Central adrenal insufficiency screening with morning plasma cortisol and ACTH levels in Prader-Willi syndrome
BACKGROUND:Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder with severe hypotonia, failure to thrive, childhood obesity, hypogonadism/hypogenitalism and learning/behavioral problems with endocrine-related growth and other hormone deficiencies. The prevalence of central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) using dynamic testing ranges from rare to 60%. We compared routine morning plasma cortisol (MPC) and ACTH levels in large cohorts of PWS and control children to address CAI. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of MPC and ACTH levels was undertaken in 128 PWS growth hormone (GH)-treated children under medical care before considering dynamic testing for CAI and 128 non-syndromic control children with short stature evaluated for GH deficiency. RESULTS:Â 8.0Â pg/mL with one individual having an initial low plasma ACTH level (8Â pg/mL), but normal upon repeat. CONCLUSIONS:
Correction to: Effects of growth hormone on bone modeling and remodeling in hypophysectomised young female rats: a bone histomorphometric study
The following corrections are found in the original publication of the article and corrected as below.
BLOCKADE OF THE RECEPTOR FOR ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO PREVENT ATHEROGENIC DISRUPTION OF LIPID METABOLISM BY PLASMA FROM TYPE 1 DIABETES PATIENTS: A CLUE IN THE SEARCH FOR IMPROVED CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH IN DIABETES [Meeting Abstract]
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Cause Pro-atherogenic Changes in Cholesterol Transport: A Possible Mechanism for Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes [Meeting Abstract]
Effects of growth hormone on bone modeling and remodeling in hypophysectomized young female rats: a bone histomorphometric study
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency causes decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis, predisposing to fractures. We investigated the mechanism of action of GH on bone modeling and remodeling in hypophysectomized (HX) female rats. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats at age 2 months were divided into three groups with 10 rats each: control (CON) group, HX group, and HX + GH (3 mg/kg daily s.c.) group, for a 4-week study. Hypophysectomy resulted in cessation of bone growth and decrease in cancellous bone mass. Periosteal bone formation decreased and bone turnover rate of endocortical and trabecular surfaces increased as compared to the CON group. GH administration for 4 weeks restored weight gain and bone growth and mitigated decrease in bone density after hypophysectomy. However, trabecular bone mass in the proximal tibial metaphysis remained lower in group HX + GH than in group CON. Dynamic histomorphometric analysis showed that bone modeling of periosteal bone formation and growth plate elongation was significantly higher in group HX + GH than in group HX. New bone formed beneath the growth plate was predominately woven bone in group CON and group HX + GH. Bone remodeling and modeling-remodeling mixed modes in the endocortical and PTM sites were enhanced by GH administration; both bone formation and resorption activities were significantly higher than in group HX. In conclusion, GH administration to HX rats reactivated modeling activities in modeling predominant sites and increased new bone formation. GH administration also increases remodeling activities in remodeling predominant sites, giving limited net gain in the bone mass.
Differential effects of growth hormone and alpha calcidol on trabecular and cortical bones in hypophysectomized rats
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency in children causes severe growth retardation, vitamin D deficiency, and osteopenia. We investigated whether alfacalcidol (1OHD) alone or in combination with GH can improve bone formation. Forty hypophysectomized female rats (HX) at the age of 8 wk were divided into HX, HX + 1OHD (oral 0.25 microg/kg daily), HX+GH (0.666 mg/0.2 mL SC daily) and HX+GH + 1OHD groups for a 4-wk study. Results showed that GH increased body weight, bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD), whereas 1OHD only increased BMC and BMD. In cortical bone, GH increased both periosteal and endocortical bone formation resulting in a significant increase in cortical size and area in percentage, whereas 1OHD suppressed endocortical erosion surface per bone surface (ES/BS) without a significant effect on bone formation rate per bone surface (BFR/BS). In trabecular bone, GH mitigated the bone loss by increasing BFR/BS, whereas the 1OHD effect was by suppression of trabecular bone turnover in the HX rats. The combination of GH and 1OHD had no additive effect on increasing trabecular bone mass. In conclusion, GH activates new bone formation and increases bone turnover whereas 1OHD suppresses bone turnover. The combination intervention does not seem to provide any additive benefit.
Effects of growth hormone on bone modeling and remodeling in hypophysectomized female rats [Meeting Abstract]
Interaction of Combined Intervention of Parathyroid Hormone and Growth Hormone on Trabecular and Cortical Bone Formation and Resorption in the Hypophysectomized Rats. [Meeting Abstract]
Differential Effects of Growth Hormone and 1 Alfa Calcidol on Cancellous and Cortical Bone in Hypophysectomized Rats. [Meeting Abstract]
Final adult height in children with Prader-Willi syndrome with and without human growth hormone treatment
Short stature is characteristic of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). While previous studies have demonstrated acceleration of linear height velocity with growth hormone (GH) treatment, the long-term benefit on final adult height (AH) has not been reported. The objective of this study was to compare AH attained in PWS subjects with and without GH treatment. We reviewed the records of 21 children (aged 8.3 +/- 2.7 years) with PWS and confirmed GH deficiency that attained AH after receiving human GH treatment (0.25 +/- 0.06 mg/kg/week) for a period of 7.9 +/- 1.7 years. A group of 39 non-GH-treated adults with matched initial height standard deviation score (SDS) at age 6.8 +/- 1.3 years was used as control. In the GH-treated group the mean initial height and AH-SDS was -1.9 +/- 1.7 and -0.3 +/- 1.2 respectively (P < 0.0001), whereas the mean initial and AH-SDS in the control group was -1.9 +/- 1.3 and -3.1 +/- 1 respectively (P < 0.0001). Scoliosis was seen in 43% and 39% in the GH-treated and control group respectively. Premature adrenarche (PA) was noticed in 57% of GH-treated group. Six subjects in the control group but none of the GH-treated subjects developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our data show that administration of GH to children with PWS restores linear growth and final AH without significant adverse effects other than PA. Further studies will be necessary to determine related morbidity and mortality in individuals with PWS that reached final AH with or without GH treatment.