Acute Peritoneal Dialysis During the COVID-19 Pandemic at Bellevue Hospital in New York City
Background:The COVID-19 pandemic strained hospital resources in New York City, including those for providing dialysis. New York University Medical Center and affiliations, including New York City Health and Hospitals/Bellevue, developed a plan to offset the increased needs for KRT. We established acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) capability, as usual dialysis modalities were overwhelmed by COVID-19 AKI. Methods:Observational study of patients requiring KRT admitted to Bellevue Hospital during the COVID surge. Bellevue Hospital is one of the largest public hospitals in the United States, providing medical care to an underserved population. There were substantial staff, supplies, and equipment shortages. Adult patients admitted with AKI who required KRT were considered for PD. We rapidly established an acute PD program. A surgery team placed catheters at the bedside in the intensive care unit; a nephrology team delivered treatment. We provided an alternative to hemodialysis and continuous venovenous hemofiltration for treating patients in the intensive-care unit, demonstrating efficacy with outcomes comparable to standard care. Results:From April 8, 2020 to May 8, 2020, 39 catheters were placed into ten women and 29 men. By June 10, 39% of the patients started on PD recovered kidney function (average ages 56 years for men and 59.5 years for women); men and women who expired were an average 71.8 and 66.2 years old. No episodes of peritonitis were observed; there were nine incidents of minor leaking. Some patients were treated while ventilated in the prone position. Conclusions:Demand compelled us to utilize acute PD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our experience is one of the largest recently reported in the United States of which we are aware. Acute PD provided lifesaving care to acutely ill patients when expanding current resources was impossible. Our experience may help other programs to avoid rationing dialysis treatments in health crises.
Modulation of chloride secretion in the rat ileum by intracellular bicarbonate
Increasing intracellular bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3-]i) inhibits calcium-mediated Cl- secretion in rat distal colon and T84 cells. We investigated the effect of [HCO3-]i on Cl- secretion in rat ileum. Segments of intact ileum from Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in Ussing chambers and villus and crypt intracellular pH and [HCO3-]i were determined using BCECF. A range of crypt and villus [HCO3-]i from 0 to 31 mM was obtained by varying Ringer's composition. Basal serosal-to-mucosal Cl- flux (JsmCl) averaged 8.5 +/- 0.2 mu eq.h-1.cm-2 and was unaffected by changing [HCO3-]i or serosal bumetanide. Carbachol increased JsmCl by 3.9 +/- 0.5 mu eq.h-1.cm-2 at [HCO3-]i = 0 mM but only by 1.0 +/- 0.3 mu eq.h-1.cm-2 at high crypt and villus [HCO3-]i. Dibutyryl-cAMP increased JsmCl by 2.5 +/- 0.2 mu eq.h-1.cm-2 at all [HCO3-]i. Carbachol and db-cAMP showed mutual antagonism at low [HCO3-]i and near-additivity at high [HCO3-]i. We conclude that like rat colon and T84 cells, calcium-mediated but not cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion in the ileum is inhibited by increasing [HCO3-]i. Mutual antagonism between carbachol and db-cAMP at low [HCO3-]i was present in ileum and distal colon but not in T84 cells
Immune complex glomerulonephritis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), characterized by heavy proteinuria, rapidly progressive renal failure, 'collapsing' glomerulopathy, and tubulointerstitial abnormalities, is the most common finding in HIV-infected patients undergoing a renal biopsy and predominantly affects blacks. We describe the clinical features and renal pathologic findings of 12 intravenous drug users (IVDUs) coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) who were selected for renal biopsy because they presented with features different from typical HIVAN, including hypertension, microscopic hematuria, and cryoglobulinemia. There were seven black and five Hispanic patients. Eleven patients had immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN); one had glomerulosclerosis with immune complex deposits. Ten individuals had evidence of past hepatitis B viral infection, but none had persistent hepatitis B surface antigenemia. No other underlying cause for immune complex glomerulonephritis was identified. Renal biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in five patients, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in five, membranous nephropathy in one, and 'collapsing' glomerulopathy with immune complex deposits in one. Hepatitis C virus RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the renal tissue and/or serum of nine of the 11 patients tested, and also in the renal biopsy tissue of four of eight patients with clinical and pathologic features of typical HIVAN without immunofluorescence evidence of immune complex deposits. One patient presented with renal failure, five patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis (mean time, 6.5 months), and six had stable renal function after a mean follow-up of 29.1 months (range, 2 to 72 months). Liver function abnormalities were present in seven of the 12 individuals, including four of the six patients who developed renal failure. These findings indicate that in some patients coinfected with HIV and HCV, the development of ICGN may dominate the clinical course of the disease. The occurrence of ICGN among black patients at risk for HIVAN may be related to the relatively high prevalence of HCV infection among IVDUs in this group