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Our Jungian heritage [Editorial]

Colman, Warren; Carter, Linda
PMID: 22039942
ISSN: 1468-5922
CID: 147213

A Jungian contribution to a dynamic systems understanding of disorganized attachment

Carter, Linda
This panel emerged from shared clinical concerns when working with adult patients whose presentation style was reminiscent of a disorganized (Type D) infant attachment pattern. Psychotherapeutic work with such patients poses complicated transference and countertransference dilemmas which are addressed by all four panellists via theory and clinical vignettes. In common is an interest in contemporary attachment, neuroscience and trauma theories and their relationship to analytical psychology. Intergenerational trauma seems to be a salient factor in the evolution of fragmented and fragmenting interactions that lead to failures in self-coherence and healthy interpersonal relationships. Such early relational trauma is compounded by further episodes of abuse and neglect leading to failure in a core sense of self. These clinicians share how they have integrated theory and practice in order to help dissociated and disorganized patients to transform their dark and extraordinary suffering through implicit and explicit experiences with the analyst into new, life giving patterns of relationship with self and others. The alchemy of transformation, both positive and negative, is evident in the case material presented
PMID: 21675978
ISSN: 1468-5922
CID: 147214

Editorial. A range of theoretical perspectives [Editorial]

Carter, Linda
PMID: 21434897
ISSN: 1468-5922
CID: 147215

The transcendent function, moments of meeting and dyadic consciousness: constructive and destructive co-creation in the analytic dyad

Carter, Linda
In reading the work of Beebe (2002), Sander (Amadei & Bianchi 2008), Tronick (2007) and Stern and the Boston Change Process Study Group (1998), resonances to the transcendent function can be registered but these researchers seem to be more focused on the interpersonal domain. In particular Tronick's concept of 'dyadic expansion of consciousness' and 'moments of meeting' from the Boston Change Process Study Group describe external dyadic interactions between mothers and babies and therapists and patients while, in contrast, Jung's early focus was on the intrapsychic process of internal interaction between conscious and unconscious within an individual. From an overall perspective, the interpersonal process of change described by infant researchers, when held in conjunction with Jung's internal process of change, together form a transcendent whole that could also be called a complex adaptive system. Such new theoretical perspectives from other fields confirm and elaborate long held Jungian notions such as the transcendent function which is, in many ways, harmonious with a systems perspective. Throughout this paper, clinical vignettes of interactive moments along with sand play and dreams will be used to illustrate theoretical points regarding the healthy process of the transcendent function along with descriptions of failures of such conjunctive experiences
PMID: 20518964
ISSN: 1468-5922
CID: 147216

Elder abuse--an ethical dilemma for caregivers

Carter, Linda
The mistreatment of elders by their adult children, spouses, or other caregivers is a problem of increasing magnitude. We have few laws and even fewer policies to help caregivers identify and prevent abuse, partly because it has no common pattern, and partly because it so often goes unreported. Abuse can be intentional or unintentional, and as often results from failing to act, as from acts of anger or cruelty. Therefore, we must do a better job of enforcing mandatory reporting and educating and supporting our caregivers to prevent stress and burnout. Above all, we must seek an ethical course of action, knowing that there are legal, personal, and professional ethical ideals and standards that can guide us, whether the elderly are being cared for in their own home or in nursing homes
PMID: 15188785
ISSN: 1065-7274
CID: 96140

The 20 questions task with families of schizophrenics: divergent findings

Carter L; Ladd J; Robertson SR; Alpert M
The study attempted to replicate and extend the results of an earlier study by Wild and Shapiro (16), establishing the utility of Mosher and Hornsby's (8) 20 Questions Task as a means of differentiating families with schizophrenic patients from those of psychiatrically hospitalized but nonschizophrenic individuals. In the current study, Wild and Shapiro's original design was expanded and revised by (a) diagnosing patients using Research Diagnostic Criteria rather than hospital diagnoses and (b) including families with schizophrenic daughters and/or one-parent families, in addition to intact families with schizophrenic sons. Families were comparable on age, intelligence, and socioeconomic variables. The results failed to replicate those reported by Wild and Shapiro, and indicated that the 20 Questions Task was sensitive to differences in family constellation and offspring gender as well as offspring diagnosis. The findings suggest that forms of familial communication deviance detected with the 20 Questions Task may not be unique to families of schizophrenics, thus highlighting the need to expand research on family communication deviance in families with schizophrenic offspring to families with varied family constellations and characteristics
PMID: 2659388
ISSN: 0014-7370
CID: 10602

The Family Rorschach with families of schizophrenics: replication and extension

Carter L; Robertson SR; Ladd J; Alpert M
Using a modified version of procedures outlined by Shapiro and Wild (9), this study evaluates the use of a Family Rorschach technique as a means of distinguishing families of schizophrenic patients from those of psychiatrically hospitalized, nonschizophrenic individuals. The patients were diagnosed using Research Diagnostic Criteria, and families were matched for age, intelligence, and socioeconomic characteristics. Results showed that the families with schizophrenic offspring scored significantly lower (that is, they had more communication and attentional difficulties) than those with nonschizophrenic offspring; offspring gender and family constellation had little effect on scores. Subsequent analyses indicated that lower scores were not simply a reflection of the psychoticism of the patient. These findings suggest that families of schizophrenics have interpersonal communication difficulties that compromise their ability to maintain a shared focus of attention. The findings are consistent with the suggestion that deviant patterns of family communication in interaction with genetic vulnerability in an offspring may result in the development of a schizophrenic disorder
PMID: 3691770
ISSN: 0014-7370
CID: 11296

Schizophrenic children's utilization of images and words in performance of cognitive tasks

Carter, L; Alpert, M; Stewart, S M
Hospitalized schizophrenic (N = 15) and nonschizophrenic (N = 18) youngsters were compared on measures of verbal and imagery development as well as on four paired-associate learning tasks involving combinations of word and picture stimuli pairs. The results showed the schizophrenic group to be similar to the controls on verbal and full-scale intelligence measures but significantly inferior on performance measures. The schizophrenic group also showed a general disadvantage in paired-associate learning, with a trend toward specific differential difficulty with words as stimulus items. Results suggest the presence of nondominant hemisphere deficit in the target group and also provide weak support for theories of dominant hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia
PMID: 7153202
ISSN: 0162-3257
CID: 147217

Biochemical and morphological effects of 20,25-diazacholesterol on cultured muscle cells

Reddy, N B; Askanas, V; Oliver, K L; Lawrence, J V; Carter, L; Engel, W K
Effects of 20,25-diazacholesterol (DAC), a myotonia-inducing drug, were evaluated on certain biochemical and morphological properties of embryonic rat muscle cells grown in tissue culture. During DAC treatment, muscle fibers exhibited spontaneous contractions that changed from coarse twitches to finer fibrillation movements, The ultrastructural alterations produced by DAC were smeared Z-lines, disorganized myofibrils, occasional honeycomb appearance of membranes and large vacuoles connected to zipper-like structures. Biochemically, a microsomal fraction prepared from DAC-treated cells (compared to that of normal cells) showed a 30-45 per cent decrease in the isoproterenol-enhanced and the NaF-enhanced adenylate cyclase activity. however, the beta-adrenergic receptors, through which isoproterenol activates the enzyme, showed no change in density or affinity as judged by the binding of [125I]iodohydroxybenzylpindolol. That indicated that DAC treatment caused an uncoupling of beta-receptor-adenylate cyclase interaction. Guanylate cyclase and cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase were both markedly increased in DAC-treated cells, indicating a greater turnover of cyclic GMP. Binding of [3H]concanavalin A to DAC-treated muscle membranes was decreased 20-40 per cent. The data indicate that DAC exert a direct influence on muscle fibers, affecting their functional, biochemical and morphological properties.
PMID: 7059357
ISSN: 0006-2952
CID: 165182