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Pericardial Effusions in Patients With Cancer: Anesthetic Management and Survival Outcomes

Chai, Casey M; Seier, Kenneth; Tan, Kay See; Chu, Iris; Isbell, James M; Fischer, Gregory W; Afonso, Anoushka M
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to describe practice patterns of anesthetic management during pericardial window creation. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:Single tertiary cancer center. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:A total of 150 patients treated for cancer between 2011 and 2015 were included in the study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:The primary objective was to evaluate anesthetic management in pericardial window creation. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and overall survival after pericardial window creation. Thirty-day mortality was 19.3%, and median survival was 5.84 months. Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status of patients was associated with preinduction arterial line placement (51% ASA 3 v 79% ASA 4; p = 0.002) and use of etomidate for anesthetic induction (34% ASA 3 v 60% ASA 4; p = 0.003). However, there was no association between anesthetic management and presence of tamponade in these patients. Cardiac aspirate volume (per 10 mL: odds ratio [OR], 1.02 [95% CI, 1.0-1.04]; p = 0.026) and intraoperative arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation: OR, 6.76 [95% CI, 1.2-37.49]; p = 0.029; sinus tachycardia: OR, 4.59 [95% CI, 1.25-16.90]; p = 0.022) were associated independently with increased 30-day mortality. High initial heart rate (per 10 beats per minute: hazard ratio [HR], 1.18 [95% CI, 1.05-1.33]; p = 0.005) in the operating room and intraoperative sinus tachycardia (HR, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.15-3.03]; p = 0.012) were associated independently with worse overall survival. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Risk of death after pericardial window creation remains high in patients with cancer. Variations in anesthetic management did not affect survival in oncologic patients with pericardial effusions.
PMID: 32967792
ISSN: 1532-8422
CID: 5339432

Metabolic Disorders and Anesthesia

Yeoh, Cindy; Teng, Howard; Jackson, Jacob; Hingula, Lee; Irie, Takeshi; Legler, Aron; Levine, Corrine; Chu, Iris; Chai, Casey; Tollinche, Luis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Metabolic disorders encompass a group of inherited inborn errors of metabolism that are uncommonly encountered but can pose challenges when encountered during the perioperative period. Hence, it is paramount that anesthesiologists are experienced and familiar with management of these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Hundreds of inborn errors of metabolism have already been identified, yet new metabolic disorders continue to be discovered with advancements in genomic science. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:In our general review, we define the more common metabolic disorders encountered in perioperative medicine and discuss the perioperative anesthetic considerations and challenges associated with each disorder. The following disorders are covered in our review: disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, disorders of amino acid metabolism, disorders of branched-chain amino acid metabolism, organic acidemias, mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, metal metabolism disorders, and urea cycle disorders.
PMID: 31406490
ISSN: 1523-3855
CID: 5339442

Effect of Insurance Status on Surgical Outcomes After Colectomies [Meeting Abstract]

Chai, Casey M.; White, Robert S.; Sastow, Dahniel; Gaber-Baylis, Licia; Pryor, Kane O.; Fleischut, Peter M.; Turnbull, Zachary A.
ISSN: 0003-2999
CID: 5347402

Stress and glucocorticoids promote oligodendrogenesis in the adult hippocampus

Chetty, Sundari; Friedman, Aaron R; Taravosh-Lahn, Kereshmeh; Kirby, Elizabeth D; Mirescu, Christian; Guo, Fuzheng; Krupik, Danna; Nicholas, Andrea; Geraghty, Anna; Krishnamurthy, Amrita; Tsai, Meng-Ko; Covarrubias, David; Wong, Alana; Francis, Darlene; Sapolsky, Robert M; Palmer, Theo D; Pleasure, David; Kaufer, Daniela
Stress can exert long-lasting changes on the brain that contribute to vulnerability to mental illness, yet mechanisms underlying this long-term vulnerability are not well understood. We hypothesized that stress may alter the production of oligodendrocytes in the adult brain, providing a cellular and structural basis for stress-related disorders. We found that immobilization stress decreased neurogenesis and increased oligodendrogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult rat hippocampus and that injections of the rat glucocorticoid stress hormone corticosterone (cort) were sufficient to replicate this effect. The DG contains a unique population of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) that give rise to adult newborn neurons, but oligodendrogenic potential has not been demonstrated in vivo. We used a nestin-CreER/YFP transgenic mouse line for lineage tracing and found that cort induces oligodendrogenesis from nestin-expressing NSCs in vivo. Using hippocampal NSCs cultured in vitro, we further showed that exposure to cort induced a pro-oligodendrogenic transcriptional program and resulted in an increase in oligodendrogenesis and decrease in neurogenesis, which was prevented by genetic blockade of glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Together, these results suggest a novel model in which stress may alter hippocampal function by promoting oligodendrogenesis, thereby altering the cellular composition and white matter structure.
PMID: 24514565
ISSN: 1476-5578
CID: 5347392

Novel hydrogel application in minimally invasive surgical approaches to spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Report of 2 cases [Case Report]

Chai, Casey M; Banu, Matei A; Cobb, William; Mehta, Neel; Heier, Linda; Boockvar, John A
The authors report 2 cases of orthostatic headaches associated with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) secondary to CSF leaks that were successfully treated with an alternative dural repair technique in which a tubular retractor system and a hydrogel dural sealant were used. The 2 patients, a 63-year-old man and a 45-year-old woman, presented with orthostatic headache associated with SIH secondary to suspected lumbar and lower cervical CSF leaks, respectively, as indicated by bony defects or epidural fluid collection. Epidural blood patch repair failed in both cases, but both were successfully treated with the minimally invasive application of a hydrogel dural sealant as a novel adjunct to traditional dural repair techniques. Both patients tolerated the procedure well. Moreover, SIH symptoms and MRI signs were completely resolved at 1-month follow-up in both patients. The minimally invasive dural repair procedure with hydrogel dural sealant described here offers a viable alternative in patients in whom epidural blood patches have failed, with obscure recalcitrant CSF leaks at the cervical as well as lumbar spinal level. The authors demonstrate that the adjuvant use of sealant is a safe and efficient repair method regardless of dural defect location.
PMID: 25084466
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5339422