A Single-Center Experience of Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein Endothermal Ablation Demonstrates Safety and Efficacy
OBJECTIVE:Endothermal ablation is well established for the treatment of the great and small saphenous veins. Data are lacking for treatment of the Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein (AASV). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AASV treatment using endothermal ablation. METHODS:This was a retrospective review of 314 limbs at a single academic institution from 2016-2018 using the institutional Vascular Quality Initiative database. All limbs had documented AASV reflux. Baseline characteristics were evaluated including age, sex, ethnicity, CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) classification, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and vein diameter. Outcomes relating to procedure safety and efficacy included treatment modality and length, successful ablation on post-operative imaging, post-procedural clinical outcomes, incidence of endothermal heat induced thrombosis (EHIT), and any post-procedural complication. RESULTS:A total of 314 consecutive limbs were identified from 2016-2018. Pre-procedure VCSS scores were available for 312 limbs and averaged 6.13 Â± 3.33. History of varicose veins were reported in all limbs with 49.4% (n=155) having previously undergone a procedure. The most common presenting symptom was mild edema in 52.5% (n=165). Vein diameter and assessment of reflux were obtained by venous duplex ultrasound (DUS). The largest AASV diameter was available for 304 limbs, averaging 7.93 Â± 2.69 mm. Treatment modalities included radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in 59.2% (n=186), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in 37.9% (n=119), and isolated microphlebectomy in 2.9% (n=9). 38.5% (N=121) of limbs underwent concomitant microphlebectomy at the time of EVLA. Total treatment length was obtained in 297 limbs, averaging 23.0 cm Â± 12.0. Post-operatively, 94.6% (n=297) of limbs were prescribed compression stockings. Post-operative DUS was performed in 312 limbs, revealing successful ablation in 96.5% (n=303) with 2 limbs (0.6%) developing an EHIT, both treated with therapeutic enoxaparin for one week. Repeat DUS revealed thrombus resolution in one limb, while the other patient was lost to follow-up. VCSS scores post-procedure were available for 145 limbs and averaged 4.45 Â± 2.31. This was a statistically significant decrease from pre-procedure VCSS scores (p<0.01). Average duration of follow-up was 2.2 years, with two limbs lost to follow-up. Of the 9 limbs (3.5%) whose initial procedure failed, 5 (56%) were treated using RFA and 4 (44%) were treated using EVLA. There were no other post-operative complications. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our experience over a three-year period for treating the AASV shows it to be safe and effective in a broad range of disease severity with an improvement in VCSS and a low incidence of EHIT. Additionally, RFA and EVLA exhibit similar treatment efficacy. Long-term follow-up data are needed.
Outcomes Of Translumbar Embolization Of Type II Endoleaks Following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Presence of an endoleak can compromise aneurysm exclusion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair(EVAR). Type II endoleaks(T2Es) are most common and may cause sac expansion. We report outcomes of translumbar embolization(TLE) of T2Es following EVAR. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with T2E after EVAR treated with TLE from 2011-2018 at a single academic institution. Treatment indications were the presence of persistent T2E and aneurysm growth â‰¥5mm. Sac stabilization was defined as growth â‰¤5mm throughout the follow-up period. RESULTS:Thirty consecutive patients were identified. The majority were men (n=24) with a mean age of 74.3 years (70.9-77.6, 95% CI). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (83.3%) and coronary artery disease (54.0%). The mean maximal sac diameter at T2E discovery was 5.8 cm (5.4-6.2, 95% CI). The mean time to intervention from endoleak discovery was 33.7Â±28 months with a mean growth of 0.84 cm (0.48-1.2, 95% CI) during that time period. The mean follow-up time after TLE was 19.1 months (11.1-27.2, 95% CI). Twenty-eight patients were treated with cyanoacrylate glue(CyG) alone, and 2 were treated with CyG plus coil embolization(CE). There was immediate complete endoleak resolution as assessed intraoperatively, and sac stabilization in 15 cases (50.0%). Eleven (36.7%) patients had evidence of persistent T2E on initial imaging after the embolization procedure; additional follow-up revealed eventual sac stabilization at a mean of 21.3Â±7.2 months and therefore these patients did not require further intervention. In the remaining four cases (13.3%) there was persistent T2E after the initial TLE requiring a second intervention. Repeat TLE stabilized growth in three of these four patients after a mean of 17.6Â±12.9 months. One patient required open sacotomy and ligation of lumbar vessels due to continued persistence of the T2E and continued aneurysm growth. There were no ischemic complications related to the embolization procedures. Factors associated with persistent endoleak after initial embolization were: larger aneurysm diameter at the time of initial endoleak identification (p<0.001), and the use of antiplatelet agents (p<0.02). The use of anticoagulation was not a significant risk factor for endoleak recurrence or aneurysm growth after TLE. CONCLUSIONS:TLE of T2E is a safe and effective treatment option for T2E with aneurysm growth following EVAR. Patients taking antiplatelet medication and those with larger aneurysms at the time of endoleak identification appear to be at increased risk for persistent endoleak and need for subsequent procedures following initial TLE. These patients may require more intensive monitoring and follow-up.
The Use of Gore C-TAG with Active Control to Treat A Complex Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm [Case Report]
Complex abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can preclude endovascular aortic repair. In patients unable to undergo open surgical repair (OSR), using endografts outside the Instructions for Use (IFU) may be the only option. We present the case of a woman with a highly angulated infrarenal AAA neck who was unsuitable for OSR and successfully treated using a Gore TAG Conformable Thoracic Stent Graft with Active Control, Medtronic Heli-FX EndoAnchors, and bifurcated Gore Excluder endoprosthesis. The repair was successful without evidence of endoleak. Using a thoracic endograft off IFU to treat infrarenal AAAs may be feasible for patients unable to undergo OSR.
Case Series of Concomitant Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome and May-Thurner Syndrome
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare vascular disorder which includes leg swelling, or lower extremity deep venous reflux/thrombosis as a presenting symptom. May-Thurner syndrome is also a rare pathology involving compression of the left common iliac vein, usually by the right common iliac artery. The incidence of concomitant occurrence of these entities is unknown and not well reported. This case series describes 3 patients who underwent evaluation of symptomatic left lower extremity venous disease. All 3 suffered symptomatic Klippel-Trenaunay initially, and were subsequently diagnosed with concomitant May-Thurner Syndrome. They were successfully treated with left common iliac vein stents with symptomatic improvement.
The Effect of COVID-19 on Training and Case Volume of Vascular Surgery Trainees
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:In many facilities, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused suspension of elective surgery. We therefore sought to determine the impact of this on the surgical experience of vascular trainees. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Surgical case volume, breadth, and the participating trainee post-graduate level from 3 large New York City Hospitals with integrated residency and fellowship programs (Mount Sinai, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and New York University) were reviewed. Procedures performed between February 26 to March 25, 2020 (pre-pandemic month) and March 26 to April 25, 2020 (peak pandemic period) were compared to those performed during the same time period in 2019. The trainees from these programs were also sent surveys to evaluate their subjective experience during this time. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The total number of cases during the month leading into the peak pandemic period was 635 cases in 2019 and 560 cases in 2020 (12% decrease). During the peak pandemic period, case volume decreased from 445 in 2019 to 114 in 2020 (74% reduction). The highest volume procedures during the peak pandemic month in 2020 were amputations and peripheral cases for acute limb ischemia; during the 2019 period, the most common cases were therapeutic endovascular procedures. There was a decrease in case volume for vascular senior residents of 77% and vascular junior and midlevel residents of 75%. There was a 77% survey response rate with 50% of respondents in the senior years of training. Overall, 20% of respondents expressed concern about completing ACGME requirements due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Vascular surgery-specific clinical educational and operative experiences during redeployment efforts have been limited. Further efforts should be directed to quantify the impact on training and to evaluate the efficacy of training supplements such as teleconferences and simulation.
A Single-Center Experience of Anterior Accessory Great Saphenous Vein Endothermal Ablation Demonstrates Safety and Efficacy [Meeting Abstract]
Perioperative Intravenous Corticosteroids and Radiographic Prevertebral Soft Tissue Swelling in Anterior Cervical Fusion for Degenerative Disease
OBJECTIVE:Prevertebral soft tissue swelling (PSTS) is a known complication of anterior cervical fusion (ACF). Prior studies have shown that perioperative steroids may reduce PSTS after ACF. We retrospectively evaluated the role of perioperative intravenous (IV) corticosteroid administration in minimizing radiographic PSTS measurements in patients undergoing ACF for degenerative disease. METHODS:Records of 100 consecutive patients undergoing ACF for degenerative disease (Current Procedural Terminology code 63075) from January 2010 through December 2012 by 2 orthopedic spine fellowship-trained surgeons at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included on the basis of specific criteria. They were then separated into comparison and IV steroid groups. Demographic and surgical data were collected. Last, measurements of PSTS, which included PSTS ratio and PSTS index (PSTSI), were obtained from plain radiographs preoperatively and at 3 postoperative time points. RESULTS:Eighty patients were included; 26 received IV steroids at the surgeon's discretion (12 intraoperatively, 11 postoperatively and 3 at both time periods). With the exception of a history of prior anterior cervical spine surgery (3.70% comparison vs. 23.08% IV steroid, PÂ = 0.01), there was no statistically significant demographic characteristic. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant surgical characteristic. Last, there was no statistically significant difference between groups at any time point for either PSTS ratio at any level or PSTSI. CONCLUSIONS:There does not appear to be a role for perioperative IV steroid administration in minimizing radiographic PSTS in patients undergoing ACF for degenerative disease. The relationship between perioperative IV steroid administration and PSTS requires further investigation.
Outcomes of Translumbar Embolization of Type II Endoleaks After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair [Meeting Abstract]
Lower extremity compartment syndrome after elective percutaneous fenestrated endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm
Ischemic complications after fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (FEVAR) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 65-year-old man who underwent a FEVAR complicated by bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome requiring four-compartment fasciotomies. This ischemic complication was likely caused by sheath occlusion because the patient had no evidence of arterial injury or distal plaque embolization. This case highlights the importance of careful postoperative monitoring after FEVAR, because the larger sheaths required can be occlusive and result in lower extremity ischemia, even for relatively short cases.
Complication Rates Are Similar Between Venous and Arterial Lytic Therapies; However, the Risk Factor Profiles May Differ [Meeting Abstract]