Predicting Urinary Tract Infections With Interval Likelihood Ratios
BACKGROUND:Protocols for diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) often use arbitrary cutoff values of urinalysis components to guide management. Interval likelihood ratios (ILRs) of urinalysis results may improve the test's precision in predicting UTIs. We calculated the ILR of urinalysis components to estimate the posttest probabilities of UTIs in young children. METHODS:Review of 2144 visits to the pediatric emergency department of an urban academic hospital from December 2011 to December 2019. Inclusion criteria were age <2 years and having a urinalysis and urine culture sent. ILR boundaries for hemoglobin, protein, and leukocyte esterase were "negative," "trace," "1+," "2+" and "3+." Nitrite was positive or negative. Red blood cells and white blood cells (WBCs) were 0 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 20, 20 to 50, 50 to 100, and 100 to 250. Bacteria counts ranged from negative to "loaded." ILRs for each component were calculated and posttest probabilities for UTI were estimated. RESULTS:(75.2%). The ILR for leukocyte esterase ranged from 0.20 (negative) to 37.68 (3+) and WBCs ranged from 0.24 (0-5 WBCs) to 47.50 (100-250 WBCs). The ILRs for nitrites were 0.76 (negative) and 25.35 (positive). The ILR for negative bacteria on urinalysis was 0.26 and 14.04 for many bacteria. CONCLUSIONS:The probability of UTI in young children significantly increases with 3+ leukocyte esterase, positive nitrite results, 20 to 50 or higher WBCs, and/or many or greater bacteria on urinalysis. The probability of UTI only marginally increases with trace or 1+ leukocyte esterase or 5 to 20 WBCs. Our findings can be used to more accurately predict the probability of true UTI in children.
Utilization of Pediatric Emergency Care in New York City During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic [Meeting Abstract]
Rochester Criteria and Yale Observation Scale Score in Febrile Neonates to Evaluate Invasive Bacterial Infection [Meeting Abstract]
Prevalence of Bacteremia in Febrile Patients With Sickle Cell Disease: Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
OBJECTIVE:Pneumococcal vaccination has decreased the bacteremia rate in both the general pediatric and sickle cell disease (SCD) populations. Despite this decrease, and an increasing concern for antibiotic resistance, it remains standard practice to obtain blood cultures and administer antibiotics in all febrile (>38.5Â°C) patients with SCD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available studies of the prevalence of bacteremia in febrile patients with SCD. METHODS:We searched the medical literature up to November 2018 in PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science with terms epidemiology, prevalence, bacteremia, and sickle cell anemia. We only included studies with patients after 2000, when the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate (PCV7) vaccine became widely available. The prevalence of bacteremia [95% confidence interval (CI)] was calculated by dividing the number of positive blood cultures by the number of febrile episodes. The I statistic measured heterogeneity between prevalence estimates. Bias in our studies was quantified by the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. RESULTS:Our search identified 228 citations with 10 studies meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria. The weighted prevalence of bacteremia across all studies was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.22%-2.73%), and for Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, it was 0.31% (95% CI, 0.16%-0.50%). Risks for bacteremia except central lines could not be determined because of the low prevalence of the outcome. CONCLUSIONS:There appears to be a need to develop a risk stratification strategy to guide physicians to manage febrile patients with SCD based on factors including, but not limited to, history and clinical examination, vaccination status, use of prophylactic antibiotics, laboratory values, likely source of infection, and accessibility to health care.
Patient-provider communication and hormonal therapy side effects in breast cancer survivors
Side effects from hormonal therapy (HT) for breast cancer treatment occur frequently and are associated with worse quality of life and HT non-adherence. Whether improved patient-physician communication is associated with patients' reporting of side effects is unknown. We undertook this study to assess factors associated with women's reports of HT side effects. Between December 2012 and April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of breast cancer patients undergoing HT in an urban medical center. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate associations. Of the 100 participants, 67% reported having HT side effects. However, when prompted, an additional 9% reported experiencing specific HT-related symptoms. Despite very high communication scores, one-third of participants reported they had not discussed side effects with providers. Multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for age, education, race, and medication beliefs, women who had difficulty asking providers for more information were more likely to report side effects (odds ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval 1.01-69.88). Although HT side effects often occur and are bothersome, patient-provider discussions about side effects remain suboptimal. Providers should actively ask patients about medication side effects so that they can be addressed to improve quality of life and potentially, medication adherence.
Polypill: Can its Potential Enhancement of Efficacy Trigger New Interest? [Editorial]
Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Screening Practices in Chinese and African Immigrant-Rich Neighborhoods in New York City
BACKGROUND:Immigrants from China and Africa have high rates of hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, primary care physician (PCP) adherence to screening guidelines in at-risk communities is not well understood. METHODS:The New York City (NYC) neighborhood tabulation areas with the 25 greatest Chinese and African immigrant populations were determined based on US census data. The American Medical Association database was used to identify PCPs practicing in these neighborhoods. A Web-based survey designed to assess HBV and HCC knowledge and screening practices was distributed via e-mail to PCPs in these target areas. RESULTS:A total of 2072 physicians were contacted, and 109 responded to the survey, for a response rate of 5.3Â %. Among responding physicians, 73Â % report routinely testing immigrant patients for HBV. However, if a patient tests positive for HBV, only 68Â % of providers recommend screening for HCC. Over a quarter of PCPs (27Â %), failed to correctly state that antiviral therapy can lower the risk of developing HCC, and only 56Â % correctly replied that screening for liver cancer improves survival. Of responders, only 54Â % answered correctly that a 25-year-old patient from Africa with HBV should be screened for HCC, whereas 53Â % answered incorrectly that a 25-year-old patient from China with HBV should be screened, demonstrating a lack of awareness of the different age of onset of liver cancer in the two groups. The most commonly reported barrier to offering both HBV testing and HCC screening was a "lack of clear guidelines." Neither HBV nor HCC was among the top 3 health concerns of patients, as perceived by their physicians. There were no significant differences between provider responses in Chinese and African immigrant neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS:Providers serving Chinese and African immigrants in NYC often fail to recommend appropriate HBV and HCC screening. This appears to be due to significant gaps in provider knowledge and a lack of awareness of established screening guidelines. This study suggests the need for better distribution of existing guidelines to physicians serving immigrant-rich communities in order to improve HBV and HCC screening in high-risk individuals.
Premature ventricular complexes on screening electrocardiogram and risk of ischemic stroke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) detected from long-term ECG recordings have been associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Whether PVCs seen on routine ECG, commonly used in clinical practice, are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke remains unstudied. METHODS:This analysis included 24â€‰460 participants (aged, 64.5+9.3 years; 55.1% women; 40.0% blacks) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who were free of stroke at the time of enrollment. PVCs were ascertained from baseline ECG (2003-2007), and incident stroke cases through 2011 were confirmed by an adjudication committee. RESULTS:A total of 1415 (5.8%) participants had at least 1 PVC at baseline, and 591 developed incident ischemic stroke during an average (SD) follow-up of 6.0 (2.0) years. In a cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, race, geographic region, education, previous heart disease, systolic blood pressure, blood pressure-lowering medications, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular hypertrophy by ECG, and aspirin use and warfarin use, the presence of PVCs was associated with 38% increased risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.05-1.81]). CONCLUSIONS:PVCs are common on routine screening ECGs and are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke.