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Pesticide poisoning

Chapter by: Chiang, William K; Wang, RY
in: Intensive care medicine by Rippe, James M (Ed)
Boston : Little, Brown, 1995
pp. 1663-1685
ISBN: 9780316747288
CID: 3146152

Association of Patient Belief About Success of Antibiotics for Appendicitis and Outcomes: A Secondary Analysis of the CODA Randomized Clinical Trial

Zhang, Irene Y; Voldal, Emily C; Davidson, Giana H; Liao, Joshua M; Thompson, Callie M; Self, Wesley H; Kao, Lillian S; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Kaji, Amy H; DeUgarte, Daniel A; Gonzalez, Eva; Mandell, Katherine A; Ohe, Kristen; Siparsky, Nicole; Price, Thea P; Evans, David C; Victory, Jesse; Chiang, William; Jones, Alan; Kutcher, Matthew E; Ciomperlik, Hailie; Liang, Mike K; Evans, Heather L; Faine, Brett A; Neufeld, Miriam; Sanchez, Sabrina E; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Lawrence, Sarah O; Monsell, Sarah E; Fannon, Erin E C; Kessler, Larry G; Talan, David A; Flum, David R
Importance/UNASSIGNED:A patient's belief in the likely success of a treatment may influence outcomes, but this has been understudied in surgical trials. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To examine the association between patients' baseline beliefs about the likelihood of treatment success with outcomes of antibiotics for appendicitis in the Comparison of Outcomes of Antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy (CODA) trial. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This was a secondary analysis of the CODA randomized clinical trial. Participants from 25 US medical centers were enrolled between May 3, 2016, and February 5, 2020. Included in the analysis were participants with appendicitis who were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics in the CODA trial. After informed consent but before randomization, participants who were assigned to receive antibiotics responded to a baseline survey including a question about how successful they believed antibiotics could be in treating their appendicitis. Interventions/UNASSIGNED:Participants were categorized based on baseline survey responses into 1 of 3 belief groups: unsuccessful/unsure, intermediate, and completely successful. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Three outcomes were assigned at 30 days: (1) appendectomy, (2) high decisional regret or dissatisfaction with treatment, and (3) persistent signs and symptoms (abdominal pain, tenderness, fever, or chills). Outcomes were compared across groups using adjusted risk differences (aRDs), with propensity score adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 776 study participants who were assigned antibiotic treatment in CODA, a total of 425 (mean [SD] age, 38.5 [13.6] years; 277 male [65%]) completed the baseline belief survey before knowing their treatment assignment. Baseline beliefs were as follows: 22% of participants (92 of 415) had an unsuccessful/unsure response, 51% (212 of 415) had an intermediate response, and 27% (111 of 415) had a completely successful response. Compared with the unsuccessful/unsure group, those who believed antibiotics could be completely successful had a 13-percentage point lower risk of appendectomy (aRD, -13.49; 95% CI, -24.57 to -2.40). The aRD between those with intermediate vs unsuccessful/unsure beliefs was -5.68 (95% CI, -16.57 to 5.20). Compared with the unsuccessful/unsure group, those with intermediate beliefs had a lower risk of persistent signs and symptoms (aRD, -15.72; 95% CI, -29.71 to -1.72), with directionally similar results for the completely successful group (aRD, -15.14; 95% CI, -30.56 to 0.28). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:Positive patient beliefs about the likely success of antibiotics for appendicitis were associated with a lower risk of appendectomy and with resolution of signs and symptoms by 30 days. Pathways relating beliefs to outcomes and the potential modifiability of beliefs to improve outcomes merit further investigation. Trial Registration/ Identifier: NCT02800785.
PMID: 36197656
ISSN: 2168-6262
CID: 5351592

On the Analytic Characteristics of Commercial Acetaminophen Assays in the United States

Ali, Khameinei; Chiang, William; Wang, Josh Jiaxing
BACKGROUND:The management of patients with acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is largely informed by the blood concentration. We sought to assess the analytical characteristics of past and current commercial APAP assays in the United States. METHODS:We systematically reviewed the analytical characteristics of APAP assays cleared by the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) 510(k) premarket notification process by searching the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) database. We collected the following data where available: test principle, precision near 10 mg/L, precision near 150 mg/L, limits of detection, and limits of quantitation. RESULTS:For all assays, absolute analytical precision decreased as analyte concentration increased. Near [APAP] = 10 mg/L, the most precise assays had a standard deviation (SD) of 0.2 mg/L or coefficient of variation (CV) of 1% and the least precise assays had a SD of 1.8 mg/L or a CV of 10%. Near [APAP] = 150 mg/L, the most precise assay had a SD of 1.4 mg/L or CV of 0.9% and the least precise assays had a SD of 7.4 mg/L or a CV of 4.9%. CONCLUSIONS:Commercially available APAP assays had good analytical precision with improvement over time. The failure of some manufacturers to validate precision near treatment thresholds is concerning. Newer APAP assays can measure a wider range of [APAP], which likely improves the risk stratification of overdose patients but also carries a risk of overdiagnosis when minuscule quantities are detected.
PMID: 35793236
ISSN: 2576-9456
CID: 5280412

Analysis of Outcomes Associated With Outpatient Management of Nonoperatively Treated Patients With Appendicitis

Talan, David A; Moran, Gregory J; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Monsell, Sarah E; Faine, Brett A; Uribe, Lisandra; Kaji, Amy H; DeUgarte, Daniel A; Self, Wesley H; Shapiro, Nathan I; Cuschieri, Joseph; Glaser, Jacob; Park, Pauline K; Price, Thea P; Siparsky, Nicole; Sanchez, Sabrina E; Machado-Aranda, David A; Victory, Jesse; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Chiang, William; Corsa, Joshua; Evans, Heather L; Ferrigno, Lisa; Garcia, Luis; Hatch, Quinton; Horton, Marc D; Johnson, Jeffrey; Jones, Alan; Kao, Lillian S; Kelly, Anton; Kim, Daniel; Kutcher, Matthew E; Liang, Mike K; Maghami, Nima; McGrane, Karen; Minko, Elizaveta; Mohr, Cassandra; Neufeld, Miriam; Patton, Joe H; Rog, Colin; Rushing, Amy; Sabbatini, Amber K; Salzberg, Matthew; Thompson, Callie M; Tichter, Aleksandr; Wisler, Jon; Bizzell, Bonnie; Fannon, Erin; Lawrence, Sarah O; Voldal, Emily C; Lavallee, Danielle C; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Davidson, Giana H; Flum, David R; Kessler, Larry G
Importance/UNASSIGNED:In the Comparison of Outcomes of Antibiotic Drugs and Appendectomy (CODA) trial, which found antibiotics to be noninferior, approximately half of participants randomized to receive antibiotics had outpatient management with hospital discharge within 24 hours. If outpatient management is safe, it could increase convenience and decrease health care use and costs. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To assess the use and safety of outpatient management of acute appendicitis. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This cohort study, which is a secondary analysis of the CODA trial, included 776 adults with imaging-confirmed appendicitis who received antibiotics at 25 US hospitals from May 1, 2016, to February 28, 2020. Exposures/UNASSIGNED:Participants randomized to antibiotics (intravenous then oral) could be discharged from the emergency department based on clinician judgment and prespecified criteria (hemodynamically stable, afebrile, oral intake tolerated, pain controlled, and follow-up confirmed). Outpatient management and hospitalization were defined as discharge within or after 24 hours, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Outcomes compared among patients receiving outpatient vs inpatient care included serious adverse events (SAEs), appendectomies, health care encounters, satisfaction, missed workdays at 7 days, and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D) score at 30 days. In addition, appendectomy incidence among outpatients and inpatients, unadjusted and adjusted for illness severity, was compared. Results/UNASSIGNED:Among 776 antibiotic-randomized participants, 42 (5.4%) underwent appendectomy within 24 hours and 8 (1.0%) did not receive their first antibiotic dose within 24 hours, leaving 726 (93.6%) comprising the study population (median age, 36 years; range, 18-86 years; 462 [63.6%] male; 437 [60.2%] White). Of these participants, 335 (46.1%; site range, 0-89.2%) were discharged within 24 hours, and 391 (53.9%) were discharged after 24 hours. Over 7 days, SAEs occurred in 0.9 (95% CI, 0.2-2.6) per 100 outpatients and 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-2.9) per 100 inpatients; in the appendicolith subgroup, SAEs occurred in 2.3 (95% CI, 0.3-8.2) per 100 outpatients vs 2.8 (95% CI, 0.6-7.9) per 100 inpatients. During this period, appendectomy occurred in 9.9% (95% CI, 6.9%-13.7%) of outpatients and 14.1% (95% CI, 10.8%-18.0%) of inpatients; adjusted analysis demonstrated a similar difference in incidence (-4.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to 0.6). At 30 days, appendectomies occurred in 12.6% (95% CI, 9.1%-16.7%) of outpatients and 19.0% (95% CI, 15.1%-23.4%) of inpatients. Outpatients missed fewer workdays (2.6 days; 95% CI, 2.3-2.9 days) than did inpatients (3.8 days; 95% CI, 3.4-4.3 days) and had similar frequency of return health care visits and high satisfaction and EQ-5D scores. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:These findings support that outpatient antibiotic management is safe for selected adults with acute appendicitis, with no greater risk of complications or appendectomy than hospital care, and should be included in shared decision-making discussions of patient preferences for outcomes associated with nonoperative and operative care. Trial Registration/ Identifier: NCT02800785.
PMID: 35796152
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5268872

Validation of a Plant Identification Application Using Digital Images of Toxic Plants [Letter]

Mahonski, Sarah; Furlano, Emma; Chiang, William
PMID: 35084709
ISSN: 1937-6995
CID: 5154682

Antibiotics versus Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis - Longer-Term Outcomes [Letter]

Davidson, Giana H; Flum, David R; Monsell, Sarah E; Kao, Lillian S; Voldal, Emily C; Heagerty, Patrick J; Fannon, Erin; Lavallee, Danielle C; Bizzell, Bonnie; Lawrence, Sarah O; Comstock, Bryan A; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Winchell, Robert J; Self, Wesley H; Thompson, Callie M; Farjah, Farhood; Park, Pauline K; Alam, Hasan B; Saltzman, Darin; Moran, Gregory J; Kaji, Amy H; DeUgarte, Daniel A; Salzberg, Matthew; Ferrigno, Lisa; Mandell, Katherine A; Price, Thea P; Siparsky, Nicole; Glaser, Jacob; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Chiang, William; Victory, Jesse; Chung, Bruce; Carter, Damien W; Kutcher, Matthew E; Jones, Alan; Holihan, Julie; Liang, Mike K; Faine, Brett A; Cuschieri, Joseph; Evans, Heather L; Johnson, Jeffrey; Patton, Joe H; Coleman, Natasha; Fischkoff, Katherine; Drake, F Thurston; Sanchez, Sabrina E; Parsons, Charles; Odom, Stephen R; Kessler, Larry G; Talan, David A
PMID: 34694761
ISSN: 1533-4406
CID: 5042232

Intravenous Acetaminophen Overdose in an Infant With Toxicokinetic Data

Trebach, Joshua; Mahonski, Sarah G; Melchert, Kristina; Howland, Mary Ann; Chiang, William K
CASE REPORT/UNASSIGNED:A 12-month-old (former 24 week gestational age), 8.7 kg male was hospitalized after an uneventful colostomy reversal. In the postoperative unit, the patient unintentionally received 1000 mg IV (114.9 mg/kg) acetaminophen instead of the intended 100 mg IV. Serial acetaminophen concentrations were drawn. The patient received IV Nacetylcysteine and ultimately had no adverse outcomes. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:This case report adds to the existing literature regarding toxicokinetics of IV APAP in infants. Our patient had a calculated ke of 0.263 h-1, correlating with a half-life of 2.63 hours. Based on current available data, the half-life of IV APAP in infants varies (2.6 to 4.9 hours). The reason for this variation is unknown and further research is needed in this area.
PMID: 34080465
ISSN: 1531-1937
CID: 4891722

Comment on "The Incidence of QT Prolongation and Torsades des Pointes in Patients Receiving Droperidol in an Urban Emergency Department"

DiSalvo, Philip C; Backus, Timothy C; Chiang, William K
PMID: 33856328
ISSN: 1936-9018
CID: 4841792

Emergence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Urinary Tract Infections Among Hospitalized Emergency Department Patients in the United States

Talan, David A; Takhar, Sukhjit S; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Mower, William R; Pallin, Daniel J; Garg, Manish; Femling, Jon; Rothman, Richard E; Moore, Johanna C; Jones, Alan E; Lovecchio, Frank; Jui, Jonathan; Steele, Mark T; Stubbs, Amy M; Chiang, William K; Moran, Gregory J
STUDY OBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE:Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ceftriaxone, mediated through extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), commonly cause urinary tract infections worldwide, but have been less prevalent in North America. Current US rates are unknown. We determine Enterobacteriaceae antimicrobial resistance rates among US emergency department (ED) patients hospitalized for urinary tract infection. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled adults hospitalized for urinary tract infection from 11 geographically diverse university-affiliated hospital EDs during 2018 to 2019. Among participants with culture-confirmed infection, we evaluated prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, including that caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, resistance risk factors, and time to in vitro-active antibiotics. RESULTS:Of 527 total participants, 444 (84%) had cultures that grew Enterobacteriaceae; 89 of 435 participants (20.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.9% to 24.5%; 4.6% to 45.4% by site) whose isolates had confirmatory testing had bacteria that were ESBL producing. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infection among all participants with urinary tract infection was 17.2% (95% confidence interval 14.0% to 20.7%). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infection risk factors were hospital, long-term care, antibiotic exposure within 90 days, and a fluoroquinolone- or ceftriaxone-resistant isolate within 1 year. Enterobacteriaceae resistance rates for other antimicrobials were fluoroquinolone 32.3%, gentamicin 13.7%, amikacin 1.3%, and meropenem 0.3%. Ceftriaxone was the most common empirical antibiotic. In vitro-active antibiotics were not administered within 12 hours of presentation to 48 participants (53.9%) with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infection, including 17 (58.6%) with sepsis. Compared with other Enterobacteriaceae infections, ESBL infections were associated with longer time to in vitro-active treatment (17.3 versus 3.5 hours). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Among adults hospitalized for urinary tract infection in many US locations, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae have emerged as a common cause of infection that is often not initially treated with an in vitro-active antibiotic.
PMID: 33131912
ISSN: 1097-6760
CID: 4660402

Massive aripiprazole overdose in a toddler [Meeting Abstract]

Warstadt, Nicholus; Furlano, Emma; Mohan, Sanjay; Gibbs, Eric; Shenker, Jennifer; Howland, Mary Ann; Chiang, William; Smith, Silas
ISSN: 1556-3650
CID: 5303852