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Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase 1 and Phosphorylated Axonal Neurofilament Heavy Chain in Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: Preliminary Assessment as Potential Biomarkers of Brain Injury

Lee, Timothy; Chikkabyrappa, Sathish M; Reformina, Diane; Mastrippolito, Amanda; Chakravarti, Sujata B; Mosca, Ralph S; Shaw, Gerry; Malhotra, Sunil P
BACKGROUND:There are no reliable markers to assess brain injury in neonates following cardiac surgery. We examine ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) and phosphorylated axonal neurofilament heavy chain (pNF-H), neuronal-specific biomarkers released following axonal and cortical injury, in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). METHODS:Twenty-six patients younger than three months were prospectively enrolled (CPB only, n = 12 and DHCA, n = 14). Healthy newborns (n = 22) served as the control. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and postoperatively upon intensive care unit admission (hour 0) and subsequently at 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Serum was tested for UCHL1 and pNF-H using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concomitant arterial blood gas, lactate, and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring were performed. RESULTS:Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 showed a significant rise at 0 hours in the DHCA group compared to baseline (74.9 ± 13.7 pg/mL vs 33.9 ± 37.3 pg/mL, P < .0001). Levels returned to baseline at 12 hours. There was an early rise in UCHL1 at 0 hours in the CPB group, P = .09. Phosphorylated axonal neurofilament heavy chain was decreased at 0 hours in both the CPB and DHCA groups compared to baseline, P = .06. There was no difference between control and baseline levels of UCHL1 ( P = .9) or pNF-H ( P = .77). Decreased NIRS was observed in the DHCA group at 0 hours (57.3 ± 10.5) versus baseline (64.2 ± 12.3), but not significant ( P = .21). There was no correlation between biomarkers and NIRS at 0 hours. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A rapid rise in UCHL1 levels was observed in the DHCA group, suggesting that it may be a marker for acute brain injury. Follow-up with neurodevelopmental studies is ongoing.
PMID: 29945509
ISSN: 2150-136x
CID: 3162512

Use of Tolvaptan in a Patient With Palliated Congenital Heart Disease

Chakravarti, Sujata; Busovsky-McNeal, Melissa
Heart failure is a common problem in the ever growing population of patients with palliated congenital heart disease. It is frequently complicated by hyponatremia that has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Tolvaptan is a vasopressin receptor antagonist that has been effective in improving hyponatremia and congestive symptoms in adults with chronic heart failure. We describe the short-term use of tolvaptan to treat hyponatremic hypervolemia in an adolescent patient with chronic heart failure in the setting of palliated congenital heart disease prior to definitive surgical intervention. In this case, the patient had improvement in hyponatremia and a decrease in body weight, without any adverse effects.
PMID: 27613391
ISSN: 2150-136x
CID: 2238862

Surgical planning for a complex double-outlet right ventricle using 3D printing

Bhatla, Puneet; Tretter, Justin T; Chikkabyrappa, Sathish; Chakravarti, Sujata; Mosca, Ralph S
Rapid prototyping may be beneficial in properly selected cases of complex congenital heart disease, providing detailed anatomical understanding that helps to guide potential surgical and cardiac catheterization interventions. We present a case of double-outlet right ventricle, where the decision to obtain a three-dimensional printed model helped for better understanding of the anatomy, with the additional advantage of surgical simulation in planning the surgical approach and type of surgical repair.
PMID: 28317159
ISSN: 1540-8175
CID: 2499282

Utility and Scope of Rapid Prototyping in Patients with Complex Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects or Double-Outlet Right Ventricle: Does it Alter Management Decisions?

Bhatla, Puneet; Tretter, Justin T; Ludomirsky, Achi; Argilla, Michael; Latson, Larry A Jr; Chakravarti, Sujata; Barker, Piers C; Yoo, Shi-Joon; McElhinney, Doff B; Wake, Nicole; Mosca, Ralph S
Rapid prototyping facilitates comprehension of complex cardiac anatomy. However, determining when this additional information proves instrumental in patient management remains a challenge. We describe our experience with patient-specific anatomic models created using rapid prototyping from various imaging modalities, suggesting their utility in surgical and interventional planning in congenital heart disease (CHD). Virtual and physical 3-dimensional (3D) models were generated from CT or MRI data, using commercially available software for patients with complex muscular ventricular septal defects (CMVSD) and double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). Six patients with complex anatomy and uncertainty of the optimal management strategy were included in this study. The models were subsequently used to guide management decisions, and the outcomes reviewed. 3D models clearly demonstrated the complex intra-cardiac anatomy in all six patients and were utilized to guide management decisions. In the three patients with CMVSD, one underwent successful endovascular device closure following a prior failed attempt at transcatheter closure, and the other two underwent successful primary surgical closure with the aid of 3D models. In all three cases of DORV, the models provided better anatomic delineation and additional information that altered or confirmed the surgical plan. Patient-specific 3D heart models show promise in accurately defining intra-cardiac anatomy in CHD, specifically CMVSD and DORV. We believe these models improve understanding of the complex anatomical spatial relationships in these defects and provide additional insight for pre/intra-interventional management and surgical planning.
PMID: 27837304
ISSN: 1432-1971
CID: 2304632

Complexity of ranolazine and phenytoin use in an infant with long QT syndrome type 3

Tan, Reina Bianca; Chakravarti, Sujata; Busovsky-McNeal, Melissa; Walsh, Abigail; Cecchin, Frank
PMID: 28491780
ISSN: 2214-0271
CID: 2549092

Virtual radiology rounds: adding value in the digital era

Fefferman, Nancy R; Strubel, Naomi A; Prithiani, Chandan; Chakravarti, Sujata; Caprio, Martha; Recht, Michael P
BACKGROUND: To preserve radiology rounds in the changing health care environment, we have introduced virtual radiology rounds, an initiative enabling clinicians to remotely review imaging studies with the radiologist. OBJECTIVE: We describe our initial experience with virtual radiology rounds and referring provider impressions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virtual radiology rounds, a web-based conference, use remote sharing of radiology workstations. Participants discuss imaging studies by speakerphone. Virtual radiology rounds were piloted with the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the Congenital Cardiovascular Care Unit (CCVCU). Providers completed a survey assessing the perceived impact and overall value of virtual radiology rounds on patient care using a 10-point scale. Pediatric radiologists participating in virtual radiology rounds completed a survey assessing technical, educational and clinical aspects of this methodology. RESULTS: Sixteen providers responded to the survey; 9 NICU and 7 CCVCU staff (physicians, nurse practitioners and fellows). Virtual radiology rounds occurred 4-5 sessions/week with an average of 6.4 studies. Clinicians rated confidence in their own image interpretation with a 7.4 average rating for NICU and 7.5 average rating for CCVCU. Clinicians unanimously rated virtual radiology rounds as adding value. NICU staff preferred virtual radiology rounds to traditional rounds and CCVCU staff supported their new participation in virtual radiology rounds. Four of the five pediatric radiologists participating in virtual radiology rounds responded to the survey reporting virtual radiology rounds to be easy to facilitate (average rating: 9.3), to moderately impact interpretation of imaging studies (average rating: 6), and to provide substantial educational value for radiologists (average rating: 8.3). All pediatric radiologists felt strongly that virtual radiology rounds enable increased integration of the radiologist into the clinical care team (average rating: 8.8). CONCLUSION: Virtual radiology rounds are a viable alternative to radiology rounds enabling improved patient care and education of providers.
PMID: 27488506
ISSN: 1432-1998
CID: 2199502

Novel Use of an Ultrafiltration Device as an Alternative Method for Fluid Removal in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients with Cardiac Disease: A Case Series

Chakravarti, Sujata; Al-Qaqaa, Yasir; Faulkner, Meghan; Bhatla, Puneet; Argilla, Michael; Ramirez, Michelle
Fluid overload (FO) is a common complication for pediatric patients in the intensive care unit. When conventional therapy fails, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is classically used for fluid removal. Unfortunately, these therapies are often associated with cardiovascular or respiratory instability. Ultrafiltration, using devices such as the Aquadex system (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, USA), is an effective tool for fluid removal in adult patients with congestive heart failure. As compared to hemodialysis, ultrafiltration can be performed using smaller catheters, and the extracorporeal volume and minimal blood flow rates are lower. In addition, there is no associated abdominal distension as is seen in peritoneal dialysis. Consequently, ultrafiltration may be better tolerated in critically ill pediatric patients. We present three cases of challenging pediatric patients with FO in the setting of congenital heart disease in whom ultrafiltration using the Aquadex system was successfully utilized for fluid removal while cardiorespiratory stability was maintained.
PMID: 27433308
ISSN: 2036-749x
CID: 2184952

Procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial infection in pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery

Chakravarti, Sujata B; Reformina, Diane A; Lee, Timothy M; Malhotra, Sunil P; Mosca, Ralph S; Bhatla, Puneet
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infection (BI) after congenital heart surgery (CHS) is associated with increased morbidity and is difficult to differentiate from systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a reliable biomarker of BI in various populations. AIM: To determine the optimal PCT threshold to identify BI among children suspected of having infection following CPB. SETTING AND DESIGN: Single-center retrospective observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of all the patients admitted between January 2013 and April 2015 were reviewed. Patients in the age range of 0-21 years of age who underwent CHS requiring CPB in whom PCT was drawn between postoperative days 0-8 due to suspicion of infection were included. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for nonparametric variables. The diagnostic performance of PCT was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients were included. The median age was 2 months (25th and 75th interquartile of 0.1-7.5 months). Eleven patients were included in the BI group. The median PCT for the BI group (3.42 ng/mL, 25th and 75th interquartile of 2.34-5.67) was significantly higher than the median PCT for the noninfected group (0.8 ng/mL, 25th and 75th interquartile 0.38-3.39), P = 0.028. The PCT level that yielded the best compromise between the sensitivity (81.8%) and specificity (66.7%) was 2 ng/mL with an area under the ROC curve of 0.742. CONCLUSION: A PCT less than 2 ng/mL makes BI unlikely in children suspected of infection after CHS.
PMID: 27212844
ISSN: 0974-2069
CID: 2114492

Utility of rapid prototyping in complex DORV: Does it alter management decisions? [Meeting Abstract]

Bhatla, P; Chakravarti, S; Latson, L A; Sodickson, D K; Mosca, R S; Wake, N
Background: Complex ventricular-arterial (VA) relationships in patients with double outlet right ventricle (DORV) make preoperative assessment of potential repair pathways challenging. The relationship of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) to one or both great arteries must be understood and this influences the choice of surgical procedure [1] In neonates and infants with DORV, Computed Tomography (CT) is often performed due to the ability to get high spatial resolution and ECG gated images [2], however it is possible to get the necessary information from Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging with an added advantage of avoiding exposure to ionizing radiation. Both CT and MR allow image acquisition in three dimensions (3D) but traditional viewing of the anatomy using the multiplanar reformatting is actually done in two dimensions (2D). Volume rendering from either modality may also be performed, but typically only the external vascular anatomy is depicted. We hypothesized that it is possible to accurately define the intracardiac anatomy in infants with DORV using virtual and physical 3D printed (rapid prototyped) models created from either MR or CT and this can both aid in better defining potential VA pathways and may assist in surgical decision making. Methods: Virtual and physical 3D models were generated for three patients with DORV. Non-ECG-gated 3D spoiled fast gradient echo sequence MR angiography was used for two patients. Retrospective ECG gated CT angiography images acquired in diastole were used in the third patient (to better define the coronary arteries given the suspicion of a single coronary artery by echocardiography). Blood pool segmentation (Figure 1a) was performed in all the three patients (Mimics, Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). A 2 mm shell was added to the blood pool and it was hollowed to create a patient specific heart replica (3-matic, Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). All virtual models were cut to best demonstrate the VA relationships and the models were printed. Results: The VSD and VA relationships were well visualized in all three patients using both the virtual and physical models (Figure 1b,c). The models helped the surgeons better understand the anatomy in all patients: in two patients the surgical plan was altered while the plan was confirmed in the third patient (Table 1). Conclusions: Construction of 3D models in patients with DORV is feasible and allows for extensive examination and surgical planning. This may facilitate a focused and informed surgical procedure and improve the potential for successful outcome. For purposes of DORV, non-gated MRA is sufficient to delineate the VA relationships adequately for 3D printing and enhanced clinical decision-making. CT imaging should be reserved for only those patients where additional information like coronary artery anatomy is desired
ISSN: 1097-6647
CID: 1950612


Chakravarti, Sujata; Tan, Reina; Bhatla, Puneet
ISSN: 0090-3493
CID: 3319682