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Finite element analysis of trabecular bone microstructure using CT imaging and continuum mechanical modeling

Guha, Indranil; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Chang, Gregory; Saha, Punam K
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Osteoporosis is a bone disease associated with enhanced bone loss, microstructural degeneration, and fracture-risk. Finite element (FE) modeling is used to estimate trabecular bone (Tb) modulus from high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging modalities including micro-computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT). This paper validates an application of voxel-based continuum finite element analysis (FEA) to predict Tb modulus from clinical CT imaging under a condition similar to in vivo imaging by comparing with measures derived by micro-CT and experimental approaches. METHOD/METHODS:Voxel-based continuum FEA methods for CT imaging were implemented using linear and nonlinear models and applied on distal tibial scans under a condition similar to in vivo imaging. First, tibial axis in a CT scan was aligned with the coordinate z-axis at 150 μm isotropic voxels. FEA was applied on an upright cylindrical volume of interests (VOI) with its axis coinciding with the tibial bone axis. Voxel volume, edge, and vertex elements and their connectivity were defined as per the isotropic image grid. A calibration phantom was used to calibrate CT numbers in Hounsfield unit to bone mineral density (BMD) values, which was then converted into calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) density. Mechanical properties at each voxel volume element was defined using its ash-density defined on CT-derived CHA density. For FEA, the bottom surface of the cylindrical VOI was fixed and a constant displacement was applied along the z-direction at each vertex element on the top surface to simulate a physical axial compressive loading condition. Finally, a Poisson's ratio of 0.3 was applied, and Tb modulus (MPa) was computed as the ratio of average von Mises stress (MPa) of volume elements on the top surface and the applied displacement. FEA parameters including mesh element size, substep number, and different tolerance values were optimized. RESULTS:). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Voxel-based continuum FEA offers surrogate measures of Tb modulus from CT imaging under a condition similar to in vivo imaging that alleviates the need for segmentation of Tb and marrow regions, while accounting for bone distribution at the microstructural level. This relaxation of binary segmentation will extend the scope of FEA application to assess mechanical properties of bone microstructure at relatively low-resolution imaging.
PMID: 35319784
ISSN: 2473-4209
CID: 5200512

Fatty Acid Composition of Proximal Femur Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematous Using 3 T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Martel, Dimitri; Saxena, Amit; Belmont, Howard Michael; Honig, Stephen; Chang, Gregory
BACKGROUND:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, inflammatory disease with common musculoskeletal manifestations, notably reductions in bone quality. Bone marrow adipose tissue composition and quantity has been previously linked to bone quality and may play a role in SLE pathophysiology but has not been thoroughly studied. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate bone marrow adipose tissue quantity and composition in proximal femur subregions of untreated SLE patients compared to controls and treated patients. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Prospective. SUBJECTS/METHODS:A total of 64 female subjects: 28 SLE, 15 glucocorticoid (GC)-treated SLE and 21 matched controls. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:Stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence at 3 T. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:MRS was performed at multiple echo times in the femoral neck and trochanter regions and fatty acids (FA) composition was computed. STATISTICAL TESTS/UNASSIGNED:Intergroup comparisons were carried out using ANOVA. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:SLE patients had significantly higher saturated FA compared to controls in both the femoral neck (+0.12) and trochanter (+0.11), significantly lower monounsaturated FA in the trochanter compared to controls (-0.05), and significantly lower polyunsaturated FA in the femoral neck compared to both controls (-0.07) and SLE patients on GC therapy (-0.05). DATA CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:SLE patients have altered proximal femur marrow fat metabolism, which may reflect a manifestation of, or play a role in, the altered inflammatory response of these patients. EVIDENCE LEVEL/UNASSIGNED:2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
PMID: 34964533
ISSN: 1522-2586
CID: 5108212

Simultaneous bilateral T1 , T2 , and T1ρ relaxation mapping of the hip joint with magnetic resonance fingerprinting

Sharafi, Azadeh; Zibetti, Marcelo V W; Chang, Gregory; Cloos, Martijn A; Regatte, Ravinder R
Quantitative MRI can detect early biochemical changes in cartilage, but its bilateral use in clinical routines is challenging. The aim of this prospective study was to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance fingerprinting for bilateral simultaneous T1 , T2 , and T1ρ mapping of the hip joint. The study population consisted of six healthy volunteers with no known trauma or pain in the hip. Monoexponential T1 , T2 , and T1ρ relaxation components were assessed in femoral lateral, superolateral, and superomedial, and inferior, as well as acetabular, superolateral, and superomedial subregions in left and right hip cartilage. Aligned ranked nonparametric factorial analysis was used to assess the side's impact on the subregions. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare subregions, and coefficient of variation to assess repeatability. Global averages of T1 (676.0 ± 45.4 and 687.6 ± 44.5 ms), T2 (22.5 ± 2.6 and 22.1 ± 2.5 ms), and T1ρ (38.2 ± 5.5 and 38.2 ± 5.5 ms) were measured in the left and right hip, and articular cartilage, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant difference between different subregions' relaxation times regardless of the hip side (p < 0.001 for T1 , p = 0.012 for T2 , and p < 0.001 for T1ρ ). The Wilcoxon test showed that T1 of femoral layers was significantly (p < 0.003) higher than that for acetabular cartilage. The experiments showed excellent repeatability with CVrms of 1%, 2%, and 4% for T1 , T2 , and T1ρ, respectively. It was concluded that bilateral T1 , T2 , and T1ρ relaxation times, as well as B1 + maps, can be acquired simultaneously from hip joints using the proposed MRF sequence.
PMID: 34825750
ISSN: 1099-1492
CID: 5063862

270. Low Hounsfield Units measured at the upper instrumented vertebra are an independent risk factor for density related complications in adult spinal fusion procedures [Meeting Abstract]

Philipp, T C; Chang, G; Schreiber-Stainthorp, W; Norris, Z; Protopsaltis, T S
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Hounsfield unit values (HU) from computed tomography (CT) have been used to informally assess bone density in patients undergoing spine fusion procedures. HUs are easily obtained from a standard preoperative CT scan, and unlike Dual X-ray Absorptiometry analysis (DEXA) one can focus on specific regions of interest, such as the vertebral body of a planned upper-instrumented vertebrae (UIV). There is still a relative lack of literature on the reliability and utility of HUs to both identify patients with low BMD and guide surgical decision making. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was a significant difference in preoperative HUs, measured at the UIV, in patients that had a bone-density related complication (DRC) within 2 years of their spinal fusion. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A retrospective comparative study at a single academic institution. PATIENT SAMPLE: Patients 55 years or older that underwent a spinal fusion procedure in 2017 at a single academic institution. OUTCOME MEASURES: Occurrence of proximal junctional kyphosis, proximal junctional failure, pseudarthrosis, screw loosening or pullout, hardware failure and adjacent segment disease (ASD).
METHOD(S): Baseline preoperative demographic information, smoking history, levels fused, UIV and status as a revision procedure were recorded. All postoperative notes and images for 2 years post-procedure were reviewed for the presence of proximal junctional kyphosis, proximal junctional failure, pseudarthrosis, screw loosening or pullout, hardware failure, and ASD. HUs were measured via regions of interest drawn within the cancellous bone of the mid-vertebral body at the UIV of all patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups for comparison, those who experienced a DRC within 2 years and those who did not. Student's t-test was performed to compare HUs between the groups, chi-square analysis was performed for categorical variables. Dichotomous logistical regression was performed to analyze the relationship between density related complications and HU at the UIV, patient BMI, revision procedure, history of smoking, gender, UIV and number of levels fused. Significance was set at p<0.05.
RESULT(S): A total of 172 consecutive fusion patients with a preoperative CT scan were reviewed. Of these, 49 were revision procedures. 66 had a UIV in the cervical spine, 10 had a UIV in the thoracic spine and 95 had a UIV in the lumbar spine. Ninety-nine were 1 or 2 level fusions, 49 were 3 or 4 level fusions and 23 were long fusions with 4+ levels involved. Forty-eight patients had a DRC. Baseline demographics were similar between the 2 groups, with the exception of more revision procedures in the DRC group (p<0.001). The mean HUs of the UIV in the cohort that had a DRC was 168.92, as compared to 252.66 in the no-DRC group (p<0.001). Regression analysis revealed that low HUs at the UIV and revision procedures were independent risk factors for a DRC. For every 10 unit decrease in HUs, the odds of a DRC rose by 6%. When thoracic and lumbar fusions were analyzed the mean HUs at the UIV in the DRC group were 108.5 vs 152.6 (p<0.001). When cervical fusions were analyzed separately the mean HUs in the DRC group were 308 vs 383.4 (P=0.014).
CONCLUSION(S): To our knowledge, this is the first study that compares HUs measured at the UIV to the rate of density related complications for single and multilevel fusions in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. This study found that HUs measured at the UIV of a fusion were significantly lower in patients that went on to have a density related complication within 2 years of their index procedure. FDA DEVICE/DRUG STATUS: This abstract does not discuss or include any applicable devices or drugs.
ISSN: 1529-9430
CID: 4971582

Bone and non-contractile soft tissue changes following open kinetic chain resistance training and testosterone treatment in spinal cord injury: an exploratory study

Holman, M E; Chang, G; Ghatas, M P; Saha, P K; Zhang, X; Khan, M R; Sima, A P; Adler, R A; Gorgey, A S
Twenty men with spinal cord injury (SCI) were randomized into two 16-week intervention groups receiving testosterone treatment (TT) or TT combined with resistance training (TT + RT). TT + RT appears to hold the potential to reverse or slow down bone loss following SCI if provided over a longer period.
PMID: 33443609
ISSN: 1433-2965
CID: 4771502

Metal artifacts of hip arthroplasty implants at 1.5-T and 3.0-T: a closer look into the B1 effects

Khodarahmi, Iman; Kirsch, John; Chang, Gregory; Fritz, Jan
OBJECTIVE:field on metal implant-induced artifacts of titanium (Ti) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) hip arthroplasty implants at 1.5-T and 3.0-T field strengths. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:field as the system default, as well as 3.0-T, which permitted CP and EP. Manual segmentation quantified the size of the metal artifacts at the level of the acetabular cup, femoral neck, and femoral shaft. RESULTS:In the acetabular cup and femoral neck, 1.5-T CP achieved smaller artifact sizes than 3.0-T CP (28-29% on HBW-TSE, p = 0.002-0.005; 17-34% on SEMAC, p = 0.019-0.102) and 3.0-T EP (25-28% on HBW-TSE, p = 0.010-0.011; 14-36% on SEMAC, p = 0.058-0.135) techniques. In the femoral stem region, 3.0-T EP achieved more efficient artifact suppression than 3.0-T CP (HBW-TSE 44-45%, p < 0.001-0.022; SEMAC 76-104%, p < 0.001-0.022) and 1.5-T CP (HBW-TSE 76-96%, p < 0.001-0.003; SEMAC 138-173%, p = 0.003-0.005) techniques. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite slightly superior metal reduction ability of the 1.5-T in the region of the acetabular cup and prosthesis neck, 3.0-T MRI of hip arthroplasty implants using elliptically polarized RF pulses may overall be more effective in reducing metal artifacts than the current standard 1.5-T MRI techniques, which by default implements circularly polarized RF pulses.
PMID: 32918566
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 4592282

Microbial-derived antigens and metabolites in spondyloarthritis

Yang, Katharine Lu; Lejeune, Alannah; Chang, Gregory; Scher, Jose U; Koralov, Sergei B
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory diseases affecting the bone, synovium, and enthesis. Microbiome, the community of microorganisms that has co-evolved with human hosts, plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. This invisible "essential organ" supplies the host with a myriad of chemicals and molecules. In turn, microbial metabolites can serve as messengers for microbes to communicate with each other and in the cross-talk with host cells. Gut dysbiosis in SpA is associated with altered microbial metabolites, and an accumulated body of research has contributed to the understanding that changes in intestinal microbiota can modulate disease pathogenesis. We review the novel findings from human and animal studies to provide an overview of the contribution of individual microbial metabolites and antigens to SpA.
PMID: 33569635
ISSN: 1863-2300
CID: 4779892

Lower extremity injuries U.S national fencing team members and U.S fencing Olympians

Thompson, Kamali; Chang, Gregory; Alaia, Michael; Jazrawi, Laith; Gonzalez-Lomas, Guillem
Introduction: Fencing is growing rapidly in popularity and competitiveness with fencers beginning at a younger age and competing in more tournaments. Even though fencing has a low risk of time-loss injury, fencers are inevitably going to experience injuries if proper athletic training and prevention does not occur. We aim to describe and compare the lower extremity injuries experienced by fencers that have trained at the highest level in the sport. We hypothesized that athletes who fenced longer would suffer more knee and hip injuries and report lower IKDC and HOS scores.Methods: This is an epidemiology study distributed to members of the U.S national team and Olympic team from 1980 to 2018. The electronic survey included questions regarding age, weapon, number of years fencing, number of national and Olympic teams, injuries on the dominant and nondominant hip and knee, time missed due to injury, and methods for treatment. The survey also included the International Knee Demographic Committee (IKDC) and Hip Outcome Score (HOS).Results: There were 153 national team members between July 1980 and July 2018, 110 with contact information. A total of 77 athletes submitted the survey, consisting of 30 females and 47 males. Female fencers had more hip injuries and lower IKDC and HOS scores than their male counterparts. In total, there were 71 injuries to the dominant (front) knee and 28 injuries to the nondominant (back) knee. There were 32 dominant hip injuries and 5 nondominant hip injuries. Saber fencers reported the most dominant and nondominant hip and knee injuries.Conclusion: The intense, repetitive and asymmetrical movements involved in fencing affect the weight bearing leg and the nondominant leg in all weapons. Special attention should be paid to female fencers as they experience more hip and knee injuries resulting in impaired joint function.
PMID: 33625317
ISSN: 2326-3660
CID: 4794682

Impact of COVID-19 Workflow Changes on Patient Throughput at Outpatient Imaging Centers

Chang, Gregory; Doshi, Ankur; Chandarana, Hersh; Recht, Michael
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine the impact of COVID-19 workflow changes on patient throughput at the outpatient imaging facilities of a large healthcare system in New York City. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:COVID-19 workflow changes to permit social distancing and patient and staff safety included screening at the time of scheduling, encouraging patients to use our digital platform to complete registration/safety forms prior to appointments, stationing screeners at all entrances, limiting waiting room capacity, implementing a texting system to notify patients of delays, limiting dressing room use by encouraging patients to wear exam-appropriate clothing, and accelerating MRI protocols without reducing image quality. We assessed patients' pre-exam wait times, MR exam times, overall time spent on site, and registration for and use of the digital portal before (February 2020) and after (June 2020) implementation of these measures. RESULTS:Across 17 outpatient imaging centers, workflow changes resulted in a 23.1% reduction (-6.8 minutes) in all patients' pre-exam wait times (p <0.00001). Pre-exam wait times for MRI, CT, ultrasound, x-ray, and mammography decreased 28.4% (-10.3 minutes), 16.5% (-6.7 minutes), 25.3% (-7.7 minutes), 22.8% (-3.7 minutes), and 23.9% (-5.0 minutes), respectively (p < 0.00001 for all). MR exam times decreased 9.7% (-3.5 minutes) and patients' overall time on site decreased 15.2% (-8.0 minutes). The proportions of patients actively using the digital patient portal (56.1%-70.1%) and completing forms electronically prior to arrival (24.9%-47.1%) increased (p < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Workflow changes necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic to ensure safety of patients and staff have permitted higher outpatient throughput.
PMID: 33516590
ISSN: 1878-4046
CID: 4775672

Musculoskeletal MR Imaging Applications at Ultra-High (7T) Field Strength

Menon, Rajiv G; Chang, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R
Regulatory approval of ultrahigh field (UHF) MR imaging scanners for clinical use has opened new opportunities for musculoskeletal imaging applications. UHF MR imaging has unique advantages in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, spectral resolution, and multinuclear applications, thus providing unique information not available at lower field strengths. But UHF also comes with a set of technical challenges that are yet to be resolved and may not be suitable for all imaging applications. This review focuses on the latest research in musculoskeletal MR imaging applications at UHF including morphologic imaging, T2, T2∗, and T1ρ mapping, chemical exchange saturation transfer, sodium imaging, and phosphorus spectroscopy imaging applications.
PMID: 33237012
ISSN: 1557-9786
CID: 4679242