Clinical and Histopathological Spectrum of Delayed Adverse Cutaneous Reactions Following COVID-19 Vaccination
BACKGROUND:As more people become vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reports of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are beginning to emerge. METHODS:In this IRB-approved retrospective case series, biopsies of potential cutaneous adverse reactions from the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccine were identified and reviewed. Clinical information was obtained through the requisition form, referring clinician, or medical chart review. RESULTS:Twelve cases were included. Histopathological features from two injection site reactions showed a mixed-cell infiltrate with eosinophils and a spongiotic dermatitis with eosinophils. Three biopsies came from generalized eruptions that demonstrated interface changes consistent with an exanthematous drug reaction. Three biopsies revealed a predominantly spongiotic pattern, consistent with eczematous dermatitis. Small vessel vascular injury was seen in two specimens, which were diagnosed as urticarial vasculitis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis, respectively. There were two cases of new-onset bullous pemphigoid supported by histopathological examination and direct immunofluorescence studies. Eosinophils were seen in 10 cases. CONCLUSIONS:Dermatopathologists should be aware of potential cutaneous adverse reactions to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Histopathological patterns include mixed-cell infiltrates, epidermal spongiosis, and interface changes. Eosinophils are a common finding but are not always present. Direct immunofluorescence studies may be helpful for immune-mediated cutaneous presentations such as vasculitis or bullous pemphigoid. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chronic hydroxychloroquine therapy and COVID-19 outcomes: A retrospective case-control analysis
Advances in cutaneous vasculitis research and clinical care
Vasculitis is characterized by inflammation and destruction of blood vessels, resulting in downstream ischemic tissue damage. Diagnosis of vasculitis is a careful exercise in clinical-pathologic correlation, depending upon the clinical manifestations, organs involved, the size of affected blood vessels, imaging, and laboratory findings. While some vasculitis subtypes may be confined to the skin, serious internal organ involvement or underlying disease states may also occur. Accordingly, the skin plays an important role in the diagnostic process and may be prognostically important in some cases, signifying more severe systemic disease. The skin also provides opportunities for tissue-based translational research, improving understanding of disease pathophysiology. Dermatologists, therefore, play a critical role in evaluating vasculitis and helping to advance vasculitis clinical care and research. Recent updates in vasculitis nomenclature and terminology, evidence-based diagnosis, pathogenesis, and investigations of targeted therapies are changing vasculitis research and leading to fundamental shifts in disease management. Treatment advances favoring evidence-based and targeted, rather than broadly immunosuppressive, therapies are in development, while a multicenter trial for skin-limited vasculitis is ongoing. Collaborative multidisciplinary research networks are key to current and future advances in vasculitis research. In this review, we describe recent developments in vasculitis clinical care and research, starting with a discussion of efforts to develop diagnostic and classification criteria, followed by updates on the evaluation and treatment of vasculitis.
Acrofacial purpura and necrotic ulcerations in COVID-19: a case series from New York City
Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystem, inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by noncaseating granulomas that impair normal organ functioning. Sarcoidosis predominantly affects the lungs, but the skin is often cited as the second most frequently involved organ. Cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis are highly variable and ongoing research seeks to better understand the relationship between clinical morphology and disease prognosis. Skin findings in patients with sarcoidosis can be "specific," in which sarcoidal granulomas infiltrate the skin, or they can represent a "nonspecific" reactive inflammatory process, as is seen in calcinosis cutis and erythema nodosum. Cutaneous sarcoidosis can be the initial presenting sign or develop later in the course of the disease. In some patients, the skin will be the most involved and impactful organ system and will drive therapy. In other cases, the skin will be an incidental or minor finding, but may be easily accessible for biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. There are many potential therapies for sarcoidosis, though no one therapy is universally effective.
Dermatologists' Role in the Diagnosis and Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Coagulopathy [Letter]
Gemcitabine-induced pseudocellulitis [Letter]
Prevention and management of glucocorticoid-induced side effects: A comprehensive review: Infectious complications and vaccination recommendations
Part 3 of this 4-part continuing medical education series reviews several important infectious complications of corticosteroid use, including a focus on pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, and other infections, followed by a discussion of vaccination recommendations in immunosuppressed patients.
Prevention and management of glucocorticoid-induced side effects: A comprehensive review: Ocular, cardiovascular, muscular, and psychiatric side effects and issues unique to pediatric patients
The final article in this 4-part continuing medical education series reviews the ocular, cardiovascular, muscular, and psychiatric side effects of glucocorticoids and discusses side effects unique to pediatric patients.