Investigation of middle ear anatomy and function with combined video otoscopy-phase sensitive OCT
We report the development of a novel otoscopy probe for assessing middle ear anatomy and function. Video imaging and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography are combined within the same optical path. A sound stimuli channel is incorporated as well to study middle ear function. Thus, besides visualizing the morphology of the middle ear, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the eardrum and ossicles are retrieved as well. Preliminary testing on cadaveric human temporal bone models has demonstrated the capability of this instrument for retrieving middle ear anatomy with micron scale resolution, as well as the vibration of the tympanic membrane and ossicles with sub-nm resolution.
Combined reflectance confocal microscopy-optical coherence tomography for delineation of basal cell carcinoma margins: an ex vivo study
Observation of sound-induced corneal vibrational modes by optical coherence tomography
The mechanical stability of the cornea is critical for maintaining its normal shape and refractive function. Here, we report an observation of the mechanical resonance modes of the cornea excited by sound waves and detected by using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. The cornea in bovine eye globes exhibited three resonance modes in a frequency range of 50-400 Hz. The vibration amplitude of the fundamental mode at 80-120 Hz was ~8 Âµm at a sound pressure level of 100 dB (2 Pa). Vibrography allows the visualization of the radially symmetric profiles of the resonance modes. A dynamic finite-element analysis supports our observation.
Hand scanning optical coherence tomography imaging using encoder feedback
We present a new method for generating micron-scale OCT images of interstitial tissue with a hand scanning probe and a linear optical encoder that senses probe movement relative to a fixed reference point, i.e., tissue surface. Based on this approach, we demonstrate high resolution optical imaging of biological tissues through a very long biopsy needle. Minor artifacts caused by tissue noncompliance are corrected using a software algorithm which detects the simple repetition of the adjacent A-scans. This hand-scanning OCT imaging approach offers the physician the freedom to access imaging sites of interest repeatedly.
Numerical model of optical coherence tomographic vibrography imaging to estimate corneal biomechanical properties
Most techniques measuring corneal biomechanics in vivo are biased by side factors. We demonstrate the ability of optical coherence tomographic (OCT) vibrography to determine corneal material parameters, while reducing current prevalent restrictions of other techniques (such as intraocular pressure (IOP) and thickness dependency). Modal analysis was performed in a finite-element (FE) model to study the oscillation response in isolated thin corneal flaps/eye globes and to analyse the dependency of the frequency response function on: corneal elasticity, viscoelasticity, geometry (thickness and curvature), IOP and density. The model was verified experimentally in flaps from three bovine corneas and in two enucleated porcine eyes using sound excitation (100-110 dB) together with a phase-sensitive OCT to measure the frequency response function (range 50-510 Hz). Simulations showed that corneal vibration in flaps is sensitive to both, geometrical and biomechanical parameters, whereas in whole globes it is primarily sensitive to corneal biomechanical parameters only. Calculations based on the natural frequency shift revealed that flaps of the posterior cornea were 0.8 times less stiff than flaps from the anterior cornea and cross-linked corneas were 1.6 times stiffer than virgin corneas. Sensitivity analysis showed that natural vibration frequencies of whole globes were nearly independent from corneal thickness and IOP within the physiological range. OCT vibrography is a promising non-invasive technique to measure corneal elasticity without biases from corneal thickness and IOP.
Perspectives of mid-infrared optical coherence tomography for inspection and micrometrology of industrial ceramics
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for detecting micro channels, metal prints, defects and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometers beneath surfaces. The effect of surface roughness and scattering of probing radiation within sample on OCT inspection is analyzed from the experimental and simulated OCT images of the ceramic samples with varying surface roughnesses and operating wavelengths. By Monte Carlo simulations of the OCT images in the mid-IR the optimal operating wavelength is found to be 4 Âµm for the alumina samples and 2 Âµm for the zirconia samples for achieving sufficient probing depth of about 1 mm. The effects of rough surfaces and dispersion on the detection of the embedded boundaries are discussed. Two types of image artefacts are found in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighboring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index.