MP-RAVE: IR-Prepared T1 -Weighted Radial Stack-of-Stars 3D GRE imaging with retrospective motion correction
Solomon, Eddy; Lotan, Eyal; Zan, Elcin; Sodickson, Daniel K; Block, Kai Tobias; Chandarana, Hersh
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:-weighted radial stack-of-stars 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequence with comparable image quality to conventional MP-RAGE and to demonstrate how the radial acquisition scheme can be utilized for additional retrospective motion correction to improve robustness to head motion. METHODS:The proposed sequence, named MP-RAVE, has been derived from a previously described radial stack-of-stars 3D GRE sequence (RAVE) and includes a 180° inversion recovery pulse that is generated once for every stack of radial views. The sequence is combined with retrospective 3D motion correction to improve robustness. The effectiveness has been evaluated in phantoms and healthy volunteers and compared to conventional MP-RAGE acquisition. RESULTS:MP-RAGE and MP-RAVE anatomical images were rated "good" to "excellent" in overall image quality, with artifact level between "mild" and "no artifacts", and with no statistically significant difference between methods. During head motion, MP-RAVE showed higher inherent robustness with artifacts confined to local brain regions. In combination with motion correction, MP-RAVE provided noticeably improved image quality during different head motion and showed statistically significant improvement in image sharpness. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:MP-RAVE provides comparable image quality and contrast to conventional MP-RAGE with improved robustness to head motion. In combination with retrospective 3D motion correction, MP-RAVE can be a useful alternative to MP-RAGE, especially in non-cooperative or pediatric patients.
Characterization of motion dependent magnetic field inhomogeneity for DWI in the kidneys
Gilani, Nima; Mikheev, Artem; Brinkmann, Inge M; Basukala, Dibash; Benkert, Thomas; Kumbella, Malika; Babb, James S; Chandarana, Hersh; Sigmund, Eric E
PURPOSE:Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the abdomen has increased dramatically for both research and clinical purposes. Motion and static field inhomogeneity related challenges limit image quality of abdominopelvic imaging with the most conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. While reversed phase encoded imaging is increasingly used to facilitate distortion correction, it typically assumes one motion independent magnetic field distribution. In this study, we describe a more generalized workflow for the case of kidney DWI in which the field inhomogeneity at multiple respiratory phases is mapped and used to correct all images in a multi-contrast DWI series. METHODS:In this HIPAA-compliant and IRB-approved prospective study, 8 volunteers (6 M, ages 28-51) had abdominal imaging performed in a 3 T MRI system (MAGNETOM Prisma; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) with ECG gating. Coronal oblique T2-weighted HASTE images were collected for anatomical reference. Sagittal phase-contrast (PC) MRI images through the left renal artery were collected to determine systolic and diastolic phases. Cardiac triggered oblique coronal DWI were collected at 10 b-values between 0 and 800 s/mm2 and 12 directions. DWI series were distortion corrected using field maps generated by forward and reversed phase encoded b = 0 images collected over the full respiratory cycle and matched by respiratory phase. Morphologic accuracy, intraseries spatial variability, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were compared for results generated with no distortion correction, correction with only one respiratory bin, and correction with multiple respiratory bins across the breathing cycle. RESULTS:Computed field maps showed significant variation in static field with kidney laterality, region, and respiratory phase. Distortion corrected images showed significantly better registration to morphologic images than uncorrected images; for the left kidney, the multiple bin correction outperformed one bin correction. Line profile analysis showed significantly reduced spatial variation with multiple bins than one bin correction. DTI metrics were mostly similar between correction methods, with some differences observed in MD between uncorrected and corrected datasets. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate improved morphology of kidney DWI and derived parametric maps as well as reduced variability over the full image series using the motion-resolved distortion correction. This work highlights some morphologic and quantitative metric improvements can be obtained for kidney DWI when distortion correction is performed in a respiratory-resolved manner.
Kz-accelerated variable-density stack-of-stars MRI
Li, Zhitao; Huang, Chenchan; Tong, Angela; Chandarana, Hersh; Feng, Li
This work aimed to develop a modified stack-of-stars golden-angle radial sampling scheme with variable-density acceleration along the slice (kz) dimension (referred to as VD-stack-of-stars) and to test this new sampling trajectory with multi-coil compressed sensing reconstruction for rapid motion-robust 3D liver MRI. VD-stack-of-stars sampling implements additional variable-density undersampling along the kz dimension, so that slice resolution (or volumetric coverage) can be increased without prolonging scan time. The new sampling trajectory (with increased slice resolution) was compared with standard stack-of-stars sampling with fully sampled kz (with standard slice resolution) in both non-contrast-enhanced free-breathing liver MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of the liver in volunteers. For both sampling trajectories, respiratory motion was extracted from the acquired radial data, and images were reconstructed using motion-compensated (respiratory-resolved or respiratory-weighted) dynamic radial compressed sensing reconstruction techniques. Qualitative image quality assessment (visual assessment by experienced radiologists) and quantitative analysis (as a metric of image sharpness) were performed to compare images acquired using the new and standard stack-of-stars sampling trajectories. Compared to standard stack-of-stars sampling, both non-contrast-enhanced and DCE liver MR images acquired with VD-stack-of-stars sampling presented improved overall image quality, sharper liver edges and increased hepatic vessel clarity in all image planes. The results have suggested that the proposed VD-stack-of-stars sampling scheme can achieve improved performance (increased slice resolution or volumetric coverage with better image quality) over standard stack-of-stars sampling in free-breathing DCE-MRI without increasing scan time. The reformatted coronal and sagittal images with better slice resolution may provide added clinical value.
Impact of 3D printed models on quantitative surgical outcomes for patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy: a cohort study
Wake, Nicole; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Huang, Richard; Ginocchio, Luke A; Wysock, James S; Taneja, Samir S; Huang, William C; Chandarana, Hersh
BACKGROUND:Three-dimensional (3D) printed anatomic models can facilitate presurgical planning by providing surgeons with detailed knowledge of the exact location of pertinent anatomical structures. Although 3D printed anatomic models have been shown to be useful for pre-operative planning, few studies have demonstrated how these models can influence quantitative surgical metrics. OBJECTIVE:To prospectively assess whether patient-specific 3D printed prostate cancer models can improve quantitative surgical metrics in patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). METHODS:Patients with MRI-visible prostate cancer (PI-RADS V2 ≥ 3) scheduled to undergo RARP were prospectively enrolled in our IRB approved study (n = 82). Quantitative surgical metrics included the rate of positive surgical margins (PSMs), operative times, and blood loss. A qualitative Likert scale survey to assess understanding of anatomy and confidence regarding surgical approach was also implemented. RESULTS:The rate of PSMs was lower for the 3D printed model group (8.11%) compared to that with imaging only (28.6%), p = 0.128. The 3D printed model group had a 9-min reduction in operating time (213 ± 42 min vs. 222 ± 47 min) and a 5 mL reduction in average blood loss (227 ± 148 mL vs. 232 ± 114 mL). Surgeon anatomical understanding and confidence improved after reviewing the 3D printed models (3.60 ± 0.74 to 4.20 ± 0.56, p = 0.62 and 3.86 ± 0.53 to 4.20 ± 0.56, p = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS:3D printed prostate cancer models can positively impact quantitative patient outcomes such as PSMs, operative times, and blood loss in patients undergoing RARP.
Comparison of a Deep Learning-Accelerated vs. Conventional T2-Weighted Sequence in Biparametric MRI of the Prostate
Tong, Angela; Bagga, Barun; Petrocelli, Robert; Smereka, Paul; Vij, Abhinav; Qian, Kun; Grimm, Robert; Kamen, Ali; Keerthivasan, Mahesh B; Nickel, Marcel Dominik; von Busch, Heinrich; Chandarana, Hersh
BACKGROUND:Demand for prostate MRI is increasing, but scan times remain long even in abbreviated biparametric MRIs (bpMRI). Deep learning can be leveraged to accelerate T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare conventional bpMRIs (CL-bpMRI) with bpMRIs including a deep learning-accelerated T2WI (DL-bpMRI) in diagnosing prostate cancer. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Retrospective. POPULATION/METHODS:Eighty consecutive men, mean age 66 years (47-84) with suspected prostate cancer or prostate cancer on active surveillance who had a prostate MRI from December 28, 2020 to April 28, 2021 were included. Follow-up included prostate biopsy or stability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for 1 year. FIELD STRENGTH AND SEQUENCES/UNASSIGNED:. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:CL-bpMRI and DL-bpMRI including the same conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were presented to three radiologists (blinded to acquisition method) and to a deep learning computer-assisted detection algorithm (DL-CAD). The readers evaluated image quality using a 4-point Likert scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 4 = excellent) and graded lesions using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) v2.1. DL-CAD identified and assigned lesions of PI-RADS 3 or greater. STATISTICAL TESTS/METHODS:Quality metrics were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were compared using Delong's test. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:P = 0.05. RESULTS:Eighty men were included (age: 66 ± 9 years; 17/80 clinically significant prostate cancer). Overall image quality results by the three readers (CL-T2, DL-T2) are reader 1: 3.72 ± 0.53, 3.89 ± 0.39 (P = 0.99); reader 2: 3.33 ± 0.82, 3.31 ± 0.74 (P = 0.49); reader 3: 3.67 ± 0.63, 3.51 ± 0.62. In the patient-based analysis, the reader results of AUC are (CL-bpMRI, DL-bpMRI): reader 1: 0.77, 0.78 (P = 0.98), reader 2: 0.65, 0.66 (P = 0.99), reader 3: 0.57, 0.60 (P = 0.52). Diagnostic statistics from DL-CAD (CL-bpMRI, DL-bpMRI) are sensitivity (0.71, 0.71, P = 1.00), specificity (0.59, 0.44, P = 0.05), positive predictive value (0.23, 0.24, P = 0.25), negative predictive value (0.88, 0.88, P = 0.48). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Deep learning-accelerated T2-weighted imaging may potentially be used to decrease acquisition time for bpMRI. EVIDENCE LEVEL/METHODS:3. TECHNICAL EFFICACY/UNASSIGNED:Stage 2.
Pancreatic Cystic Lesions: Next Generation of Radiologic Assessment
Huang, Chenchan; Chopra, Sumit; Bolan, Candice W.; Chandarana, Hersh; Harfouch, Nassier; Hecht, Elizabeth M.; Lo, Grace C.; Megibow, Alec J.
Accelerated T2-weighted MRI of the liver at 3Â T using a single-shot technique with deep learning-based image reconstruction: impact on the image quality and lesion detection
Ginocchio, Luke A; Smereka, Paul N; Tong, Angela; Prabhu, Vinay; Nickel, Dominik; Arberet, Simon; Chandarana, Hersh; Shanbhogue, Krishna P
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (T2-FS) requires a long scan time and can be wrought with motion artifacts, urging the development of a shorter and more motion robust sequence. We compare the image quality of a single-shot T2-weighted MRI prototype with deep-learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) with a standard T2-FS sequence for 3Â T liver MRI. METHODS:41 consecutive patients with 3Â T abdominal MRI examinations including standard T2-FS and DL HASTE-FS, between 5/6/2020 and 11/23/2020, comprised the study cohort. Three radiologists independently reviewed images using a 5-point Likert scale for artifact and image quality measures, while also assessing for liver lesions. RESULTS:DL HASTE-FS acquisition time was 54.93â€‰Â±â€‰16.69, significantly (pâ€‰<â€‰.001) shorter than standard T2-FS (114.00â€‰Â±â€‰32.98Â s). DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of liver margin (4.3 vs 3.3; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), hepatic vessel margin (4.2 vs 3.3; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), pancreatic duct margin (4.0 vs 1.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001); in-plane (4.0 vs 3.2; pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and through-plane (3.9 vs 3.4; pâ€‰<â€‰.001) motion artifacts; other ghosting artifacts (4.3 vs 2.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001); and overall image quality (4.0 vs 2.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), in addition to receiving a higher score for homogeneity of fat suppression (3.7 vs 3.4; pâ€‰=â€‰.04) and liver-fat contrast (pâ€‰=â€‰.03). For liver lesions, DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of lesion margin (4.4 vs 3.7; pâ€‰=â€‰.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Novel single-shot T2-weighted MRI with deep-learning-based image reconstruction demonstrated superior image quality compared with the standard T2-FS sequence for 3Â T liver MRI, while being acquired in less than half the time.
Cardiac Phase and Flow Compensation Effects on REnal Flow and Microstructure AnisotroPy MRI in Healthy Human Kidney
Sigmund, Eric E; Mikheev, Artem; Brinkmann, Inge M; Gilani, Nima; Babb, James S; Basukala, Dibash; Benkert, Thomas; Veraart, Jelle; Chandarana, Hersh
BACKGROUND:Renal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) involves microstructure and microcirculation, quantified with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), and hybrid models. A better understanding of their contrast may increase specificity. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To measure modulation of DWI with cardiac phase and flow-compensated (FC) diffusion gradient waveforms. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Prospective. POPULATION/METHODS:Six healthy volunteers (ages: 22-48 years, five females), water phantom. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:3-T, prototype DWI sequence with 2D echo-planar imaging, and bipolar (BP) or FC gradients. 2D Half-Fourier Single-shot Turbo-spin-Echo (HASTE). Multiple-phase 2D spoiled gradient-echo phase contrast (PC) MRI. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:), for each tissue (cortex/medulla, segmented on b0/FA respectively), phase, and waveform (BP, FC). Monte Carlo water diffusion simulations aided data interpretation. STATISTICAL TESTS/METHODS:Mixed model regression probed differences between tissue types and pulse sequences. Univariate general linear model analysis probed variations among cardiac phases. Spearman correlations were measured between diffusion metrics and renal artery velocities. Statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS:, MD for FC. FA correlated significantly with velocity. Monte Carlo simulations indicated medullary measurements were consistent with a 34 μm tubule diameter. DATA CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac gating and flow compensation modulate of measurements of renal diffusion. EVIDENCE LEVEL/METHODS:2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.
Factors affecting MRI scanner efficiency in an academic center
Smereka, Paul; Weng, Jonathan; Block, Kai Tobias; Chandarana, Hersh
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine which patient characteristics influence MRI scan time and how. METHODS:A database search of outpatient MRI liver examinations on 1.5T and 3T scanners from 1/1/2019 to 4/4/2019 was performed using an in-house developed software tool. Mean and median scan times were calculated. Patients who had difficulty following breathing instructions or completing breath-hold sequences were identified. Twenty-one additional patient characteristics were obtained from an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) search. RESULTS:Scan times were significantly increased for patients with breath-holding issues during the exam (Nâ€‰=â€‰43, medianâ€‰=â€‰23.98Â min) versus not (Nâ€‰=â€‰179, medianâ€‰=â€‰17.5Â min, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Among patients who had difficulty following breathing instructions/completing breath-hold sequences, a significant number were non-native English speakers (23/43, 53%) compared to those whose first language was English (48/179, 27%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Breath-holding issues were also significantly more frequent for patients requiring a translator during the exam (15/43, 35%) versus those who did not (24/179, 13%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). No other patient characteristics showed a significance difference between those with breathing issues and those without. Patient characteristics that caused a significant number of scan times to be one standard deviation or more above the median were as follows: Breath-holding issues during exam (21/43â€‰â‰¥â€‰one SD above, 51%, versus 22/189â€‰<â€‰one SD above, 12%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001); and first language not English (16/71â€‰â‰¥â€‰one SD above, 23%, versus 55/189â€‰<â€‰one SD above, 29%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The ability to follow breathing instructions and complete breath-hold sequences had a significant impact on patient scan time. Patients who were not native English speakers had more frequent breathing issues during scans and significantly longer scans times compared native English speakers.
Standardization of MRI Screening and Reporting in Individuals With Elevated Risk of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Consensus Statement of the PRECEDE Consortium
Huang, Chenchan; Simeone, Diane M; Luk, Lyndon; Hecht, Elizabeth M; Khatri, Gaurav; Kambadakone, Avinash; Chandarana, Hersh; Ream, Justin M; Everett, Jessica N; Guimaraes, Alexander; Liau, Joy; Dasyam, Anil K; Harmath, Carla; Megibow, Alec J
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies, with a dismal survival rate. Screening the general population for early detection of PDAC is not recommended, but because early detection improves survival, high-risk individuals, defined as those meeting criteria based on a family history of PDAC and/or the presence of known pathogenic germline variant genes with PDAC risk, are recommended to undergo screening with MRI and/or endoscopic ultrasound at regular intervals. The Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection (PRECEDE) Consortium was formed in 2018 and is composed of gastroenterologists, geneticists, pancreatic surgeons, radiologists, statisticians, and researchers from 40 sites in North America, Europe, and Asia. The overarching goal of the PRECEDE Consortium is to facilitate earlier diagnosis of PDAC for high-risk individuals to increase survival of the disease. A standardized MRI protocol and reporting template are needed to enhance the quality of screening examinations, improve consistency of clinical management, and facilitate multiinstitutional research. We present a consensus statement to standardize MRI screening and reporting for individuals with elevated risk of pancreatic cancer.