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Age-Dependent Changes in Knee Cartilage T1 , T2 , and T1p Simultaneously Measured Using MRI Fingerprinting

Kijowski, Richard; Sharafi, Azadeh; Zibetti, Marcelo V W; Chang, Gregory; Cloos, Martijn A; Regatte, Ravinder R
BACKGROUND:Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) techniques have been recently described for simultaneous multiparameter cartilage mapping of the knee although investigation of their ability to detect early cartilage degeneration remains limited. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:relaxation times measured using a three-dimensional (3D) MRF sequence in healthy volunteers. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Prospective. SUBJECTS/METHODS:The study group consisted of 24 healthy asymptomatic human volunteers (15 males with mean age 34.9 ± 14.4 years and 9 females with mean age 44.5 ± 13.1 years). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:maps of knee cartilage. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:relaxation times of the knee were measured. STATISTICAL TESTS/METHODS:relaxation times. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: = 0.54-0.66). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:relaxation times simultaneously measured using a 3D-MRF sequence in healthy volunteers showed age-dependent changes in knee cartilage, primarily within the medial compartment.
PMID: 36190187
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5361572

Fatty Acid Composition of Proximal Femur Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematous Using 3 T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Martel, Dimitri; Saxena, Amit; Belmont, Howard Michael; Honig, Stephen; Chang, Gregory
BACKGROUND:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, inflammatory disease with common musculoskeletal manifestations, notably reductions in bone quality. Bone marrow adipose tissue composition and quantity has been previously linked to bone quality and may play a role in SLE pathophysiology but has not been thoroughly studied. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate bone marrow adipose tissue quantity and composition in proximal femur subregions of untreated SLE patients compared to controls and treated patients. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Prospective. SUBJECTS/METHODS:A total of 64 female subjects: 28 SLE, 15 glucocorticoid (GC)-treated SLE and 21 matched controls. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:Stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence at 3 T. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:MRS was performed at multiple echo times in the femoral neck and trochanter regions and fatty acids (FA) composition was computed. STATISTICAL TESTS/UNASSIGNED:Intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:SLE patients had significantly higher saturated FA compared to controls in both the femoral neck (+0.12) and trochanter (+0.11), significantly lower monounsaturated FA in the trochanter compared to controls (-0.05), and significantly lower polyunsaturated FA in the femoral neck compared to both controls (-0.07) and SLE patients on GC therapy (-0.05). DATA CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:SLE patients have altered proximal femur marrow fat metabolism, which may reflect a manifestation of, or play a role in, the altered inflammatory response of these patients. EVIDENCE LEVEL/UNASSIGNED:2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
PMID: 34964533
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5108212

3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting for rapid simultaneous T1, T2, and T1ρ volumetric mapping of human articular cartilage at 3 T

Sharafi, Azadeh; Zibetti, Marcelo V W; Chang, Gregory; Cloos, Martijn; Regatte, Ravinder R
Quantitative MRI can detect early biochemical changes in cartilage; however, the conventional techniques only measure one parameter (e.g., T1 , T2 , and T1ρ ) at a time while also being comparatively slow. We implemented a 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting (3D-MRF) technique for simultaneous, volumetric mapping of T1 , T2 , and T1ρ in knee articular cartilage in under 9 min. It is evaluated on 11 healthy volunteers (mean age: 53 ± 9 years), five mild knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients (Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score: 2, mean age: 60 ± 4 years), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)/International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) system phantom. Proton density image, and T1 , T2, T1ρ relaxation times, and B1 + were estimated in the NIST/ISMRM system phantom as well as in the human knee medial and lateral femur, medial and lateral tibia, and patellar cartilage. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed technique were assessed in the phantom using analysis of the Bland-Altman plots. The intrasubject repeatability was assessed with the coefficient of variation (CV) and root mean square CV (rmsCV). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the difference between healthy subjects and mild knee OA patients. The Bland-Altman plots in the NIST/ISMRM phantom demonstrated an average difference of 0.001% ± 015%, 1.2% ± 7.1%, and 0.47% ± 3% between two scans from the same 3-T scanner (repeatability), and 0.002% ± 015%, 0.62% ± 10.5%, and 0.97% ± 14% between the scans acquired on two different 3-T scanners (reproducibility) for T1 , T2 , and T1ρ , respectively. The in vivo knee study showed excellent repeatability with rmsCV less than 1%, 2%, and 1% for T1 , T2 , and T1ρ , respectively. T1ρ relaxation time in the mild knee OA patients was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in healthy subjects. The proposed 3D-MRF sequence is fast, reproducible, robust to B1 + inhomogeneity, and can simultaneously measure the T1 , T2 , T1ρ , and B1 + volumetric maps of the knee joint in a single scan within a clinically feasible scan time.
PMID: 35815660
ISSN: 1099-1492
CID: 5279812

Osteoporosis Imaging

Martel, Dimitri; Monga, Anmol; Chang, Gregory
Osteoporosis is the most common disease affecting bones worldwide. Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the current reference standard for assessing bone health and, combined with other clinical parameters, provides a good estimation of fracture risk. DXA-based Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) can provide complementary indirect information about bone microarchitecture, which also deteriorates osteoporosis. QCT can provide a 3-D volumetric assessment of bone mineral density (BMD), and FEA of computed tomography (CT) images of bone can provide estimates of bone strength, which have the potential to add value, beyond BMD, for fracture risk assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bone microarchitecture is an additional promising alternative to the assessment of BMD, and there is evidence that microarchitectural parameters could 1 day have benefits for diagnosing osteoporosis beyond BMD and/or FRAX. Assessment of bone via MRI also provides insight into other bone tissue properties (cortical porosity, marrow fat) that are altered in osteoporosis and that DXA cannot assess. Overall, bone health cannot be characterized solely by one parameter. Current imaging techniques/modalities in combination with advanced image processing hold the potential to provide a comprehensive understanding of the pathologic changes that occur in bone tissue in the setting of osteoporosis and pave the way for new imaging methods to diagnose, monitor, and predict osteoporosis.
PMID: 35672087
ISSN: 1557-8275
CID: 5248352

Finite element analysis of trabecular bone microstructure using CT imaging and continuum mechanical modeling

Guha, Indranil; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Chang, Gregory; Saha, Punam K
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Osteoporosis is a bone disease associated with enhanced bone loss, microstructural degeneration, and fracture-risk. Finite element (FE) modeling is used to estimate trabecular bone (Tb) modulus from high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging modalities including micro-computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT). This paper validates an application of voxel-based continuum finite element analysis (FEA) to predict Tb modulus from clinical CT imaging under a condition similar to in vivo imaging by comparing with measures derived by micro-CT and experimental approaches. METHOD/METHODS:Voxel-based continuum FEA methods for CT imaging were implemented using linear and nonlinear models and applied on distal tibial scans under a condition similar to in vivo imaging. First, tibial axis in a CT scan was aligned with the coordinate z-axis at 150 μm isotropic voxels. FEA was applied on an upright cylindrical volume of interests (VOI) with its axis coinciding with the tibial bone axis. Voxel volume, edge, and vertex elements and their connectivity were defined as per the isotropic image grid. A calibration phantom was used to calibrate CT numbers in Hounsfield unit to bone mineral density (BMD) values, which was then converted into calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) density. Mechanical properties at each voxel volume element was defined using its ash-density defined on CT-derived CHA density. For FEA, the bottom surface of the cylindrical VOI was fixed and a constant displacement was applied along the z-direction at each vertex element on the top surface to simulate a physical axial compressive loading condition. Finally, a Poisson's ratio of 0.3 was applied, and Tb modulus (MPa) was computed as the ratio of average von Mises stress (MPa) of volume elements on the top surface and the applied displacement. FEA parameters including mesh element size, substep number, and different tolerance values were optimized. RESULTS:). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Voxel-based continuum FEA offers surrogate measures of Tb modulus from CT imaging under a condition similar to in vivo imaging that alleviates the need for segmentation of Tb and marrow regions, while accounting for bone distribution at the microstructural level. This relaxation of binary segmentation will extend the scope of FEA application to assess mechanical properties of bone microstructure at relatively low-resolution imaging.
PMID: 35319784
ISSN: 2473-4209
CID: 5200512

Computed Tomography-Based Stiffness Measures of Trabecular Bone Microstructure: Cadaveric Validation and In Vivo Application

Guha, Indranil; Zhang, Xialiou; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Letuchy, Elena M; Chang, Gregory; Janz, Kathleen F; Torner, James C; Levy, Steven M; Saha, Punam K
Osteoporosis causes bone fragility and elevates fracture risk. Applications of finite element (FE) analysis (FEA) for assessment of trabecular bone (Tb) microstructural strength at whole-body computed tomography (CT) imaging are limited due to challenges with Tb microstructural segmentation. We present a nonlinear FEA method for distal tibia CT scans evading binary segmentation of Tb microstructure, while accounting for bone microstructural distribution. First, the tibial axis in a CT scan was aligned with the FE loading axis. FE cubic mesh elements were modeled using image voxels, and CT intensity values were calibrated to ash density defining mechanical properties at individual elements. For FEA of an upright volume of interest (VOI), the bottom surface was fixed, and a constant displacement was applied at each vertex on the top surface simulating different loading conditions. The method was implemented and optimized using the ANSYS software. CT-derived computational modulus values were repeat scan reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥ 0.97) and highly correlated (r ≥ 0.86) with the micro-CT (μCT)-derived values. FEA-derived von Mises stresses over the segmented Tb microregion were significantly higher (p < 1 × 10-11) than that over the marrow space. In vivo results showed that both shear and compressive modulus for males were higher (p < 0.01) than for females. Effect sizes for different modulus measures between males and females were moderate-to-high (≥0.55) and reduced to small-to-negligible (<0.40) when adjusted for pure lean mass. Among body size and composition attributes, pure lean mass and height showed highest (r ∈ [0.45 0.56]) and lowest (r ∈ [0.25 0.39]) linear correlation, respectively, with FE-derived modulus measures. In summary, CT-based nonlinear FEA provides an effective surrogate measure of Tb microstructural stiffness, and the relaxation of binary segmentation will extend the scope for FEA in human studies using in vivo imaging at relatively low-resolution. © 2022 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
PMID: 35720662
ISSN: 2473-4039
CID: 5281772

Simultaneous bilateral T1 , T2 , and T1ρ relaxation mapping of the hip joint with magnetic resonance fingerprinting

Sharafi, Azadeh; Zibetti, Marcelo V W; Chang, Gregory; Cloos, Martijn A; Regatte, Ravinder R
Quantitative MRI can detect early biochemical changes in cartilage, but its bilateral use in clinical routines is challenging. The aim of this prospective study was to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance fingerprinting for bilateral simultaneous T1 , T2 , and T1ρ mapping of the hip joint. The study population consisted of six healthy volunteers with no known trauma or pain in the hip. Monoexponential T1 , T2 , and T1ρ relaxation components were assessed in femoral lateral, superolateral, and superomedial, and inferior, as well as acetabular, superolateral, and superomedial subregions in left and right hip cartilage. Aligned ranked nonparametric factorial analysis was used to assess the side's impact on the subregions. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare subregions, and coefficient of variation to assess repeatability. Global averages of T1 (676.0 ± 45.4 and 687.6 ± 44.5 ms), T2 (22.5 ± 2.6 and 22.1 ± 2.5 ms), and T1ρ (38.2 ± 5.5 and 38.2 ± 5.5 ms) were measured in the left and right hip, and articular cartilage, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant difference between different subregions' relaxation times regardless of the hip side (p < 0.001 for T1 , p = 0.012 for T2 , and p < 0.001 for T1ρ ). The Wilcoxon test showed that T1 of femoral layers was significantly (p < 0.003) higher than that for acetabular cartilage. The experiments showed excellent repeatability with CVrms of 1%, 2%, and 4% for T1 , T2 , and T1ρ, respectively. It was concluded that bilateral T1 , T2 , and T1ρ relaxation times, as well as B1 + maps, can be acquired simultaneously from hip joints using the proposed MRF sequence.
PMID: 34825750
ISSN: 1099-1492
CID: 5063862

270. Low Hounsfield Units measured at the upper instrumented vertebra are an independent risk factor for density related complications in adult spinal fusion procedures [Meeting Abstract]

Philipp, T C; Chang, G; Schreiber-Stainthorp, W; Norris, Z; Protopsaltis, T S
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Hounsfield unit values (HU) from computed tomography (CT) have been used to informally assess bone density in patients undergoing spine fusion procedures. HUs are easily obtained from a standard preoperative CT scan, and unlike Dual X-ray Absorptiometry analysis (DEXA) one can focus on specific regions of interest, such as the vertebral body of a planned upper-instrumented vertebrae (UIV). There is still a relative lack of literature on the reliability and utility of HUs to both identify patients with low BMD and guide surgical decision making. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was a significant difference in preoperative HUs, measured at the UIV, in patients that had a bone-density related complication (DRC) within 2 years of their spinal fusion. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A retrospective comparative study at a single academic institution. PATIENT SAMPLE: Patients 55 years or older that underwent a spinal fusion procedure in 2017 at a single academic institution. OUTCOME MEASURES: Occurrence of proximal junctional kyphosis, proximal junctional failure, pseudarthrosis, screw loosening or pullout, hardware failure and adjacent segment disease (ASD).
METHOD(S): Baseline preoperative demographic information, smoking history, levels fused, UIV and status as a revision procedure were recorded. All postoperative notes and images for 2 years post-procedure were reviewed for the presence of proximal junctional kyphosis, proximal junctional failure, pseudarthrosis, screw loosening or pullout, hardware failure, and ASD. HUs were measured via regions of interest drawn within the cancellous bone of the mid-vertebral body at the UIV of all patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups for comparison, those who experienced a DRC within 2 years and those who did not. Student's t-test was performed to compare HUs between the groups, chi-square analysis was performed for categorical variables. Dichotomous logistical regression was performed to analyze the relationship between density related complications and HU at the UIV, patient BMI, revision procedure, history of smoking, gender, UIV and number of levels fused. Significance was set at p<0.05.
RESULT(S): A total of 172 consecutive fusion patients with a preoperative CT scan were reviewed. Of these, 49 were revision procedures. 66 had a UIV in the cervical spine, 10 had a UIV in the thoracic spine and 95 had a UIV in the lumbar spine. Ninety-nine were 1 or 2 level fusions, 49 were 3 or 4 level fusions and 23 were long fusions with 4+ levels involved. Forty-eight patients had a DRC. Baseline demographics were similar between the 2 groups, with the exception of more revision procedures in the DRC group (p<0.001). The mean HUs of the UIV in the cohort that had a DRC was 168.92, as compared to 252.66 in the no-DRC group (p<0.001). Regression analysis revealed that low HUs at the UIV and revision procedures were independent risk factors for a DRC. For every 10 unit decrease in HUs, the odds of a DRC rose by 6%. When thoracic and lumbar fusions were analyzed the mean HUs at the UIV in the DRC group were 108.5 vs 152.6 (p<0.001). When cervical fusions were analyzed separately the mean HUs in the DRC group were 308 vs 383.4 (P=0.014).
CONCLUSION(S): To our knowledge, this is the first study that compares HUs measured at the UIV to the rate of density related complications for single and multilevel fusions in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. This study found that HUs measured at the UIV of a fusion were significantly lower in patients that went on to have a density related complication within 2 years of their index procedure. FDA DEVICE/DRUG STATUS: This abstract does not discuss or include any applicable devices or drugs.
ISSN: 1529-9430
CID: 4971582

Bone and non-contractile soft tissue changes following open kinetic chain resistance training and testosterone treatment in spinal cord injury: an exploratory study

Holman, M E; Chang, G; Ghatas, M P; Saha, P K; Zhang, X; Khan, M R; Sima, A P; Adler, R A; Gorgey, A S
Twenty men with spinal cord injury (SCI) were randomized into two 16-week intervention groups receiving testosterone treatment (TT) or TT combined with resistance training (TT + RT). TT + RT appears to hold the potential to reverse or slow down bone loss following SCI if provided over a longer period.
PMID: 33443609
ISSN: 1433-2965
CID: 4771502

Metal artifacts of hip arthroplasty implants at 1.5-T and 3.0-T: a closer look into the B1 effects

Khodarahmi, Iman; Kirsch, John; Chang, Gregory; Fritz, Jan
OBJECTIVE:field on metal implant-induced artifacts of titanium (Ti) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) hip arthroplasty implants at 1.5-T and 3.0-T field strengths. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:field as the system default, as well as 3.0-T, which permitted CP and EP. Manual segmentation quantified the size of the metal artifacts at the level of the acetabular cup, femoral neck, and femoral shaft. RESULTS:In the acetabular cup and femoral neck, 1.5-T CP achieved smaller artifact sizes than 3.0-T CP (28-29% on HBW-TSE, p = 0.002-0.005; 17-34% on SEMAC, p = 0.019-0.102) and 3.0-T EP (25-28% on HBW-TSE, p = 0.010-0.011; 14-36% on SEMAC, p = 0.058-0.135) techniques. In the femoral stem region, 3.0-T EP achieved more efficient artifact suppression than 3.0-T CP (HBW-TSE 44-45%, p < 0.001-0.022; SEMAC 76-104%, p < 0.001-0.022) and 1.5-T CP (HBW-TSE 76-96%, p < 0.001-0.003; SEMAC 138-173%, p = 0.003-0.005) techniques. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite slightly superior metal reduction ability of the 1.5-T in the region of the acetabular cup and prosthesis neck, 3.0-T MRI of hip arthroplasty implants using elliptically polarized RF pulses may overall be more effective in reducing metal artifacts than the current standard 1.5-T MRI techniques, which by default implements circularly polarized RF pulses.
PMID: 32918566
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 4592282