A Rare Triad of Ulcerative Colitis, Large Vessel Vasculitis and Celiac Disease [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with large-vessel vasculitis (LVV), with the diagnosis of IBD preceding that of LVV by years. We present for the first time in known literature a triad of concurrent ulcerative colitis (UC), aortitis and celiac disease. Case Description/Methods: A 58 year old Hispanic man with a history of hypertension and gout presented with two weeks of intractable temporomandibular headaches, and two months of non-bloody diarrhea and weight loss. Physical exam was unremarkable. Labs showed hemoglobin 6.9 g/dL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate 120 mm/hr, C-reactive protein 281 mg/dL and IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody 23 U/mL. ANA, C3, C4, proteinase-3 and myeloperoxidase antibodies were within normal limits. Colonoscopy showed pancolitis from rectum to ascending colon. The terminal ileum was normal. Abdominal MRI found aortic wall hyperintensity from the renal arteries to common iliac bifurcation. CT angiogram showed wall thickening of the left carotid artery, aortic arch, descending thoracic and abdominal aorta, consistent with vasculitis. Patient was given stress dose steroids with improvement in headache and normalization of ESR and CRP. Temporal artery biopsy was unremarkable. Four months after hospitalization, repeat colonoscopy with duodenal biopsies for celiac disease revealed mild increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes with preserved villous architecture. He was started on a gluten free diet and adalimumab in combination with methotrexate for UC and LVV.
Discussion(s): About 10 case reports of patients with both UC and either Takayasu (TAK) or giant cell arteritis (GCA) have been described, with UC typically diagnosed 15-45 years before the vasculitis. Vasculitis in the GI tract can mimic IBD, making colonoscopy and biopsy crucial for diagnosis. HLA haplotypes A24, B52, and DR2 are associated with both UC and aortitis and Interleukin-9, observed in temporal arteritis lesions, may be implicated in the pathogenesis of UC. Shared chromosomal variants between patients with UC and celiac disease may explain why IBD risk is up to 9-fold higher in patients with celiac disease. Our patient may have presented with isolated aortitis or an early form of GCA. Methotrexate is used to treat LVV and is combined with an anti-TNF agent to treat UC, as in our case. This is the first known report of co-occurring UC, celiac disease and aortitis; however, whether the three inflammatory conditions are mechanistically related warrants further research
Management of pouch neoplasia: consensus guidelines from the International Ileal Pouch Consortium
Surveillance pouchoscopy is recommended for patients with restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis, with the surveillance interval depending on the risk of neoplasia. Neoplasia in patients with ileal pouches mainly have a glandular source and less often are of squamous cell origin. Various grades of neoplasia can occur in the prepouch ileum, pouch body, rectal cuff, anal transition zone, anus, or perianal skin. The main treatment modalities are endoscopic polypectomy, endoscopic ablation, endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, surgical local excision, surgical circumferential resection and re-anastomosis, and pouch excision. The choice of the treatment modality is determined by the grade, location, size, and features of neoplastic lesions, along with patients' risk of neoplasia and comorbidities, and local endoscopic and surgical expertise.
Treatment Patterns and Standardized Outcome Assessments Among Patients With Inflammatory Conditions of the Pouch in a Prospective Multicenter Registry
Background/UNASSIGNED:Much of our understanding about the natural history of pouch-related disorders has been generated from selected populations. We designed a geographically diverse, prospective registry to study the disease course among patients with 1 of 4 inflammatory conditions of the pouch. The primary objectives in this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of a prospective pouch registry and to evaluate the predominant treatment patterns for pouch-related disorders. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We used standardized diagnostic criteria to prospectively enroll patients with acute pouchitis, chronic antibiotic-dependent pouchitis (CADP), chronic antibiotic refractory pouchitis (CARP), or Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch. We obtained detailed clinical and demographic data at the time of enrollment, along with patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Results/UNASSIGNED:< .001). Among patients with active disease at the time of enrollment, 23% with CARP and 40% with CD of the pouch were in clinical remission at 6 months after enrollment. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:In a population where most patients had refractory inflammatory conditions of the pouch, we established a framework to evaluate PROs and clinical effectiveness. This infrastructure will be valuable for long-term studies of real-world effectiveness for pouch-related disorders.
Methotrexate and TNF inhibitors affect long-term immunogenicity to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease
Indications, functional and quality of life outcomes of new pouch creation during re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis: A comparative study with existing pouch salvage
BACKGROUND:Salvage of the existing ileal pouch is favored during re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis if the pouch is not damaged after pelvic dissection and there are no other mechanical reasons that may necessitate construction of a new pouch. Excision of the existing pouch may be associated with some concerns for short-bowel syndrome and poor functional outcomes. This study aimed to report indications and compare functional and quality of life outcomes of new pouch creation versus salvage of the existing pouch during re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis. METHODS:Patients who underwent re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis between September 2016 and June 2020 were included. The reasons for pouch excision and new pouch creation were reported. Perioperative, functional outcomes and quality of life were compared between patients who had creation of a new pouch versus salvage of existing pouch. RESULTS:A total of 105 patients with re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis (new pouch, nÂ = 63) were included. Most common indications for a new pouch creation were chronic pelvic infection that compromised the integrity and viability of the existing pouch (nÂ = 32) and small pouch (nÂ = 21). No patient developed short-bowel syndrome. The number of bowel movements, daily restrictions and Cleveland Global Quality of Life score scores were similar between 2 groups. Day-time seepage, day-time and night-time pad usage were more common after new pouch creation. Two-year pouch survival rates were comparable (new pouch: 92% versus existing pouch: 85%, PÂ = .31). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:New pouch creation can be safely performed at the time of re-do ileal pouch anal anastomosis. It provides acceptable functional and quality of life outcomes if existing pouch salvage is not feasible.
Treatment of pouchitis, Crohn's disease, cuffitis, and other inflammatory disorders of the pouch: consensus guidelines from the International Ileal Pouch Consortium
Pouchitis, Crohn's disease of the pouch, cuffitis, polyps, and extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease are common inflammatory disorders of the ileal pouch. Acute pouchitis is treated with oral antibiotics and chronic pouchitis often requires anti-inflammatory therapy, including the use of biologics. Aetiological factors for secondary pouchitis should be evaluated and managed accordingly. Crohn's disease of the pouch is usually treated with biologics and its stricturing and fistulising complications can be treated with endoscopy or surgery. The underlying cause of cuffitis determines treatment strategies. Endoscopic polypectomy is recommended for large, symptomatic inflammatory polyps and polyps in the cuff. The management principles of extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with pouches are similar to those in patients without pouches.
Comparative Safety and Effectiveness of Vedolizumab to Tumor Necrosis Factor Antagonist Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis
BACKGROUND & AIMS:We aimed to compare safety and effectiveness of vedolizumab to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-antagonist therapy in ulcerative colitis in routine practice. METHODS:A multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study (May 2014 to December 2017) of ulcerative colitis patients treated with vedolizumab or TNF-antagonist therapy. Propensity score weighted comparisons for development of serious adverse events and achievement of clinical remission, steroid-free clinical remission, and steroid-free deep remission. A priori determined subgroup comparisons in TNF-antagonist-naÃ¯ve and -exposed patients, and for vedolizumab against infliximab and subcutaneous TNF-antagonists separately. RESULTS:A total of 722 (454 vedolizumab, 268 TNF antagonist) patients were included. Vedolizumab-treated patients were more likely to achieve clinical remission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.651; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.229-2.217), steroid-free clinical remission (HR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.135-2.944), and steroid-free deep remission (HR, 2.819; 95% CI, 1.496-5.310) than those treated with TNF antagonists. Results were consistent across subgroup analyses in TNF-antagonist-naÃ¯ve andÂ -exposed patients, and for vedolizumab vs infliximab and vs subcutaneous TNF-antagonist agents separately. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of serious adverse events (HR, 0.899; 95% CI, 0.502-1.612) or serious infections (HR, 1.235; 95% CI, 0.608-2.511) between vedolizumab-treated and TNF-antagonist-treated patients. However, in TNF-antagonist-naÃ¯ve patients, vedolizumab was less likely to be associated with serious adverse events than TNF antagonists (HR, 0.192; 95% CI, 0.049-0.754). CONCLUSIONS:Treatment of ulcerative colitis with vedolizumab is associated with higher rates of remission than treatment with TNF-antagonist therapy in routine practice, and lower rates of serious adverse events in TNF-antagonist-naÃ¯ve patients.
COVID-19 is not associated with worse long-term inflammatory bowel disease outcomes: a multicenter case-control study
Background/UNASSIGNED:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not associated with worse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. However, data are lacking regarding the long-term impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection on the disease course of IBD. Objectives/UNASSIGNED:We aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on long-term outcomes of IBD. Design/UNASSIGNED:We performed a multicenter case-control study of patients with IBD and COVID-19 between February 2020 and December 2020. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Cases and controls were individuals with IBD with presence or absence, respectively, of COVID-19-related symptoms and confirmatory testing. The primary composite outcome was IBD-related hospitalization or surgery. Results/UNASSIGNED:â€‰=â€‰0.24) and on multivariate Cox regression, COVID-19 was not associated with increased risk of adverse IBD outcomes [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-1.42]. When stratified by infection severity, severe COVID-19 was associated with a numerically increased risk of adverse IBD outcomes (aHR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.00-5.86), whereas mild-to-moderate COVID-19 was not (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38-1.23). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:In this case-control study, COVID-19 did not have a long-term impact on the disease course of IBD. However, severe COVID-19 was numerically associated with worse IBD outcomes, underscoring the continued importance of risk mitigation and prevention strategies for patients with IBD during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
P024â€ƒAnorectal Manometry in Patients with Fecal Incontinence After Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Cohort Study
BACKGROUND:Fecal incontinence (FI) affects up to 1 in 4 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is associated with inflammation, surgeries, and altered rectal sensitivity. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is a surgical intervention for select IBD patients to avoid a permanent stoma. High-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) studies in IBD patients with FI demonstrate lower resting pressures and rectal sensory dysfunction. However, HRAM data in IBD patients with FI post-IPAA remains limited. We hypothesized patients with FI would have lower resting and squeeze pressures and rectal hypersensitivity compared to healthy controls and that these changes would be similar after IPAA. METHODS:Retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted on patients undergoing HRAM from 2017-2021 at a single urban academic medical center. Patient characteristics (age, gender, BMI, stool frequency, diabetes, pregnancy history) and surgical history (prior perianal surgery, index vs. re-do IPAA) were obtained. HRAM variables included rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR), sphincter length, resting, squeeze, cough, and push pressures, sensation thresholds (first sensation, constant sensation, desire to defecate, urgency to defecate, max tolerable volume), and balloon expulsion test (BET). HRAM outcomes in IPAA patients with FI (IPAA-FI) were compared to non-IBD patients with FI (non-IBD-FI). HRAM data for both patient cohorts were also compared to existing normative data of healthy controls. Non-IBD patients with constipation and FI were excluded from analysis. An independent samples t-test was performed (p < 0.05) for continuous variables, and chi-square test was used for categorical variables. RESULTS:Fifty-six patients (66% female) were in the non-IBD-FI group. Eighteen patients (67% female) were in the IPAA-FI group. Average age in the IPAA-FI cohort was 44.8 Â± 13.6 vs. 66.3 Â± 14.4 in the non-IBD-FI group (p< 0.01). Sphincter length in the IPAA-FI group was 2.7 Â± 1.1cm vs. 3.2 Â± 0.6cm in the non-IBD-FI group (p=0.03). There was no significant difference in sensation thresholds or resting, squeeze, cough, and push pressures between the two groups. Urinary incontinence was observed in 5.6% of IPAA-FI patients vs. 44.6% of non-IBD-FI patients (p < 0.01). RAIR was present in 38.5% of IPAA-FI patients vs. 100% of non-IBD-FI patients (p < 0.01). Both patient cohorts had significantly shorter sphincter length, lower squeeze and push pressures, and lower sensation thresholds compared to normative data. Resting pressures for the IPAA-FI group was not significantly different compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Overall, anorectal pressures and sensation are similar between IPAA-FI and non-IBD-FI patients. However, the underlying FI mechanism seems to differ. Higher rates of urinary incontinence in the non-IBD-FI cohort suggests global pelvic floor dysfunction compared to IPAA-FI patients who are younger and have post-operative neuromuscular dysfunction, as evidenced by shorter sphincter length and absent RAIR. Though rectal hypersensitivity and lower squeeze/push pressures are observed in both patient groups compared to healthy controls, normal resting pressure in IPAA-FI suggests that potentially different normative ranges are needed for this cohort to accurately assess post-surgical changes and guide pre-operative counseling.
Implementation of an Inpatient IBD Service Is Associated with Improvement in Quality of Care and Long-Term Outcomes
BACKGROUND:There is wide variation in the quality of care of hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Prior studies have demonstrated that a specialized inpatient IBD service improves short-term outcomes. In this study, we assessed the impact of a dedicated IBD service on the quality of care and long-term outcomes. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included adult patients admitted for a complication of IBD between March 2017 and February 2019 to a tertiary referral center. In March 2018, a dedicated inpatient IBD service co-managed by IBD gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons was implemented. Quality of care outcomes included C. difficile stool testing, confirmed VTE prophylaxis administration and opiate avoidance. Long-term outcomes were clinical remission, IBD-related surgery, ED visits, and hospital readmissions at 90 days and 12 months. RESULTS:In total, 143 patients were included; 66 pre- and 77 post-implementation of the IBD service. Fifty-two percent had ulcerative colitis and 48% had Crohn's disease. After implementation, there was improvement in C.difficile testing (90% vs. 76%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), early VTE prophylaxis (92% vs. 77%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.01) and decreases in narcotic use (14% vs. 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.02), IBD-related ED visits at 90Â days (7% vs 18%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.03) and 12Â months (16% vs 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04), and IBD readmissions at 90Â days (16% vs. 30%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.04). There were no differences in rates of clinical remission or surgery. CONCLUSIONS:The creation of a dedicated inpatient IBD service improved quality of IBD care and reduced post-discharge ED visits and readmissions and broader implementation of this strategy may help optimize care of hospitalized IBD patients.