Staged hybrid open and endovascular exclusion of a symptomatic thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in a high-risk patient [Case Report]
Chung, Christine; Malik, Rajesh; Marin, Michael; Faries, Peter; Ellozy, Sharif
Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms have a higher prevalence in the elderly, who are often poor surgical candidates. These extensive aneurysms may be lethal if left untreated. Conventional open repair has proven to be a major task, involving cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamping and expeditious repair of an inaccessible structure involving two body cavities. Endovascular repair has become a viable option to treat isolated descending thoracic aneurysms and infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, endovascular techniques alone have been less applicable for treating complex aortic aneurysms, including those involving visceral vessels. Therefore, a hybrid open and endovascular approach with visceral debranching has become an increasingly favorable alternative for patients with these complex conditions. We report a case in which a staged hybrid approach was used for successful exclusion of an extensive thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in a symptomatic, high-risk patient who would not have been an appropriate candidate for open surgical repair.
The effect of statin use on embolic potential during carotid angioplasty and stenting
Tadros, Rami O; Vouyouka, Ageliki G; Chung, Christine; Malik, Rajesh K; Krishnan, Prakash; Ellozy, Sharif H; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L
BACKGROUND:Statin use results in atherosclerotic plaque stabilization. We sought to determine the effects of statins on the size and number of embolic particles generated during carotid artery stenting (CAS). METHODS:Embolic debris from carotid filters following CAS was analyzed using photomicroscopy and imaging software. Patient comorbidities, pre-operative cerebrovascular symptoms, statin use, and outcomes (peri-operative major adverse events, MAE) were reviewed. RESULTS:Carotid filters from 62 consecutive CAS procedures were examined. The mean age is 68.7Â Â±Â 9.8 years, 64% were men, 41 (66%) were on statins at the time of CAS, and 27 (43.5%) had neurological symptoms pre-procedurally. The mean intra-procedural stenosis was similar between groups (statin: 89.4Â Â±Â 7.4% vs. no statin: 88.4Â Â±Â 5.9%, P = NS). There was no significant difference in overall pre-operative symptoms between the two groups. Statin users were more likely to have coronary artery disease (CAD, PÂ =Â 0.02), hyperlipidemia (HL, PÂ =Â 0.047), or have undergone coronary artery bypass (CABG, PÂ =Â 0.01). Statin use was associated with significantly less embolic particles (statin: 16.4Â Â±Â 2.1 vs. no statin: 42.4Â Â±Â 9.5, PÂ =Â 0.001) during CAS. Further, multivariate analysis controlling for CAD, HL, and CABG confirmed that statin use was independently associated with less captured debris (PÂ =Â 0.005). There was no significant difference in the mean particle size (statin: 326.2 Î¼m Â± 31.1 vs. no statin 310.5 Î¼m Â± 41.8), peri-procedural stroke, and MAE between the two groups (P = NS). CONCLUSIONS:Statin use is associated with less embolic debris during CAS. Further investigation utilizing a larger study group is necessary to assess the impact of statin use on peri-procedural outcomes.
Comparing the embolic potential of open and closed cell stents during carotid angioplasty and stenting
Tadros, Rami O; Spyris, Constantinos T; Vouyouka, Ageliki G; Chung, Christine; Krishnan, Prakash; Arnold, Margaret W; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L
OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the effects of open (O) and closed (C) cell stents on the size and number of embolic particles generated during carotid artery stenting (CAS) and assess the impact on outcome. METHODS:Embolic debris from carotid filters after CAS was analyzed using photomicroscopy and imaging software. Patient comorbidities, preoperative cerebrovascular symptoms, stent type, and outcomes (perioperative major adverse events) were examined. RESULTS:Carotid filters from 173 consecutive CAS procedures (O, 125 and C, 48) were reviewed. The mean age was 70.9 Â± 9.2 years; 58% were men. Mean stenosis was 88.2% Â± 8.1%; 36.6% had neurological symptoms preprocedurally. There was no difference in preoperative symptoms between the two groups (O, 38.7% vs C, 31.3%; P = not significant [NS]). However, closed cell stent use was associated with higher degree of stenosis (O, 87.2% Â± 8.0% vs C, 90.6% Â± 7.8%; P = .01), an older age (O, 70.0 Â± 8.6 years vs C, 73.4 Â± 10.2 years; P = .03), and peripheral arterial disease (21.1% vs 43.5%; P = .01). A larger mean particle size was observed in patients treated with open cell stents compared to closed cell stents (O, 416.5 Â± 335.7 Î¼m vs C, 301.1 Â± 251.3 Î¼m; P = .03). There was no significant difference in the total number of particles (O, 13.8 Â± 21.5 vs C, 17.6 Â± 19.9; P = NS), periprocedural stroke (P = NS), and major adverse events between the two groups (P = NS). CONCLUSIONS:Open cell stents are associated with a larger mean particle size compared to closed cell stents. No impact on procedural outcomes based on stent type was observed.
Sex-related differences in embolic potential during carotid angioplasty and stenting
Spyris, Constantinos T; Vouyouka, Ageliki G; Tadros, Rami O; Chung, Christine; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L
BACKGROUND:Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy. CAS outcomes and risk factors affecting postoperative complications in women are not well defined. We sought to determine the effect of sex on particle size captured by embolic protection devices, comorbidities influencing embolization, and results after CAS. METHODS:Embolic debris from 188 consecutively collected carotid embolic protection devices were analyzed using photomicroscopy and imaging software. Patient comorbidities, preoperative cerebrovascular symptoms, and perioperative outcomes (cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, mortality) were examined. RESULTS:The mean age was 71.0 years (56.4% males). Men (M) were more likely than women (W) to be smokers (M: 70.4% vs. W: 55.6%, p = 0.046) and have coronary artery disease (M:Â 65.7% vs. W: 48.1%, p = 0.02). Symptomatic (S) patients had larger mean particle size compared with asymptomatic (AS) patients (S: 469.9 Â± 416.4 Î¼m vs. AS: 316.1 Â± 241.1 Î¼m, p = 0.01). On subgroup analysis, a larger mean particle size was observed in symptomatic woman compared with asymptomatic women (S: 461.5 Â± 348.1 Î¼m vs. AS: 281.4 Â± 209.4Â Î¼m, p = 0.02). In men, a trend toward a larger mean particle size in symptomatic patients did not reach statistical significance (S: 475.8 Â± 462.9 Î¼m vs. AS: 351.2 Â± 262.4 Î¼m, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative cerebrovascular symptoms are associated with a greater mean particle size in symptomatic women compared with asymptomatic women. This difference in mean particle size was not observed in men. These results provide evidence that may help in better selection of CAS patients, but the impact of an increased mean particle size in symptomatic women during carotid stenting requires further investigation.
Embolic Potential During Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting: Comparing Open-Cell and Closed-Cell Stents [Meeting Abstract]
Tadros, Rami O.; Spyris, Constantinos T.; Vouyouka, Ageliki G.; Chung, Christine; Kim, Sung Yup; O'Conner, David; Walkup, Maggie; Han, Dan; Ellozy, Sharif H.; Marin, Michael L.; Faries, Peter L.
Endovascular stent-graft repair of a tuberculous mycotic aortic aneurysm [Case Report]
Han, Daniel K; Chung, Christine; Walkup, Maggie H; Faries, Peter L; Marin, Michael L; Ellozy, Sharif H
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a rare cause of mycotic aortic aneurysms, which have been classically treated with a combination of antimycobacterial medical therapy and open surgery. Endovascular therapy has been gaining popularity as an alternative to open surgery for mycotic aneurysms. We report a case of a tuberculous mycotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta that was successfully treated with endovascular stent-graft placement with complete resolution of the pseudoaneurysm at 1 year. We also review other cases in the previously published data to identify factors that may affect the outcome of endovascular treatment of tuberculous mycotic aneurysms.
Existing trauma and critical care scoring systems underestimate mortality among vascular trauma patients
Loh, Shang A; Rockman, Caron B; Chung, Christine; Maldonado, Thomas S; Adelman, Mark A; Cayne, Neal S; Pachter, H Leon; Mussa, Firas F
BACKGROUND: The impact of vascular injuries on patient mortality has not been well evaluated in multi-trauma patients. This study seeks to determine (1) whether the presence of vascular trauma negatively affects outcome compared with nonvascular trauma (NVT) and (2) the utility of existing severity scoring systems in predicting mortality among vascular trauma (VT) patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of our trauma database from January 2005 to December 2007 was conducted. Demographics, Injury Severity Scores (ISS), Revised Trauma Scores (RTS), Trauma Score-Injury Severity Scores (TRISS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, and mortality rates were compared. Control patients were selected from a matching cohort based on ISS. Comparisons were made between groups based on the above scoring systems. Statistical analysis used chi(2) analysis and Student t-tests. RESULTS: Fifty VT and 50 NVT patients were identified with no significant differences in age, gender, mechanism of injury, ISS, RTS, or TRISS. The mean APACHE II score was higher in VT compared with NVT (12.3 vs 8.8, P < .05). Overall mortality was higher in VT compared with NVT but did not reach statistical significance (24% vs 11.8%, P = .108). VT patients with RTS score >5 had a higher mortality rate (26% vs 2.2%, P = .007). VT patients with an ISS score >24 had a higher mortality compared with NVT patients (61% vs 28.6%, P = .04). VT patients with an APACHE II score <14 also had a higher mortality rate (18.2% vs 0%, P = .007). Finally, VT patients with a TRISS probability of survival of >80% had a higher mortality rate (13.9% vs 0%, P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: In multi-trauma patients, the presence of vascular injury was associated with increased mortality in less severely injured patients based on the RTS, TRISS, and APACHE II scores. These scoring systems underestimated mortality in patients with vascular trauma. Level of care and future trauma algorithms should be adjusted in the presence of vascular trauma
Determinants of embolic risk during angioplasty and stenting: neurologic symptoms and coronary artery disease increase embolic risk
Chung, Christine; Shah, Tejas R; Shin, Hyunjoo; Han, Daniel; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L
BACKGROUND: Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has proven to be a potential alternative to carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of severe carotid disease. Patient selection has emerged as a means of optimizing the outcomes of CAS. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of preprocedural neurologic symptoms and having a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with greater embolic risk during CAS through analysis of the embolic debris captured within protective filters. METHODS: A total of 233 consecutive CAS procedures were performed between 2003 and 2009. Particles of embolic debris within the filters were quantified by photomicroscopy and video imaging software. Particulate size was determined by measuring the length along the longest axis. Preprocedural neurologic symptoms included transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, and amaurosis fugax. History of CAD included prior myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, congestive heart failure, or abnormal stress test. RESULTS: Of the 137 (58.8%) filters that were analyzed (mean age, 71.3 +/- 9.1 years, 56.9% male), 52 (38.0%) and 80 (58.4%) filters were from symptomatic and CAD patients, respectively. Filters of symptomatic (S) patients contained both a greater number and larger mean particle size compared with those of asymptomatic (AS) patients (S: 15.8 +/- 13.5 particles vs. AS: 9.8 +/- 8.7 particles, P = 0.002; S: 507 +/- 389 mum vs. AS: 398 +/- 181 mum, P = 0.03; respectively). Filters from CAD patients also had a greater number of particles, but trended toward smaller minimum size than those in non-CAD patients (CAD: 14.4 +/- 12.8 particles vs. non-CAD: 8.8 +/- 7.4 particles, P = 0.002; CAD: 167 +/- 172 mum vs. 228 +/- 203 mum, P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the presence of preprocedural neurologic symptoms and a history of CAD are associated with increased embolization during CAS. Therefore, the benefit of carotid stenting should be tempered by the potential for increased perioperative events in both symptomatic and CAD patients.
Assessing stroke risk in carotid stenting: Grey scale median and debris analysis predict greater risk for cerebral emboli in symptomatic patients [Meeting Abstract]
Chung, Christine; Gordon, Ronald E.; Shah, Tejas R.; Marin, Michael L.; Faries, Peter L.
Improved hemodynamic outcomes with glycopyrrolate over atropine in carotid angioplasty and stenting
Chung, Christine; Cayne, Neal S; Adelman, Mark A; Riles, Thomas S; Lamparello, Patrick; Han, Daniel; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L
OBJECTIVE: Prophylactic atropine traditionally has been used to prevent CAS-associated hemodynamic depression. Glycopyrrolate may serve as an alternative with decreased cardiac effects. This study aims to compare the efficacy of prophylactic glycopyrrolate to atropine in preventing CAS-induced hemodynamic instability and cardiac complications. METHODS: 115 consecutive CAS patients from 2004-2010 were evaluated. Primary endpoints were stroke, MI, bradycardia (HR<60 beats/min), and hypotension (systolic BP <90 mm Hg). Additional outcomes included tachycardia (HR >100 beats/min), hypertension (systolic BP >160 mm Hg), pre- and postoperative systolic BP difference, vasopressor use, arrhythmias, cardiac enzyme elevations, and access site complications. RESULTS: Of 115 patients, 65 (56.5%) patients who received atropine or glycopyrrolate prior to CAS were analyzed [40 (61.5%) patients received glycopyrrolate, 25 (38.5%) received atropine]. Mean age was 70.0 +/- 8.5 years (range, 48-86 years). Mean stenosis was 86.2 +/- 7.4% (range, 70-99%). No MI, major stroke, or death was observed in the 30-day postoperative period. Baseline systolic BP and HR were equivalent between groups. Postoperative bradycardia and hypotension were significantly lower in glycopyrrolate patients compared with atropine patients (30% vs 72%, P = .002; 2.5% vs 36%, P < .001, respectively). Postoperative hypertension was also significantly lower in the glycopyrrolate cohort (2.5% vs 16%, P = .047), whereas tachycardia, pressure changes, vasopressor use, and cardiac complications did not differ significantly. No significant differences in neurologic and access site complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic glycopyrrolate, compared with atropine, reduces hemodynamic instability during CAS. The authors recommend glycopyrrolate use to prevent CAS-induced bradycardia and hypotension