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Ophthalmic imaging for the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma: A review

Yuksel Elgin, Cansu; Chen, Dinah; Al-Aswad, Lama A
The last three decades have been a turning point for early glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring by newly developed imaging techniques. Improvements in imaging of the anterior segment (AS), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), optic nerve head (ONH), and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) came into existence and broke new ground for early diagnosis and progression survey. This review will summarize the different ophthalmic imaging techniques, their principles, pros and cons, ongoing development processes, and the future of imaging methods. The aim is to provide the clinician with an understanding of the role of imaging methods and provide insight for appropriate use and evaluation of their outputs in glaucoma diagnosis and treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 35050529
ISSN: 1442-9071
CID: 5131692

Intraocular Metastasis of Large T-cell Lymphoma Transformed from Mycosis Fungoides [Letter]

Chen, Dinah; Modi, Yasha; Goduni, Lediana; Chong, Jillian; Tsui, Edmund; Breazzano, Mark P; Dedania, Vaidehi; Marr, Brian; Sarraf, David
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To describe a rare case of intraocular lymphoma that metastasized from cutaneous mycosis fungoides and transformed to large cell T cell lymphoma resulting in vitreoretinal pathology. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective case report. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:A 57-year-old male presented with 3 months of blurred vision in the right eye. He reported only a medical history of psoriasis. Examination revealed keratic precipitates and dense vitritis in the right eye. He was taken for a diagnostic vitrectomy. Histopathology showed that atypical lymphoid cells and flow cytometry were consistent with transformed large cell T-cell lymphoma. During follow-up, pre- and inner retinal lesions were noted throughout the posterior pole. Histopathology of the psoriatic lesions was consistent with mycosis fungoides. He was initiated on systemic and intravitreal methotrexate with improvement in vision. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Ocular involvement in metastatic transformed T-cell lymphoma is extremely rare but can be present with vitritis and retinal deposits. Our patient responded well to intravitreal methotrexate therapy.
PMID: 35201959
ISSN: 1744-5078
CID: 5172312

Ophthalmic imaging for the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma: A review [Review]

Elgin, Cansu Yuksel; Chen, Dinah; Al-Aswad, Lama A.
ISSN: 1442-6404
CID: 5242742

The Impact of International Pricing Index Models on Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Drug Costs in the United States

Choi, Stephanie; Chen, Evan M; Chen, Dinah; Sridhar, Jayanth; Parikh, Ravi
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the impact of three international pricing index models on Medicare Part B spending for intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs Design: Cost analysis Methods: U.S. and international sales data from the Multinational Integrated Data Analysis (MIDAS) database was used with data from the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to calculate Medicare Part B spending on anti-VEGF drugs Main Outcome: Medicare Part B expenditures of anti-VEGF drugs under various international pricing index models Results: Total Medicare Part B savings was greatest (75%) under the "most favored nation" proposal to peg the U.S. price to the lowest international price. Under the "most favored nation" proposal, prices of aflibercept are reduced from $1825.80 to $507.17, bevacizumab from $74.39 to $27.55, and ranibizumab (3 units or 0.3mg) from $1057.08 to $99.72. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:International pricing index models are one of many pricing strategies that could lead to savings in Medicare Part B costs.
PMID: 33822670
ISSN: 1744-5205
CID: 4858472

Economic Challenges of Artificial Intelligence Adoption for Diabetic Retinopathy

Chen, Evan M; Chen, Dinah; Chilakamarri, Priyanka; Lopez, Rieza; Parikh, Ravi
Under current reimbursement models, implementation of IDx-DR may not be financially practical. Adequate reimbursement is necessary to incentivize widespread adoption and realize the potential of automated imaging to increase early detection of diabetic retinopathy.
PMID: 32717340
ISSN: 1549-4713
CID: 4535562

Pseudopemphigoid: Sarcoidosis presenting as cicatricial conjunctivitis with symblepharon

Charles, Norman C; Chen, Dinah K; Lazzaro, Douglas R; Belinsky, Irina
Conjunctival involvement in sarcoidosis is commonly characterized by epibulbar nodules or follicular conjunctivitis. The authors describe an apparently healthy woman who developed extensive monocular cicatricial conjunctivitis with symblepharon. The array of conditions presenting with cicatricial conjunctivitis was considered, with mucous membrane pemphigoid leading the diagnostic possibilities. Conjunctival biopsy disclosed the non-infectious, non-caseating granulomas of sarcoidosis and a systemic evaluation disclosed pulmonary nodules and hilar lymphadenopathy. As the patient had no respiratory symptoms and an old history of hepatic steatosis, oral hydroxychloroquine and topical cyclosporin were chosen for therapy rather than systemic corticosteroids.
PMID: 33135488
ISSN: 1724-6016
CID: 4661212

Visual Search in Amblyopia: Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements and Suboptimal Sampling Strategies

Chen, Dinah; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Shaikh, Aasef G; Ghasia, Fatema F
Purpose:Microsaccades shift the image on the fovea and counteract visual fading. They are also thought to serve as an optimal sampling strategy while viewing complex visual scenes. The goal of our study was to assess visual search in amblyopic children. Methods:Twenty-one amblyopic children with varying severity of amblyopia and 10 healthy controls were recruited. Eye movements were recorded using infrared video-oculography during amblyopic and fellow eye viewing while the subjects performed (1) visual fixation, (2) exploration of a blank scene, and (3) visual search task (spot the difference between two images). The number of correctly identified picture differences and reaction time were recorded. Microsaccade, saccades, and intersaccadic drifts were analyzed in patients without latent nystagmus (LN). Slow phase velocities were computed for patients with LN. Results:Both patients with and without LN were able to spot the same number of differences but took longer during fellow eye viewing compared to controls. The ability to identify differences was diminished during amblyopic eye viewing particularly those with LN and severe amblyopia. We found reduced frequencies of microsaccades and saccades in both amblyopic and fellow eyes during fixation and visual search but not during exploration of blank scene. Across all tasks, amblyopes with LN had increased intersaccadic drifts. Conclusions:Our findings suggest that deficient microsaccade and saccadic activity contributes to poorer sampling strategy in amblyopia, which is seen in both amblyopic and fellow eye. These deficits are more notable among subjects who experienced binocular decorrelation earlier in life, with subsequent development of LN.
PMID: 30208418
ISSN: 1552-5783
CID: 4952462

Association of Postpartum Predischarge Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate with In-Hospital Breastfeeding Initiation

Chen, Dinah; Fuell Wysong, Elena; Li, Hong; Perriera, Lisa; Furman, Lydia
OBJECTIVE:The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between postpartum predischarge depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (ppDMPA) and in-hospital breastfeeding initiation, and the secondary exploratory aim was to determine if any racial disparities are associated with ppDMPA receipt or its relationship to breastfeeding initiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective chart review of maternal and newborn records at a large urban academic medical center. Variables extracted included in-hospital feeding choice, obstetrical and sociodemographic variables, infant characteristics, and ppDMPA receipt. The association of ppDMPA and maternal-child characteristics with breastfeeding initiation was examined using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Among singleton live births of 919 mother-infant pairs (76.5% African American [AA]), 67% initiated breastfeeding (34% exclusive and 33% mixed) and 31.4% received ppDMPA. Breastfeeding rates differed significantly between AA (60.7%) and non-AA mothers (86.6%), and ppDMPA also differed significantly between AA (37.6%) and non-AA mothers (11.6%). Adjusting for other independent predictors, mothers who received ppDMPA were 1.5 times more likely not to initiate breastfeeding if AA, and 5.2 times more likely not to initiate breastfeeding if non-AA. CONCLUSIONS:ppDMPA receipt was independently associated with decreased rates of breastfeeding initiation. Although more AA mothers received ppDMPA than non-AA, the association of ppDMPA with breastfeeding noninitiation was stronger in non-AA than in AA mothers. Future research should examine this question prospectively to ascertain if there is a cause-effect relationship and should address both physiological effects and social perceptions.
PMID: 27782765
ISSN: 1556-8342
CID: 4952452

Emergency department characteristics and capabilities in Bogotá, Colombia

Bustos, Yury; Castro, Jenny; Wen, Leana S; Sullivan, Ashley F; Chen, Dinah K; Camargo, Carlos A
BACKGROUND:Emergency departments (EDs) are a critical, yet heterogeneous, part of international emergency care. The National ED Inventories (NEDI) survey has been used in multiple countries as a standardized method to benchmark ED characteristics. We sought to describe the characteristics, resources, capabilities, and capacity of EDs in the densely populated capital city of Bogotá, Colombia. METHODS:Bogotá EDs accessible to the general public 24/7 were surveyed using the 23-item NEDI survey used in several other countries ( ). ED staff were asked about ED characteristics with reference to calendar year 2011. RESULTS:Seventy EDs participated (82 % response). Most EDs (87 %) were located in hospitals, and 83 % were independent hospital departments. The median annual ED visit volume was approximately 50,000 visits. Approximately 90 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 80-96 %) had a contiguous layout, with medical and surgical care provided in one area. Almost all EDs saw both adults and children (91 %), while 6 % saw only adults and 3 % saw only children. Availability of technological and consultant resources in EDs was variable. Nearly every ED had cardiac monitoring (99 %, 95 % CI 92-100 %), but less than half had a dedicated CT scanner (39 %, 95 % CI 28-52 %). While most EDs were able to treat trauma 24/7 (81 %, 95 % CI 69-89 %), few could manage oncological (22 %, 95 % CI 13-34 %) or dental (3 %, 95 % CI 0-11 %) emergencies 24/7. The typical ED length-of-stay was between 1 and 6 h in 59 % of EDs (95 % CI, 46-70 %), while most others reported that patients remained for >6 h (39 %). Almost half of respondents (46 %, 95 % CI 34-59 %) reported their ED was over capacity. CONCLUSIONS:Bogotá EDs have high annual visit volumes and long length-of-stay, and half are over capacity. To meet the emergency care needs of people in Bogotá and other large cities, Colombia should consider improving urban ED capacity and training more emergency medicine specialists capable of efficiently staffing its large and crowded EDs.
PMID: 26253755
ISSN: 1865-1372
CID: 4952442