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Closed-loop stimulation using a multiregion brain-machine interface has analgesic effects in rodents

Sun, Guanghao; Zeng, Fei; McCartin, Michael; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Xu, Helen; Liu, Yaling; Chen, Zhe Sage; Wang, Jing
Effective treatments for chronic pain remain limited. Conceptually, a closed-loop neural interface combining sensory signal detection with therapeutic delivery could produce timely and effective pain relief. Such systems are challenging to develop because of difficulties in accurate pain detection and ultrafast analgesic delivery. Pain has sensory and affective components, encoded in large part by neural activities in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), respectively. Meanwhile, studies show that stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) produces descending pain control. Here, we designed and tested a brain-machine interface (BMI) combining an automated pain detection arm, based on simultaneously recorded local field potential (LFP) signals from the S1 and ACC, with a treatment arm, based on optogenetic activation or electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFC in freely behaving rats. Our multiregion neural interface accurately detected and treated acute evoked pain and chronic pain. This neural interface is activated rapidly, and its efficacy remained stable over time. Given the clinical feasibility of LFP recordings and DBS, our findings suggest that BMI is a promising approach for pain treatment.
PMID: 35767651
ISSN: 1946-6242
CID: 5263662

Uncovering spatial representations from spatiotemporal patterns of rodent hippocampal field potentials

Cao, Liang; Varga, Viktor; Chen, Zhe S
Spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale spiking and field potentials of the rodent hippocampus encode spatial representations during maze runs, immobility, and sleep. Here, we show that multisite hippocampal field potential amplitude at ultra-high-frequency band (FPAuhf), a generalized form of multiunit activity, provides not only a fast and reliable reconstruction of the rodent's position when awake, but also a readout of replay content during sharp-wave ripples. This FPAuhf feature may serve as a robust real-time decoding strategy from large-scale recordings in closed-loop experiments. Furthermore, we develop unsupervised learning approaches to extract low-dimensional spatiotemporal FPAuhf features during run and ripple periods and to infer latent dynamical structures from lower-rank FPAuhf features. We also develop an optical flow-based method to identify propagating spatiotemporal LFP patterns from multisite array recordings, which can be used as a decoding application. Finally, we develop a prospective decoding strategy to predict an animal's future decision in goal-directed navigation.
PMID: 34888543
ISSN: 2667-2375
CID: 5110442

Spiking Recurrent Neural Networks Represent Task-Relevant Neural Sequences in Rule-Dependent Computation

Xue, Xiaohe; Wimmer, Ralf D.; Halassa, Michael M.; Chen, Zhe Sage
Prefrontal cortical neurons play essential roles in performing rule-dependent tasks and working memory-based decision making. Motivated by PFC recordings of task-performing mice, we developed an excitatory"“inhibitory spiking recurrent neural network (SRNN) to perform a rule-dependent two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. We imposed several important biological constraints onto the SRNN and adapted spike frequency adaptation (SFA) and SuperSpike gradient methods to train the SRNN efficiently. The trained SRNN produced emergent rule-specific tunings in single-unit representations, showing rule-dependent population dynamics that resembled experimentally observed data. Under various test conditions, we manipulated the SRNN parameters or configuration in computer simulations, and we investigated the impacts of rule-coding error, delay duration, recurrent weight connectivity and sparsity, and excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance on both task performance and neural representations. Overall, our modeling study provides a computational framework to understand neuronal representations at a fine timescale during working memory and cognitive control and provides new experimentally testable hypotheses in future experiments.
ISSN: 1866-9956
CID: 5165912

Decoding pain from brain activity

Chen, Zhe Sage
Pain is a dynamic, complex and multidimensional experience. The identification of pain from brain activity as neural readout may effectively provide a neural code for pain, and further provide useful information for pain diagnosis and treatment. Advances in neuroimaging and large-scale electrophysiology have enabled us to examine neural activity with improved spatial and temporal resolution, providing opportunities to decode pain in humans and freely behaving animals. This topical review provides a systematical overview of state-of-the-art methods for decoding pain from brain signals, with special emphasis on electrophysiological and neuroimaging modalities. We show how pain decoding analyses can help pain diagnosis and discovery of neurobiomarkers for chronic pain. Finally, we discuss the challenges in the research field and point to several important future research directions.
PMID: 34608868
ISSN: 1741-2552
CID: 5039502

Sharp Tuning of Head Direction and Angular Head Velocity Cells in the Somatosensory Cortex

Long, Xiaoyang; Deng, Bin; Young, Calvin K; Liu, Guo-Long; Zhong, Zeqi; Chen, Qian; Yang, Hui; Lv, Sheng-Qing; Chen, Zhe Sage; Zhang, Sheng-Jia
Head direction (HD) cells form a fundamental component in the brain's spatial navigation system and are intricately linked to spatial memory and cognition. Although HD cells have been shown to act as an internal neuronal compass in various cortical and subcortical regions, the neural substrate of HD cells is incompletely understood. It is reported that HD cells in the somatosensory cortex comprise regular-spiking (RS, putative excitatory) and fast-spiking (FS, putative inhibitory) neurons. Surprisingly, somatosensory FS HD cells fire in bursts and display much sharper head-directionality than RS HD cells. These FS HD cells are nonconjunctive, rarely theta rhythmic, sparsely connected and enriched in layer 5. Moreover, sharply tuned FS HD cells, in contrast with RS HD cells, maintain stable tuning in darkness; FS HD cells' coexistence with RS HD cells and angular head velocity (AHV) cells in a layer-specific fashion through the somatosensory cortex presents a previously unreported configuration of spatial representation in the neocortex. Together, these findings challenge the notion that FS interneurons are weakly tuned to sensory stimuli, and offer a local circuit organization relevant to the generation and transmission of HD signaling in the brain.
PMID: 35297541
ISSN: 2198-3844
CID: 5182432

Pain, from perception to action: A computational perspective

Chen, Zhe Sage; Wang, Jing
Pain is driven by sensation and emotion, and in turn, it motivates decisions and actions. To fully appreciate the multidimensional nature of pain, we formulate the study of pain within a closed-loop framework of sensory-motor prediction. In this closed-loop cycle, prediction plays an important role, as the interaction between prediction and actual sensory experience shapes pain perception and subsequently, action. In this Perspective, we describe the roles of two prominent computational theories-Bayesian inference and reinforcement learning-in modeling adaptive pain behaviors. We show that prediction serves as a common theme between these two theories, and that each of these theories can explain unique aspects of the pain perception-action cycle. We discuss how these computational theories and models can improve our mechanistic understandings of pain-centered processes such as anticipation, attention, placebo hypoalgesia, and pain chronification.
PMID: 36570771
ISSN: 2589-0042
CID: 5392372

Temporal pain processing in the primary somatosensory cortex and anterior cingulate cortex

Sun, Guanghao; McCartin, Michael; Liu, Weizhuo; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Kenefati, George; Chen, Zhe Sage; Wang, Jing
Pain is known to have sensory and affective components. The sensory pain component is encoded by neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), whereas the emotional or affective pain experience is in large part processed by neural activities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The timing of how a mechanical or thermal noxious stimulus triggers activation of peripheral pain fibers is well-known. However, the temporal processing of nociceptive inputs in the cortex remains little studied. Here, we took two approaches to examine how nociceptive inputs are processed by the S1 and ACC. We simultaneously recorded local field potentials in both regions, during the application of a brain-computer interface (BCI). First, we compared event related potentials in the S1 and ACC. Next, we used an algorithmic pain decoder enabled by machine-learning to detect the onset of pain which was used during the implementation of the BCI to automatically treat pain. We found that whereas mechanical pain triggered neural activity changes first in the S1, the S1 and ACC processed thermal pain with a reasonably similar time course. These results indicate that the temporal processing of nociceptive information in different regions of the cortex is likely important for the overall pain experience.
PMID: 36604739
ISSN: 1756-6606
CID: 5410092

Excitatory-inhibitory recurrent dynamics produce robust visual grids and stable attractors

Zhang, Xiaohan; Long, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Sheng-Jia; Chen, Zhe Sage
Spatially modulated grid cells have been recently found in the rat secondary visual cortex (V2) during active navigation. However, the computational mechanism and functional significance of V2 grid cells remain unknown. To address the knowledge gap, we train a biologically inspired excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neural network to perform a two-dimensional spatial navigation task with multisensory input. We find grid-like responses in both excitatory and inhibitory RNN units, which are robust with respect to spatial cues, dimensionality of visual input, and activation function. Population responses reveal a low-dimensional, torus-like manifold and attractor. We find a link between functional grid clusters with similar receptive fields and structured excitatory-to-excitatory connections. Additionally, multistable torus-like attractors emerged with increasing sparsity in inter- and intra-subnetwork connectivity. Finally, irregular grid patterns are found in recurrent neural network (RNN) units during a visual sequence recognition task. Together, our results suggest common computational mechanisms of V2 grid cells for spatial and non-spatial tasks.
PMID: 36516752
ISSN: 2211-1247
CID: 5382202

Modern views of machine learning for precision psychiatry

Chen, Zhe Sage; Kulkarni, Prathamesh Param; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bigio, Benedetta; Nasca, Carla; Zhang, Yu
In light of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)'s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), the advent of functional neuroimaging, novel technologies and methods provide new opportunities to develop precise and personalized prognosis and diagnosis of mental disorders. Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are playing an increasingly critical role in the new era of precision psychiatry. Combining ML/AI with neuromodulation technologies can potentially provide explainable solutions in clinical practice and effective therapeutic treatment. Advanced wearable and mobile technologies also call for the new role of ML/AI for digital phenotyping in mobile mental health. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of ML methodologies and applications by combining neuroimaging, neuromodulation, and advanced mobile technologies in psychiatry practice. We further review the role of ML in molecular phenotyping and cross-species biomarker identification in precision psychiatry. We also discuss explainable AI (XAI) and neuromodulation in a closed human-in-the-loop manner and highlight the ML potential in multi-media information extraction and multi-modal data fusion. Finally, we discuss conceptual and practical challenges in precision psychiatry and highlight ML opportunities in future research.
PMID: 36419447
ISSN: 2666-3899
CID: 5384302

Interictal EEG and ECG for SUDEP Risk Assessment: A Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study

Chen, Zhe Sage; Hsieh, Aaron; Sun, Guanghao; Bergey, Gregory K; Berkovic, Samuel F; Perucca, Piero; D'Souza, Wendyl; Elder, Christopher J; Farooque, Pue; Johnson, Emily L; Barnard, Sarah; Nightscales, Russell; Kwan, Patrick; Moseley, Brian; O'Brien, Terence J; Sivathamboo, Shobi; Laze, Juliana; Friedman, Daniel; Devinsky, Orrin
Objective/UNASSIGNED:Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of epilepsy-related mortality. Although lots of effort has been made in identifying clinical risk factors for SUDEP in the literature, there are few validated methods to predict individual SUDEP risk. Prolonged postictal EEG suppression (PGES) is a potential SUDEP biomarker, but its occurrence is infrequent and requires epilepsy monitoring unit admission. We use machine learning methods to examine SUDEP risk using interictal EEG and ECG recordings from SUDEP cases and matched living epilepsy controls. Methods/UNASSIGNED:This multicenter, retrospective, cohort study examined interictal EEG and ECG recordings from 30 SUDEP cases and 58 age-matched living epilepsy patient controls. We trained machine learning models with interictal EEG and ECG features to predict the retrospective SUDEP risk for each patient. We assessed cross-validated classification accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve. Results/UNASSIGNED:The logistic regression (LR) classifier produced the overall best performance, outperforming the support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and convolutional neural network (CNN). Among the 30 patients with SUDEP [14 females; mean age (SD), 31 (8.47) years] and 58 living epilepsy controls [26 females (43%); mean age (SD) 31 (8.5) years], the LR model achieved the median AUC of 0.77 [interquartile range (IQR), 0.73-0.80] in five-fold cross-validation using interictal alpha and low gamma power ratio of the EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) features extracted from the ECG. The LR model achieved the mean AUC of 0.79 in leave-one-center-out prediction. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Our results support that machine learning-driven models may quantify SUDEP risk for epilepsy patients, future refinements in our model may help predict individualized SUDEP risk and help clinicians correlate predictive scores with the clinical data. Low-cost and noninvasive interictal biomarkers of SUDEP risk may help clinicians to identify high-risk patients and initiate preventive strategies.
PMID: 35370908
ISSN: 1664-2295
CID: 5191502