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The Stresses of Surrogate Decision-Making: Contributing Factors and Clinicians' Role in Mitigation

Mishkin, Adrienne D; Allen, Nicole C; Cheung, Stephanie G; Faccini, Maria Carla; Flicker, Lauren S; Shalev, Daniel
BACKGROUND:Surrogate Decision-Makers (surrogates) are frequently employed in decision-making for critically ill adults. There are insufficient data considering the surrogate experience, stress, and potential for mitigation. METHODS:An anonymous online survey queried (1) medical situation (2) total stress (3) demographics (4) potential factors, including sources of information about patient wishes, external sources of support or competing stressors, and their interactions with the medical team through the experience. RESULTS:= .001). CONCLUSIONS:Surrogate stress is an evolving area for research. Significant factors included relationship with the medical team, making this an important area for HPM to play a key role in mitigating surrogate stress.
PMID: 37704184
ISSN: 1938-2715
CID: 5558072

Consultation-Liaison Telepsychiatry: A Coded Thematic Analysis of Clinicians' Reported Experiences

Potkin, Maxmoore T; Mishkin, Adrienne D; Cheung, Stephanie G; Hicks-Puig, Christian; Magoon, Christopher; Capote, Justin; Muskin, Philip R
BACKGROUND:Telepsychiatry is now common practice. Within consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP), previous work has shown that telepsychiatry is feasible and satisfactory. To date, there has not been qualitative work done within CLP to describe the clinician's experience with telepsychiatry. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to perform a thematic analysis of clinicians' perceived benefits and limitations of providing telepsychiatry in CLP. METHODS:An anonymous clinician survey querying demographics, education, training, technological experience, and practice characteristics was distributed via social media and professional listservs, the quantitative results of which are presented elsewhere. Two questions (What was the best/worst aspect of adapting to telepsychiatry?) required free-text responses; comments were allowed elsewhere. We performed a thematic analysis of the text responses because of its flexibility and ability to develop new insights. We synthesized and generated a codebook iteratively. Initial coding was completed by 3 co-authors independently, followed by discussion to build consensus. We used qualitative content analysis to better understand common trends and frequencies in the data. Saturation of themes was reached. RESULTS:A total of 333 behavioral health clinicians completed the survey, including 197 CLP participants. Most respondents (98.5%) responded to at least 1 open-answer question, with 314 reporting the worst aspects of telepsychiatry and 315 reporting the best aspects. Respondents made insightful comments about boundaries, public health implications, and the need for training. We categorized the results into implications for practice, therapeutic relationship, and uniquely affected populations. CONCLUSIONS:These results show that telepsychiatry has both unique benefits and limitations within CLP. Our work examines and describes these nuances. We believe that future use of telepsychiatry will be synergistic with in-person care and that the 2 modalities will be used together to maximize benefits. A public health focus on improving Internet access and simplifying interstate licensure would improve equitable access and utilization of outpatient telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry can be successful for inpatient Consultation-Liaison work but requires thoughtful triage and teamwork.
PMID: 36584768
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5418962

High incidence of suicidal ideation in a series of sickle cell patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Mishkin, Adrienne D; Cheung, Stephanie G; Hoffman, Alison; Leimbach, Elizabeth J; Dosovitz, Simon M; Mapara, Markus Y
PMID: 35973198
ISSN: 2473-9537
CID: 5295562

Survey of Clinician Experiences of Telepsychiatry and Tele-Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry

Mishkin, Adrienne D; Cheung, Stephanie; Capote, Justin; Fan, Weijia; Muskin, Philip R
BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic created pressure to implement telepsychiatry across practice models. OBJECTIVE:We sought to evaluate the overall success of this change and to identify what types of practice settings, provider groups, and patient groups were best served by telepsychiatry and telepsychotherapy utilization. We were particularly interested in how providers of consultation-liaison psychiatry adapted to remote care. METHODS:An anonymous provider survey querying demographics, education, training, technological experience, practice setting, treatment modalities, patient groups, transition process, and outcomes was made openly available via social media and professional listservs. We used multivariable regression modeling to evaluate for predictors of the positive outcomes of overall satisfaction, subjective ability to diagnose and treat patients adequately using exclusively telepsychiatric platforms, and patient satisfaction by proxy. RESULTS:Three hundred thirty-three respondents, mostly young (59.4% younger than 50 years), female (69.7%), and physicians (67.9%), completed the survey. One hundred ninety-seven (59.1%) worked in consultation-liaison psychiatry. Of the total, 85.9% gave affirmative answers to overall satisfaction. Multivariable linear regression models found that satisfaction was predicted by general comfort with technology (P < 0.001), but negatively correlated with having technical issues (P < 0.001), a priori skepticism (P < 0.001), clinician being male (P = 0.004), and treating LGBTQ+ patients (P = 0.022). Completeness was associated with having training in telehealth (P = 0.039) and general comfort with technology (P < 0.001) but negatively associated with treating LGBTQ+ patients (P = 0.024) or inpatients (P = 0.002). Patient satisfaction by proxy was positively associated with general comfort with technology (P < 0.001) and the respondent being a nonphysician (P = 0.004) and negatively associated with encountering a technical issue (P = 0.013) or treating inpatients (P = 0.045). Consultation-liaison psychiatrists had similar results overall and were more likely to have other staff assist in making televisits effective (mean [standard deviation]: -1.25 [3.57] versus -2.76 [3.27], P < 0.001) especially if consultative (mean [standard deviation]: -0.87 [3.67] versus -2.39 [3.01], P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests high rates of overall satisfaction in telepsychiatry adoption, even in consultation-liaison psychiatry. There is distinct benefit in bolstering training, providing technical support, and addressing skepticism. Future research should include patient surveys and control groups and should focus on vulnerable populations such as sexual and gender minorities.
PMID: 34793997
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5250112

Telepsychiatry in the Consultation Setting: Lessons Learned During COVID-19

Mishkin, Adrienne D; Cheung, Stephanie G; Capote, Justin; Muskin, Philip R
ISSN: 0033-2704
CID: 5253582

Integrating Behavioral Health and Serious Illness Care in a Post-COVID-19 Environment

Shalev, Daniel; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Cheung, Stephanie; Levenson, Jon A; Pincus, Harold Alan
Individuals with serious medical illnesses experience high rates of comorbid behavioral health conditions. Behavioral health comorbidity affects outcomes in serious illness care. Despite this consequence, behavioral health remains siloed from serious illness care. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the authors presented a conceptual model of behavioral health integration into serious illness care. In this column, the authors reflect on this model in the context of the challenges and opportunities posed by COVID-19.
PMID: 34106738
ISSN: 1557-9700
CID: 5253572

Pilot Assessment of Patient and Provider Characteristics Associated With Satisfactory Consultation-Liaison Telepsychiatry Encounters

Cheung, Stephanie G; Capote, Justin; Fan, Weijia; Mishkin, Adrienne D
BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic created pressure to attempt remote consultation, but there are limited data on the use of telepsychiatry in general, and almost none about the experience of telepsychiatry in a consultation-liaison context. OBJECTIVE:We looked for attributes that correlated with satisfactory tele-encounters. METHODS:Eleven consultation-liaison attending surveys and 8 attendings' tele-encounter logs from March to June 2020 were completed and reviewed to assess for patient and provider characteristics associated with barriers to using telepsychiatry. RESULTS:A vast majority of 223 tele-psychiatric encounters were acceptable to providers in terms of technology (82%) and their ability to form a connection with the patient (78%). In multivariable logistic regression models, an unresolvable difficulty in using the platform was less common for female patients (odds ratio = 0.239, P = 0.002) and more common for patients who prefer a non-English language (odds ratio = 9.059, P < 0.001); achieving a personal connection that felt right was also less likely for patients who prefer a non-English language (odds ratio = 0.189, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Telepsychiatry has previously been limited to outpatient use and, generally, for providers and patients who specifically preferred it. However, abrupt transition to the use of telepsychiatry to limit contagion risk was mostly satisfactory in our center; identifying for which patient encounters it is most and least appropriate will help guide future use.
PMID: 34051404
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5250102

Bipolar disorder and the gut microbiome: A systematic review

Sublette, M Elizabeth; Cheung, Stephanie; Lieberman, Evan; Hu, Shaohua; Mann, J John; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Miller, Jeffrey M
OBJECTIVES:The microbiome is a rapidly advancing biomedical frontier with relevance for psychiatric illness. The gut microbiota interact with the central nervous system bidirectionally through the gut-brain axis and generate substances that may influence host metabolism, including short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Understanding gut microbiota in bipolar disorder (BD) may suggest new disease markers and treatment approaches. METHODS:A PubMed search was performed on January 7, 2020 using terms "bipolar AND (microbiome OR microbiota)", for articles in English in which the study population included a distinct BD group and the gut microbiota/microbiome was assessed. RESULTS:Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. In four of five studies that reported on group comparisons with respect to diversity, lower α-diversity was observed in BD relative to healthy controls (HC). The most convergent taxonomic finding was that in four studies, one particular clade distinguished gut microbiota between BD and HC: family Ruminococcaceae, genus Faecalibacterium, and species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Members of this clade, known for butyrate production, were reduced in BD relative to HC in three studies but elevated in a fourth. Additionally, genera Bacteroides or Bacteroides-Prevotella group species were elevated in BD in two studies but lower in a third. CONCLUSIONS:Despite few studies and modest sample sizes, salient findings suggest that low α-diversity and dysbiosis with respect to abundance of Faecalibacterium and Bacteroides may characterize BD in both a trait and state-dependent fashion. Decreased richness and butyrate production also foster inflammation, which may be a hitherto unrecognized part of the pathophysiology underlying BD.
PMID: 33512753
ISSN: 1399-5618
CID: 5250092

Depression, Anxiety, and Acute Stress Disorder Among Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19: A Prospective Cohort Study

Parker, Catherine; Shalev, Daniel; Hsu, Ian; Shenoy, Akhil; Cheung, Stephanie; Nash, Sara; Wiener, Ilona; Fedoronko, David; Allen, Nicole; Shapiro, Peter A
BACKGROUND:The epidemiology of psychiatric symptoms among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE:This article sought to identify the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and acute stress disorder among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS:Adult patients recently admitted to nonintensive care unit medical ward settings with coronavirus disease 2019 were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients were screened for depression, anxiety, and delirium. Subsequently, patients were followed up by phone after 2 weeks and rescreened for depression, anxiety, and acute stress disorder symptoms. Subjects' medical records were abstracted for clinical data. RESULTS:A total of 58 subjects were enrolled; of whom, 44 completed the study. Initially, 36% of subjects had elevated anxiety symptoms and 29% had elevated depression symptoms. At 2-week follow-up, 9% had elevated anxiety symptoms, 20% had elevated depression symptoms, and 25% had mild-to-moderate acute stress disorder symptoms. Discharge to home was not associated with improvement in psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:A significant number of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 experienced symptoms of depression and anxiety. While anxiety improved after index admission, depression remained fairly stable. Furthermore, a significant minority of patients experienced acute stress disorder symptoms, though these were largely mild to moderate.
PMID: 33198962
ISSN: 2667-2960
CID: 5253562

[S.l.] : CAPC, 2020

The Case for Better Behavioral Health Integration in Serious Illness Care Settings

Cheung, Stephanie; Pincus, Harold A; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta
CID: 5253622