of these students through residency and into practice to determine if the pathway is meeting its goal of increasing the number of practicing physician-scientists. The authors hope this model can serve as an example to leaders at other institutions who may wish to adopt this pathway for the training of their MD-PhD students.
PMID: 33464738
ISSN: 1938-808x
CID: 4760452

Antibody isotype diversity against SARS-CoV-2 is associated with differential serum neutralization capacities

Noval, Maria G; Kaczmarek, Maria E; Koide, Akiko; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Bruno A; Louie, Ping; Tada, Takuya; Hattori, Takamitsu; Panchenko, Tatyana; Romero, Larizbeth A; Teng, Kai Wen; Bazley, Andrew; de Vries, Maren; Samanovic, Marie I; Weiser, Jeffrey N; Aifantis, Ioannis; Cangiarella, Joan; Mulligan, Mark J; Desvignes, Ludovic; Dittmann, Meike; Landau, Nathaniel R; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria; Koide, Shohei; Stapleford, Kenneth A
Understanding antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 is indispensable for the development of containment measures to overcome the current COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies showed that serum from convalescent patients can display variable neutralization capacities. Still, it remains unclear whether there are specific signatures that can be used to predict neutralization. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of sera from a cohort of 101 recovered healthcare workers and we addressed their SARS-CoV-2 antibody response by ELISA against SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor binding domain and nucleoprotein. Both ELISA methods detected sustained levels of serum IgG against both antigens. Yet, the majority of individuals from our cohort generated antibodies with low neutralization capacity and only 6% showed high neutralizing titers against both authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Spike pseudotyped virus. Interestingly, higher neutralizing sera correlate with detection of -IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against both antigens, while individuals with positive IgG alone showed poor neutralization response. These results suggest that having a broader repertoire of antibodies may contribute to more potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Altogether, our work provides a cross sectional snapshot of the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody response in recovered healthcare workers and provides preliminary evidence that possessing multiple antibody isotypes can play an important role in predicting SARS-CoV-2 neutralization.
PMID: 33692390
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4809372

Paired comparison of molecular tests for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules [Meeting Abstract]

Xia, R; Zhou, F; Sun, W; Liu, C; Simsir, A; Cangiarella, J; Brandler, T
Background: Thyroseq next-generation sequencing assay and Afirma gene expression classifier (GEC) are used to risk-stratify thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology: Bethesda III (atypia of undetermined significance, AUS/FLUS) and IV (suspicious for follicular neoplasm, SFN). In this study, we performed a paired comparison of both tests on the same group of indeterminate thyroid nodules with surgical followup.
Design(s): Of 645 AUS/FLUS/SFN cases with both molecular testing and surgical resection in 2014-2017, 40 cases had both Thyroseq (v2) and Afirma GEC performed on the same specimen. Cross-tabulations and ROC curves were created. McNemar tests were done to compare the performance of Thyroseq versus Afirma. The diagnostic performance of combined results were also examined: the combined result was called positive only if both Thyroseq and Afirma were positive/suspicious. Non-invasive follicular thyroid with papillary like nuclear features (NIFTP) on surgical resections was defined as ?positive.? Results: 20/40 (50%) cases were ?positive? on surgical pathology: 8 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 11 NIFTP, and 1 follicular carcinoma. Thyroseq and Afirma both showed high sensitivity and low specificity in diagnosing malignancy in indeterminate thyroid nodules. Next, the results of both tests were combined. The overall accuracy of combined testing was higher than either test alone (Figure 1). Compared to Afirma alone, the combined test had significantly higher specificity (30% vs 70%, p<0.05, Table 1), while the sensitivity declined from 90% to 75% (p=0.25, Table 1). Compared to Thyroseq alone, there was no significant difference in specificity (45% vs 70% p=0.06) or sensitivity (80% vs 75%, p=1.00, Table 1). Positive predictive value (PPV) improved compared to either test alone. Negative predictive value (NPV) improved compared to Thyroseq alone, and declined only slightly compared to Afirma alone.
Conclusion(s): Molecular testing of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules helps determine the extent of surgery. Low diagnostic performance metrics may limit the utility of molecular studies in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Our results show that the combined results of Thyroseq and Afirma improved the specificity and overall accuracy of molecular testing, and provided additional value in the surgical management of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that compares the performance of these two molecular tests on the same thyroid nodules
ISSN: 1530-0307
CID: 4856972

Lessons Learned From an Anatomic Pathology Department in a Large Academic Medical Center at the Epicenter of COVID-19

Brandler, Tamar C; Warfield, Dana; Adler, Esther; Simsir, Aylin; Exilhomme, Marie-Ange; Moreira, Andre L; Thomas, Kristen; Cangiarella, Joan
Many state-wide, city-wide, and hospital-wide changes have been implemented due to the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. We describe lessons learned in an anatomic pathology division at a tertiary care center during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the hopes that knowledge of our experiences can benefit other pathology departments as they encounter this pandemic. Five categories that are critical in strategic planning for the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed: workload, departmental policy revisions, impact on faculty, workforce staffing, and impact on educational programs, including residency and fellowship training. Although the volume of COVID-19 testing had grown placing increased demands on the clinical pathology laboratory, the volume of anatomic pathology cases had declined during the COVID-19 peak. Lessons learned were widespread including changes in the anatomic pathology workflow due to declining surgical and cytologic case volumes and increases in autopsy requests. Modifications were required in gross room policies, levels of personal protective equipment, and workforce. Travel and meeting policies were impacted. Adaptations to residency and fellowship programs were vast and included innovations in didactic and interactive education. We must learn from our experiences thus far in order to move forward, and we hope that our experiences in an anatomic pathology department in the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic can help other pathology departments across the country.
PMID: 33709032
ISSN: 2374-2895
CID: 4809542

The New York State SARS-CoV-2 Testing Consortium: Regional Communication in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

Crawford, James M; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Aifantis, Ioannis; Cadoff, Evan M; Cangiarella, Joan F; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Cushing, Melissa; Firpo-Betancourt, Aldolfo; Fox, Amy S; Furuya, Yoko; Hacking, Sean; Jhang, Jeffrey; Leonard, Debra G B; Libien, Jenny; Loda, Massimo; Mendu, Damadora Rao; Mulligan, Mark J; Nasr, Michel R; Pecora, Nicole D; Pessin, Melissa S; Prystowsky, Michael B; Ramanathan, Lakshmi V; Rauch, Kathleen R; Riddell, Scott; Roach, Karen; Roth, Kevin A; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Smoller, Bruce R; Spitalnik, Steven L; Spitzer, Eric D; Tomaszewski, John E; Waltman, Susan; Willis, Loretta; Sumer-King, Zeynep
The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, created an unprecedented need for comprehensive laboratory testing of populations, in order to meet the needs of medical practice and to guide the management and functioning of our society. With the greater New York metropolitan area as an epicenter of this pandemic beginning in March 2020, a consortium of laboratory leaders from the assembled New York academic medical institutions was formed to help identify and solve the challenges of deploying testing. This report brings forward the experience of this consortium, based on the real-world challenges which we encountered in testing patients and in supporting the recovery effort to reestablish the health care workplace. In coordination with the Greater New York Hospital Association and with the public health laboratory of New York State, this consortium communicated with state leadership to help inform public decision-making addressing the crisis. Through the length of the pandemic, the consortium has been a critical mechanism for sharing experience and best practices in dealing with issues including the following: instrument platforms, sample sources, test performance, pre- and post-analytical issues, supply chain, institutional testing capacity, pooled testing, biospecimen science, and research. The consortium also has been a mechanism for staying abreast of state and municipal policies and initiatives, and their impact on institutional and laboratory operations. The experience of this consortium may be of value to current and future laboratory professionals and policy-makers alike, in dealing with major events that impact regional laboratory services.
PMID: 34013020
ISSN: 2374-2895
CID: 4877412

Risk of Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules of Thyroid Bethesda Categories III and IV with Negative ThyroSeq Findings [Meeting Abstract]

Xia, R; Sun, W; Liu, C; Shi, Y; Levine, P; Simsir, A; Cangiarella, J; Brandler, T
Introduction: Due to the diagnostic dilemma with indeterminate thyroid Bethesda categories III and IV (atypia of undetermined significance, AUS and Suspicious for follicular neoplasm, SFN), many laboratories utilize molecular testing to aid in risk stratification of these nodules. In this study, we evaluated the risk of malignancy (ROM) in AUS and SFN thyroid nodules with subsequent negative molecular (ThyroSeq) test results.
Material(s) and Method(s): This study was designed to evaluate the negative molecular thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cases at a tertiary medical center in the metropolitan area. 109 cases of AUS and SFN thyroid FNAs over 3 years with surgical pathology follow up were included in the study.
Result(s): Of 109 AUS and SFN cases, 4 cases showed insufficient material for ThyroSeq testing (3.7%), 76 cases showed a molecular alteration (69.7%), and 29 cases were negative for an alteration on ThyroSeq (26.6%). Among the cases with negative ThyroSeq results, 26 cases were benign on surgical pathology (89.7%) (7/26 were follicular adenomas), and 3/29 cases were malignant on histopathology (papillary thyroid carcinoma) (ROM=10.3%, Table 1). AUS and SFN cases with molecular alterations showed a significantly higher ROM (ROM= 60.5%) compared to cases testing negative for molecular alterations (p<0.01, z = -4.61).
Conclusion(s): Our study found that indeterminate thyroid nodules that tested negative for a molecular alteration displayed an ROM of 10.3%. This ROM is comparable to the lower limit of ROM of FNA alone (without additional molecular testing data) in the AUS and SFN categories (10-30%), but is significantly lower than the ROM of indeterminate thyroid cases with known molecular mutations. Therefore, clinical follow-up is recommended for thyroid FNA indeterminate nodules, even those testing negative for a molecular alteration, due to the maintained, albeit lower, ROM. [Formula presented]
ISSN: 2213-2945
CID: 4659292