Outcomes of PD for AKI treatment during COVID-19 in New York City: A multicenter study
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:The high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis associated with COVID-19 led to the use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of AKI. This study aims to compare in-hospital all-cause mortality and kidney recovery between patients with AKI who received acute PD versus extracorporeal dialysis (intermittent haemodialysis and continuous kidney replacement therapy). METHODS/UNASSIGNED:In a retrospective observational study of 259 patients with AKI requiring dialysis during the COVID-19 surge during Spring 2020 in New York City, we compared 30-day all-cause mortality and kidney recovery between 93 patients who received acute PD at any time point and 166 patients who only received extracorporeal dialysis. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test and Cox regression were used to compare survival and logistic regression was used to compare kidney recovery. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 0.48). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The use of PD for the treatment of AKI was not associated with worse clinical outcomes when compared to extracorporeal dialysis during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. Given the inherent selection biases and residual confounding in our observational study, research with a larger cohort of patients in a more controlled setting is needed to confirm our findings.
Use of peritoneal dialysis for acute kidney injury during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City: a multicenter observational study
To demonstrate feasibility of acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) for acute kidney injury duringÂ the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we performed a multicenter, retrospective, observational study of 94 patients who received acute PD in New York CityÂ in the spring of 2020. Patient comorbidities, severity of disease, laboratory values, kidney replacement therapy, and patient outcomes were recorded. The mean age was 61Â Â±Â 11 years; 34% were women; 94% had confirmed COVID-19; 32% required mechanical ventilation on admission. Compared to the levels prior to initiation of kidney replacement therapy, the mean serum potassium level decreased from 5.1 Â± 0.9 to 4.5 Â± 0.7 mEq/L on PD day 3 and 4.2 Â± 0.6 mEq/L on day 7 (PÂ < 0.001 for both); mean serum bicarbonate increased from 20 Â± 4 to 21 Â± 4 mEq/L on PD day 3 (PÂ = 0.002) and 24 Â± 4 mEq/L on day 7 (PÂ < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 30 days, 46% of patients had died and 22% had undergone renal recovery. Male sex and mechanical ventilation on admission were significant predictors of mortality. The rapid implementation of an acute PD program was feasible despite resource constraints and can be lifesaving during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Case series of acute peritoneal dialysis in the prone position for acute kidney injury during the Covid-19 pandemic: Prone to complications?
Patients with kidney failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring prone position have not been candidates for peritoneal dialysis (PD) due to concern with increased intra-abdominal pressure, reduction in respiratory system compliance and risks of peritoneal fluid leaks. We describe our experience in delivering acute PD during the surge in Covid-19 acute kidney injury (AKI) in the subset of patients requiring prone positioning. All seven patients included in this report were admitted to the intensive care unit with SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to ARDS, AKI and multisystem organ failure. All required renal replacement therapy, and prone positioning to improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch. All seven were able to continue PD despite prone positioning without any detrimental effects on respiratory mechanics or the need to switch to a different modality. Fluid leakage was noted in 71% of patients, but mild and readily resolved. We were able to successfully implement acute PD in ventilator-dependent prone patients suffering from Covid-19-related AKI. This required a team effort and some modifications in the conventional PD prescription and delivery.
Use of peritoneal dialysis for the treatment of AKI was associated with lower risk for 30-day all-cause mortality during the COVID-19 surge [Meeting Abstract]
Background: To offset resource constraints that limited the capability to deliver hemodialysis (HD) during the COVID-19 surge, nephrologists in New York City (NYC) rapidly incorporated peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI), which was rarely used in the United States. This study aims to compare the in-hospital all-cause mortality between AKI patients who received PD versus HD during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Method(s): In a retrospective observational study, we collected data on 259 patients with AKI who required kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in four medical centers of NYC during the Spring 2020. Patients who had ever received PD were included in the PD group (n=93), and patients who only received intermittent HD or continuous KRT were included in the HD group (n=166). Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log-rank test and Cox regression were used to compare survival between PD and HD groups.
Result(s): For the entire cohort, the mean age was 61+/-11 years; 31% were women; 96% had confirmed COVID-19. Median follow up was 21 days (IQR 12-30). Mortality was lower in PD group compared to HD group (43% vs. 60%, p=0.01). Time-dependent analyses showed that PD group was at a lower risk for mortality compared to HD group (p<0.001 for Log-rank test; Figure). After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, oxygenation on admission, mechanical ventilation, prone positioning, steroid use and C-reactive protein, the PD group remained to have a lower risk of mortality compared to the HD group with a HR of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27-0.77, p=0.003).
Conclusion(s): Compared to HD, the use of PD for the treatment of AKI was associated with lower mortality in this cohort of patients treated during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Spring of 2020. Our findings demonstrate that rapid implementation of PD for the treatment of AKI was feasible and may be lifesaving
Acute Peritoneal Dialysis During the COVID-19 Pandemic at Bellevue Hospital in New York City
Acute Peritoneal Dialysis During the COVID-19 Pandemic at Bellevue Hospital in New York City
Background:The COVID-19 pandemic strained hospital resources in New York City, including those for providing dialysis. New York University Medical Center and affiliations, including New York City Health and Hospitals/Bellevue, developed a plan to offset the increased needs for KRT. We established acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) capability, as usual dialysis modalities were overwhelmed by COVID-19 AKI. Methods:Observational study of patients requiring KRT admitted to Bellevue Hospital during the COVID surge. Bellevue Hospital is one of the largest public hospitals in the United States, providing medical care to an underserved population. There were substantial staff, supplies, and equipment shortages. Adult patients admitted with AKI who required KRT were considered for PD. We rapidly established an acute PD program. A surgery team placed catheters at the bedside in the intensive care unit; a nephrology team delivered treatment. We provided an alternative to hemodialysis and continuous venovenous hemofiltration for treating patients in the intensive-care unit, demonstrating efficacy with outcomes comparable to standard care. Results:From April 8, 2020 to May 8, 2020, 39 catheters were placed into ten women and 29 men. By June 10, 39% of the patients started on PD recovered kidney function (average ages 56 years for men and 59.5 years for women); men and women who expired were an average 71.8 and 66.2 years old. No episodes of peritonitis were observed; there were nine incidents of minor leaking. Some patients were treated while ventilated in the prone position. Conclusions:Demand compelled us to utilize acute PD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our experience is one of the largest recently reported in the United States of which we are aware. Acute PD provided lifesaving care to acutely ill patients when expanding current resources was impossible. Our experience may help other programs to avoid rationing dialysis treatments in health crises.
Impending Shortages of Kidney Replacement Therapy for COVID-19 Patients
Urgent-start peritoneal dialysis: Experience in mechanically ventilated prone patients [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Patients with respiratory failure who require prone positioning are not considered good candidates for PD due to the concerns for increased intra-abdominal pressure, impaired diaphragmatic movement, and leaking of peritoneal fluid. We addressed the COVID-related AKI (CRAKI) surge for renal replacement therapy (RRT) by initiating an acute PD program at Bellevue Hospital including prone patients.
Method(s): All patients were in the ICU with COVID related hypoxic respiratory failure and acute kidney injury (AKI). 6/35 patients who received PD were treated for 16 hours per day in the prone position to improve oxygenation. The mean age was 54.6. The average BMI was 35.5. Patients were on mechanical ventilation 12-33 days. 3/6 patients were on CVVH however, switched to PD due to clotting. Patients were on PD for an average of 9.3 days. All PD catheters were placed at the bedside using an open cut down technique. PD was started the same day using manual exchanges. Dwell volume was gradually increased to 2 L. Exchanges were performed q1h while supine and q2h while prone, a total of 4-6 exchanges/day. The PD team coordinated timing with the prone team and ICU nurses to allow the continuation of the PD treatment. Patients were monitored clinically for abdominal distention and changes in respiratory mechanics.
Result(s): All 6 patients remained on PD for the duration of the hospitalization. There were no incidences of bowel injury, hemorrhage, exit-site infections, or peritonitis. None of the patients had any catheter malfunction. Leaking was addressed with temporarily reducing the dwell volume. Patients experienced slow draining which was due to kinking of the tubing during prone positioning. All patients were able to continue receiving PD without interruptions. Either no change or improvement in ABG and ventilator settings was noted after prone positioning and PD.
Conclusion(s): Due to COVID related surge, we saw a significant number of patients in the ICU with severe acute respiratory failure requiring prone positioning who also developed AKI requiring RRT. We were able to successfully provide acute PD in ventilator-dependent prone patients suffering from CRAKI. This required a team effort and some modifications in the conventional PD prescription. (Figure Presented)
Urgent peritoneal dialysis catheter placement at a New York City hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic [Meeting Abstract]
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unparalleled burden on nephrology services to provide kidney replacement therapy to patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19, who develop severe AKI. Given the unprecedented surge in COVID-19 admissions, ability to provide inpatient hemodialysis and continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) was quickly saturated. We present data from our acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) program that was quickly assembled to provide kidney replacement therapy due to shortage of hemodialysis and CKRT resources.
Method(s): Patients admitted to an academic NYC hospital during COVID-19 pandemic with AKI requiring kidney replacement therapy were evaluated for candidacy for bedside PD catheter placement via cut-down method with the majority having COVID respiratory failure. A dedicated surgery team was assembled to place PD catheters within 12-24 hours of request by the nephrology team. Catheters were placed in patients with BMI up to 51. Patients requiring proning were not excluded. Exclusion criteria were prior lower abdominal surgery, known varices, or imminent death.
Result(s): Thirty-eight PD catheters were placed during the 4 week time period from April 8 to May 8, 2020. Majority of the catheters were placed bedside in an ICU setting (36/38 - 95%), with 2 being placed laparoscopically in the OR. There were no episodes of peritonitis. Three catheters required revision due to poor flows. Six catheters required floseal for bleeding along the catheter tract, which resolved without additional intervention. There were no major bleeding complications during PD catheter placement despite many patients being on systemic anticoagulation. Dwell volumes of up to 2.2L did not appear to have negative effects on the ability to ventilate patients. One patient required transition to hemodialysis due to catheter malfunction.
Conclusion(s): Acute peritoneal dialysis successfully allowed kidney replacement therapy for patients with severe AKI during the peak phase of the COVID-19 pandemic at our hospital in NYC. There were no major complications with acute PD catheter placements
Acute peritoneal dialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic in new york city [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: The dramatic spread of COVID-19 in March 2020 threatened to overwhelm ICU capacity. At the peak we had more than 120 patients in the ICU. About 40% of the ICU patients required RRT due to AKI. Our ability to provide RRT with CVVH and IHD was severely limited by critical shortages of equipment and personnel. We rapidly established an acute PD program at Bellevue hospital for AKI patients. The acute PD program turned out to be instrumental in the BH response to COVID AKI. Case Description: Patients All patients who needed RRT in the ICU were eligible to receive PD catheters except for those with prior abdominal surgery. 36/38 patients who received catheters were Covid (+). Proning was not always planned; we did not use this as a contraindication. We were able to successfully perform adequate PD on patients who were proned with minimal complications. Surgical Support Catheters were placed using a limited cut down to the peritoneal membrane through the rectus muscle at bedside; most of the patients were intubated and sedated. Training and Initial Experience A nurse affiliated with Bellevue's outpatient dialysis unit helped make videos and trained the lead nephrologist on how to perform PD and how to use a Cycler. 25 people were on the PD team and we were able to provide exchanges 24 hours per day. Exchanges were initially performed manually every 1-2 hours. Eventually we acquired 18 cyclers which greatly eased the workload. Outcomes As of May 8, 2020 63 patients were evaluated, 38 PD catheters were placed with 35 used for exchanges. 2 patients had catheters placed but recovered renal function prior to starting PD. 1/38 was nonfunctioning and changed to IHD. 15/35 survived >30 days; 8 recovered renal function; 20 expired <30 days.
Discussion(s): Because of the shortage of our typically used dialysis modalities we were compelled to start an acute PD program. No patient on PD required additional dialytic support with IHD or CVVH. PD was well tolerated by ventilated patients with hemodynamic instability. Acute PD more than adequately filled the gap in treatment options during this unprecedented crisis