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[S.l.] : CorePendium, 2023

Fingertip avulsions

Castro, Mary Grace; Huang, Victor
CID: 5476992

Fitness, insulin sensitivity, and frontal lobe integrity in adults with overweight and obesity

Castro, Mary Grace; Venutolo, Christopher; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio
OBJECTIVE: To formally test whether insulin sensitivity mediates the relationship between fitness and brain integrity. METHODS: Eighty-four middle-aged participants without diabetes received a 6-min walk test from which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was derived, a structural magnetic resonance scan, and a medical evaluation including fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS: This study showed significant associations between fitness, abdominal obesity, and insulin sensitivity and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume as well as between ACC thickness and quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The relationship between ACC volume and VO2 max was completely mediated through QUICKI. Further, this strong association was confirmed by a single and very significant cluster on the ACC linking gray matter volume and QUICKI in a voxel-based morphometry analysis. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, increased abdominal obesity was associated with reductions in fitness, ACC volumes, and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, this study demonstrated a significant mediation of the relationship between VO2 max and ACC volume by QUICKI. This suggests that the links between impaired insulin sensitivity and brain abnormalities in adults carrying excess weight could be alleviated through increased physical activity and fitness.
PMID: 27123868
ISSN: 1930-739x
CID: 2092592

Obesity and metabolic syndrome and functional and structural brain impairments in adolescence

Yau, Po Lai; Castro, Mary Grace; Tagani, Adrian; Tsui, Wai Hon; Convit, Antonio
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) parallels the rise in childhood obesity. MetS is associated with neurocognitive impairments in adults, but this is thought to be a long-term effect of poor metabolism. It would be important to ascertain whether these brain complications are also present among adolescents with MetS, a group without clinically manifest vascular disease and relatively short duration of poor metabolism. METHODS: Forty-nine adolescents with and 62 without MetS, matched on age, socioeconomic status, school grade, gender, and ethnicity, received endocrine, MRI, and neuropsychological evaluations. RESULTS: Adolescents with MetS showed significantly lower arithmetic, spelling, attention, and mental flexibility and a trend for lower overall intelligence. They also had, in a MetS-dose-related fashion, smaller hippocampal volumes, increased brain cerebrospinal fluid, and reductions of microstructural integrity in major white matter tracts. CONCLUSIONS: We document lower cognitive performance and reductions in brain structural integrity among adolescents with MetS, thus suggesting that even relatively short-term impairments in metabolism, in the absence of clinically manifest vascular disease, may give rise to brain complications. In view of these alarming results, it is plausible that obesity-associated metabolic disease, short of type 2 diabetes mellitus, may be mechanistically linked to lower the academic and professional potential of adolescents. Although obesity may not be enough to stir clinicians or even parents into action, these results in adolescents strongly argue for an early and comprehensive intervention. We propose that brain function be introduced among the parameters that need to be evaluated when considering early treatment of childhood obesity.
PMID: 22945407
ISSN: 0031-4005
CID: 179085