Bedside Ultrasound for Guiding Fluid Removal in Patients with Pulmonary Edema: The Reverse-FALLS Protocol
Fluid retention is the most common risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular complications in patients with volume-overloaded disease states. The extent of diuresis or fluid removal is frequently determined by physical examination which is subject to inaccuracies. Bedside ultrasound (US) is a portable tool that brings real-time diagnostic imaging to the patient's bedside. This versatile modality makes it possible for the clinician to investigate patients' extravascular and intravascular volume states. The extravascular volume, particularly in the case of pulmonary edema, can be quantitatively assessed by US of the anterior chest. Intravascular volume is estimated by visualizing the inferior vena cava (IVC) caliber. Taken together, the degree of extravascular lung water and the IVC caliber provide objective data that can guide the clinician to determine the level of diuresis needed to effectively yet safely treat pulmonary edema. The objective of this article is threefold: 1) to summarize the findings of previous studies on the efficacy of portable US to guide fluid management, 2) to describe a proposed ultrasound protocol to help guide fluid management, and 3) to elucidate techniques that address the measurement of intravascular and extravascular volumes using portable US.
Monitoring the Relationship Between Changes in Cerebral Oxygenation and Electroencephalography Patterns During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Feasibility Study
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To date, no studies have examined real-time electroencephalography and cerebral oximetry monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as markers of the magnitude of global ischemia. We therefore sought to assess the feasibility of combining cerebral oximetry and electroencephalography in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation and further to evaluate the electroencephalography patterns during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and their relationship with cerebral oxygenation as measured by cerebral oximetry. DESIGN/METHODS:Extended case series of in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest subjects. SETTING/METHODS:Tertiary Medical Center. PATIENTS/METHODS:Inclusion criteria: Convenience sample of 16 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation during working hours between March 2014 and March 2015, greater than or equal to 18 years. A portable electroencephalography (Legacy; SedLine, Masimo, Irvine, CA) and cerebral oximetry (Equanox 7600; Nonin Medical, Plymouth, MN) system was used to measure cerebral resuscitation quality. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:Real-time regional cerebral oxygen saturation and electroencephalography readings were observed during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The regional cerebral oxygen saturation values and electroencephalography patterns were not used to manage patients by clinical staff. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:In total, 428 electroencephalography images from 16 subjects were gathered; 40.7% (n = 174/428) were artifactual, therefore 59.3% (n = 254/428) were interpretable. All 16 subjects had interpretable images. Interpretable versus noninterpretable images were not related to a function of time or duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation but to artifacts that were introduced to the raw data such as diaphoresis, muscle movement, or electrical interference. Interpretable data were able to be obtained immediately after application of the electrode strip. Seven distinct electroencephalography patterns were identified. Voltage suppression was commonest and seen during 78% of overall cardiopulmonary resuscitation time and in 15 of 16 subjects at some point during their cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other observed patterns and their relative prevalence in relation to overall cardiopulmonary resuscitation time were theta background activity 8%, delta background activity 5%, bi frontotemporal periodic discharge 4%, burst suppression 2%, spike and wave 2%, and rhythmic delta activity 1%. Eight of 16 subjects had greater than one interpretable pattern. At regional cerebral oxygen saturation levels less than or equal to 19%, the observed electroencephalography pattern was exclusively voltage suppression. Delta background activity was only observed at regional cerebral oxygen saturation levels greater than 40%. The remaining patterns were observed throughout regional cerebral oxygen saturation categories above a threshold of 20%. CONCLUSIONS:Real-time monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and function during cardiac arrest resuscitation is feasible. Although voltage suppression is the commonest electroencephalography pattern, other distinct patterns exist that may correlate with the quality of cerebral resuscitation and oxygen delivery.
Making sense of clinical outcomes following cardiac arrest
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the recent literature on clinical outcomes in adults with cardiac arrest, focusing on the impact of patient-specific factors in combination with cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) related, and postresuscitative-related factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiac arrest is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the use of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation, rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival with minimal neurologic impairment remain low. A number of recent studies have examined the impact of patient-specific factors (duration of cardiac arrest, initial rhythm, age, premorbid states), CPR-related (the use of mechanical CPR, the use of impedance threshold device, vasopressors, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, active compression-decompression, and impedance threshold device), and postresuscitative-related factors (hypothermia, coronary angiography, hyperoxia, hyper/hypocapnia, mean arterial blood pressure) on cardiac arrest outcomes. SUMMARY: Further studies, namely randomized controlled trials, assessing the impact of advanced therapies are warranted to evaluate their impact on survival and neurologic function in adults with cardiac arrest.
Can the Renin-Angiostensin System (RAS) Be Modulated to Attenuate Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) Viral Infection? [Meeting Abstract]
The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS): A Potential Target for Anti-fibrotic Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) Viral Infection [Meeting Abstract]