Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by noncaseating granulomas that impair normal organ functioning. Sarcoidosis predominantly affects the lungs, but the skin is often cited as the second most frequently involved organ. Cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis are highly variable and ongoing research seeks to better understand the relationship between clinical morphology and disease prognosis. Skin findings in patients with sarcoidosis can be "specific," in which sarcoidal granulomas infiltrate the skin, or they can represent a "nonspecific" reactive inflammatory process, as is seen in calcinosis cutis and erythema nodosum. Cutaneous sarcoidosis can be the initial presenting sign or develop later in the course of the disease. In some patients, the skin will be the most involved and impactful organ system and will drive therapy. In other cases, the skin will be an incidental or minor finding, but may be easily accessible for biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. There are many potential therapies for sarcoidosis, though no one therapy is universally effective.
Reactive granulomatous dermatitis: A useful and encompassing term
A Woman With Painful Digital Ulcers
Clinical and Histopathological Spectrum of Delayed Adverse Cutaneous Reactions Following COVID-19 Vaccination
BACKGROUND:As more people become vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reports of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are beginning to emerge. METHODS:In this IRB-approved retrospective case series, biopsies of potential cutaneous adverse reactions from the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccine were identified and reviewed. Clinical information was obtained through the requisition form, referring clinician, or medical chart review. RESULTS:Twelve cases were included. Histopathological features from two injection site reactions showed a mixed-cell infiltrate with eosinophils and a spongiotic dermatitis with eosinophils. Three biopsies came from generalized eruptions that demonstrated interface changes consistent with an exanthematous drug reaction. Three biopsies revealed a predominantly spongiotic pattern, consistent with eczematous dermatitis. Small vessel vascular injury was seen in two specimens, which were diagnosed as urticarial vasculitis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis, respectively. There were two cases of new-onset bullous pemphigoid supported by histopathological examination and direct immunofluorescence studies. Eosinophils were seen in 10 cases. CONCLUSIONS:Dermatopathologists should be aware of potential cutaneous adverse reactions to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Histopathological patterns include mixed-cell infiltrates, epidermal spongiosis, and interface changes. Eosinophils are a common finding but are not always present. Direct immunofluorescence studies may be helpful for immune-mediated cutaneous presentations such as vasculitis or bullous pemphigoid. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Corticosteroid use in chronic dermatologic disorders and osteoporosis
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a frequently encountered and serious side effect of glucocorticoid use. Bone loss leading to an increased risk for fracture occurs early in the use of glucocorticoids, yet patients at risk for this complication are often undertreated. All physicians prescribing glucocorticoids should therefore be familiar with a basic approach to anticipating and preventing GIOP when starting patients on glucocorticoid therapy. This manuscript and its case vignettes are designed to help dermatologists assess and manage bone health to prevent GIOP in patients receiving glucocorticoid therapy.
Diagnostic work-up and treatment in patients with pyoderma gangrenosum: retrospective analysis of US insurance claims-based data
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, and often challenging to diagnose, inflammatory disorder with relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality. Central to the diagnosis of PG is histologic evaluation and exclusion of other entities. Large-scale studies investigating the proportion of patients receiving a thorough diagnostic work-up, as well as prevalence studies regarding comorbidities and systemic treatment in PG using claims-based data, are sparse. Our objective was to identify patients diagnosed with PG and describe the diagnostic work-up and prevalence of common comorbidities and therapies in this population using claims-based data in a retrospective cohort study. In order to better understand practices of diagnostic work-up, we captured rates of skin biopsy, tissue culture, and/or surgical debridement prior to initial diagnosis. We also identified the prevalence of PG-associated comorbidities and initial immunosuppressive therapy given for PG. Of the 565 patients diagnosed with PG, 9.4% underwent skin biopsy, 8% tissue culture, and 1.4% both skin biopsy AND tissue culture prior to diagnosis. Inflammatory bowel disease was the most prevalent comorbidity (16.3%). The most common treatment administered was systemic corticosteroids (17%). Although practice guidelines explicitly delineate histology and exclusion of infection as important diagnostic criteria, only a minority of patients in this study underwent skin biopsy and/or tissue culture prior to receiving a diagnosis of PG, suggesting that patients may receive a diagnosis of PG without having tissue evaluation. Such discordance between practice guidelines and "real-world" practice inevitably increases the risk for misdiagnosis of PG and misdirected treatment with immunosuppressants for presumptive PG in cases of PG mimickers. Moreover, comorbidities associated with PG may occur, or be identified in, a lower proportion of patients as compared with what is reported in the existing literature. Study limitations include a population restricted to < 65 years with commercial insurance and the reliance upon ICD diagnostic coding to capture the population.
Chronic hydroxychloroquine therapy and COVID-19 outcomes: A retrospective case-control analysis
Advances in cutaneous vasculitis research and clinical care
Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation and destruction of blood vessels, resulting in downstream ischemic tissue damage. Diagnosis of vasculitis is a careful exercise in clinical-pathologic correlation, depending upon the clinical manifestations, organs involved, the size of affected blood vessels, imaging, and laboratory findings. While some vasculitis subtypes may be confined to the skin, serious internal organ involvement or underlying disease states may also occur. Accordingly, the skin plays an important role in the diagnostic process and may be prognostically important in some cases, signifying more severe systemic disease. The skin also provides opportunities for tissue-based translational research, improving understanding of disease pathophysiology. Dermatologists, therefore, play a critical role in evaluating vasculitis and helping to advance vasculitis clinical care and research. Recent updates in vasculitis nomenclature and terminology, evidence-based diagnosis, pathogenesis, and investigations of targeted therapies are changing vasculitis research and leading to fundamental shifts in disease management. Treatment advances favoring evidence-based and targeted, rather than broadly immunosuppressive, therapies are in development, while a multicenter trial for skin-limited vasculitis is ongoing. Collaborative multidisciplinary research networks are key to current and future advances in vasculitis research. In this review, we describe recent developments in vasculitis clinical care and research, starting with a discussion of efforts to develop diagnostic and classification criteria, followed by updates on the evaluation and treatment of vasculitis.
Acrofacial purpura and necrotic ulcerations in COVID-19: a case series from New York City
Dermatologists' Role in the Diagnosis and Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Coagulopathy [Letter]