Comparison of combined substrate-based mapping techniques to identify critical sites for ventricular tachycardia ablation
Khan, Hassan; Bonvissuto, Matthew R; Rosinski, Elizabeth; Shokr, Mohamed; Metcalf, Kara; Jankelson, Lior; Kushnir, Alexander; Park, David S; Bernstein, Scott A; Spinelli, Michael A; Aizer, Anthony; Holmes, Douglas; Chinitz, Larry A; Barbhaiya, Chirag R
BACKGROUND:Established electroanatomic mapping techniques for substrate mapping for ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation includes voltage mapping, isochronal late activation mapping (ILAM), and fractionation mapping. Omnipolar mapping (Abbott Medical, Inc.) is a novel optimized bipolar electrogram creation technique with integrated local conduction velocity annotation. The relative utilities of these mapping techniques are unknown. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative utility of various substrate mapping techniques for the identification of critical sites for VT ablation. METHODS:Electroanatomic substrate maps were created and retrospectively analyzed in 27 patients in whom 33 VT critical sites were identified. RESULTS:. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:ILAM, fractionation, and CV mapping each identified distinct critical sites and provided a smaller area of interest than did voltage mapping alone. The sensitivity of novel mapping modalities improved with greater local point density.
Catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with an irrigated contact-force sensing radiofrequency ablation catheter
Panday, Priya; Holmes, Douglas; Park, David S; Jankelson, Lior; Bernstein, Scott A; Knotts, Robert; Kushnir, Alexander; Aizer, Anthony; Chinitz, Larry A; Barbhaiya, Chirag R
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) slow pathway modification for catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is traditionally performed using a 4-mm nonirrigated (NI) RF ablation catheter. Slow pathway modification using irrigated, contact-force sensing (ICFS) RFA catheters has been described in case reports, but the outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. METHODS:Acute procedural outcomes of 200 consecutive patients undergoing slow pathway modification for AVNRT were analyzed. A 3.5-mm ICFS RFA catheter (ThermoCool SmartTouch STSF, Biosense Webster, Inc.) was utilized in 134 patients, and a 4-mm NI RFA catheter (EZ Steer, Biosense Webster, Inc.) was utilized in 66 patients. Electroanatomic maps were retrospectively analyzed in a blinded fashion to determine the proximity of ablation lesions to the His region. RESULTS:The baseline characteristics of patients in both groups were similar. Total RF time was significantly lower in the ICFS group compared to the NI group (5.53 ± 4.6 vs. 6.24 ± 4.9 min, p = 0.03). Median procedure time was similar in both groups (ICFS, 108.0 (87.5-131.5) min vs. NI, 100.0 (85.0-125.0) min; p = 0.2). Ablation was required in closer proximity to the His region in the NI group compared to the ICFS group (14.4 ± 5.9 vs. 16.7 ± 6.4 mm, respectively, p = 0.01). AVNRT was rendered noninducible in all patients, and there was no arrhythmia recurrence during follow-up in both groups. Catheter ablation was complicated by AV block in one patient in the NI group. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Slow pathway modification for catheter ablation of AVNRT using an ICFS RFA catheter is feasible, safe, and may facilitate shorter duration ablation while avoiding ablation in close proximity to the His region.
Temporal trends in atrial fibrillation ablation procedures at an academic medical center: 2011-2021
Kushnir, Alexander; Barbhaiya, Chirag R; Aizer, Anthony; Jankelson, Lior; Holmes, Douglas; Knotts, Robert; Park, David; Spinelli, Michael; Bernstein, Scott; Chinitz, Larry A
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Radiofrequency ablation technology for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. We investigated the impact of technological and procedural advances on procedure times and ablation outcomes at a major academic medical center over a 10-year period. METHODS:Clinical data was collected from patients who presented to NYU Langone Health between 2011 and 2021 for a first-time AF ablation. Time to redo AF ablation or direct current cardioversion (DCCV) for recurrent AF during a 3-year follow-up period was determined and correlated with ablation technology and practices, antiarrhythmic medications, and patient comorbid conditions. RESULTS:From 2011 to 2021, the cardiac electrophysiology lab adopted irrigated-contact force ablation catheters, high-power short duration ablation lesions, steady-pacing, jet ventilation, and eliminated stepwise linear ablation for AF ablation. During this time the number of first time AF ablations increased from 403 to 1074, the percentage of patients requiring repeat AF-related intervention within 3-years of the index procedure dropped from 22% to 14%, mean procedure time decreased from 271 ± 65 to 135 ± 36 min, and mean annual major adverse event rate remained constant at 1.1 ± 0.5%. Patient comorbid conditions increased during this time period and antiarrhythmic use was unchanged. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rates of redo-AF ablation or DCCV following an initial AF ablation at a single center decreased 36% over a 10-year period. Procedural and technological changes likely contributed to this improvement, despite increased AF related comorbidities.
Persistent atrial fibrillation ablation: the ongoing search for the perfect wave [Editorial]
Jankelson, Lior; Tarabanis, Constantine; Chinitz, Larry
Outcomes and atrial substrate analysis in patients with HIV undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation
Cheng, Austin; Qiu, Jessica; Barbhaiya, Chirag; Garber, Leonid; Holmes, Douglas; Jankelson, Lior; Kushnir, Alexander; Knotts, Robert; Bernstein, Scott; Park, David; Spinelli, Michael; Chinitz, Larry; Aizer, Anthony
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Patients with HIV infection have increased risk of atrial fibrillation, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the utility of catheter ablation in this population are not well-studied. We aimed to characterize outcomes of atrial fibrillation ablation and left atrial substrate in patients with HIV. METHODS:The study was a retrospective propensity score-matched analysis of patients with and without HIV undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. A search was performed in the electronic medical record for all patients with HIV who received initial atrial fibrillation ablation from 2011 to 2020. After calculating propensity scores for HIV, matching was performed with patients without HIV by using nearest-neighbor matching without replacement in a 1:2 ratio. The primary outcome was freedom from atrial arrhythmia and secondary outcomes were freedom from atrial fibrillation, freedom from atrial tachycardia, and freedom from repeat ablation, compared by log-rank analysis. The procedures of patients with HIV who underwent repeat ablation at our institution were further analyzed for etiology of recurrence. To further characterize the left atrial substrate, a subsequent case-control analysis was then performed for a set of randomly chosen 10 patients with HIV matched with 10 without HIV to compare minimum and maximum voltage at nine pre-specified regions of the left atrium. RESULTS:Twenty-seven patients with HIV were identified. All were prescribed antiretroviral therapy at time of ablation. These patients were matched with 54 patients without HIV by propensity score. 86.4% of patients with HIV and 76.9% of controls were free of atrial fibrillation or atrial tachycardia at 1 year (p = .509). Log-rank analysis showed no difference in freedom from atrial arrhythmia (p value .971), atrial fibrillation (p-value .346), atrial tachycardia (p value .306), or repeat ablation (p value .401) after initial atrial fibrillation ablation in patients with HIV compared to patients without HIV. In patients with HIV with recurrent atrial fibrillation, the majority had pulmonary vein reconnection (67%). There were no significant differences in minimum or maximum voltage at any of the nine left atrial regions between the matched patients with and without HIV. CONCLUSIONS:Ablation to treat atrial fibrillation in patients with HIV, but without overt AIDS is frequently successful therapy. The majority of patients with recurrence of atrial fibrillation had pulmonary vein reconnection, suggesting infrequent nonpulmonary vein substrate. In this population, the left atrial voltage in patients with HIV is similar to that of patients without HIV. These findings suggest that the pulmonary veins remain a critical component to the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation in patients with HIV.
Development of an AI-Driven QT Correction Algorithm for Patients in Atrial Fibrillation
Tarabanis, Constantine; Ronan, Robert; Shokr, Mohamed; Chinitz, Larry; Jankelson, Lior
BACKGROUND:Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated with the risk of torsades de pointes. Determination of the QTc interval is therefore of critical importance. There is no reliable method for measuring or correcting the QT interval in atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES:The authors sought to evaluate the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN) applied to AF electrocardiograms (ECGs) for accurately estimating the QTc interval and ruling out prolongation of the QTc interval. METHODS:The authors identified patients with a 12-lead ECG in AF within 10 days of a sinus ECG, with similar (±10 ms) QRS durations, between October 23, 2001, and November 5, 2021. A multilayered deep CNN was implemented in TensorFlow 2.5 (Google) to predict the MUSE (GE Healthcare) software-generated sinus QTc value from an AF ECG waveform, demographic characteristics, and software-generated features. RESULTS:The study identified 6,432 patients (44% female) with an average age of 71 years. The CNN predicted sinus QTc values with a mean absolute error of 22.2 ms and root mean squared error of 30.6 ms, similar to the intrinsic variability of the sinus QTc interval. Approximately 84% and 97% of the model's predictions were contained within 1 SD (±30.6 ms) and 2 SD (±61.2 ms) from the sinus QTc interval. The model outperformed the AFQTc method, exhibiting narrower error ranges (mean absolute error comparison P < 0.0001). The model performed best for ruling out QTc prolongation (negative predictive value 0.82 male, 0.92 female; specificity 0.92 male, 0.97 female). CONCLUSIONS:A CNN model applied to AF ECGs accurately predicted the sinus QTc interval, outperforming current alternatives and exhibiting a high negative predictive value.
Conduction velocity is reduced in the posterior wall of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with normal bipolar voltage undergoing ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
Zahid, Sohail; Malik, Tahir; Peterson, Connor; Tarabanis, Constantine; Dai, Matthew; Katz, Moshe; Bernstein, Scott A.; Barbhaiya, Chirag; Park, David S.; Knotts, Robert J.; Holmes, Douglas S.; Kushnir, Alexander; Aizer, Anthony; Chinitz, Larry A.; Jankelson, Lior
Objectives: We investigated characteristics of left atrial conduction in patients with HCM, paroxysmal AF and normal bipolar voltage. Background: Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) exhibit abnormal cardiac tissue arrangement. The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased fourfold in patients with HCM and confers a fourfold increased risk of death. Catheter ablation is less effective in HCM, with twofold increased risk of AF recurrence. The mechanisms of AF perpetuation in HCM are poorly understood. Methods: We analyzed 20 patients with HCM and 20 controls presenting for radiofrequency ablation of paroxysmal AF normal left atrial voltage(> 0.5 mV). Intracardiac electrograms were extracted from the CARTO mapping system and analyzed using Matlab/Python code interfacing with Core OpenEP software. Conduction velocity maps were calculated using local activation time gradients. Results: There were no differences in baseline demographics, atrial size, or valvular disease between HCM and control patients. Patients with HCM had significantly reduced atrial conduction velocity compared to controls (0.44 ± 0.17 vs 0.56 ± 0.10 m/s, p = 0.01), despite no significant differences in bipolar voltage amplitude (1.23 ± 0.38 vs 1.20 ± 0.41 mV, p = 0.76). There was a statistically significant reduction in conduction velocity in the posterior left atrium in HCM patients relative to controls (0.43 ± 0.18 vs 0.58 ± 0.10 m/s, p = 0.003), but not in the anterior left atrium (0.46 ± 0.17 vs 0.55 ± 0.10 m/s, p = 0.05). There was a significant association between conduction velocity and interventricular septal thickness (slope = -0.013, R2 = 0.13, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Atrial conduction velocity is significantly reduced in patients with HCM and paroxysmal AF, possibly contributing to arrhythmia persistence after catheter ablation.
Ambulatory AV synchronous pacing over time using a leadless ventricular pacemaker: Primary results from the AccelAV study
Chinitz, Larry A; El-Chami, Mikhael F; Sagi, Venkata; Garcia, Hector; Hackett, F Kevin; Leal, Miguel; Whalen, Patrick; Henrikson, Charles A; Greenspon, Arnold J; Sheldon, Todd; Stromberg, Kurt; Wood, Nicole; Fagan, Dedra H; Sun Chan, Joseph Yat
BACKGROUND:Prior studies demonstrated that accelerometer-based mechanically-timed AV synchrony (AVS) is feasible using a leadless ventricular pacemaker. OBJECTIVE:This study reports on the performance of a leadless ventricular pacemaker with accelerometer-based algorithms that provide AVS pacing. METHODS:AccelAV was a prospective single-arm study to characterize AVS in patients implanted with a Micra AV, which uses the device accelerometer to mechanically detect atrial contractions and promote VDD pacing. The primary objective was to characterize resting AVS at 1-month in patients with complete AV block (AVB) and normal sinus function. RESULTS:A total of 152 patients (age 77Â±11 years, 48% female) from 20 centers were enrolled and implanted with a leadless pacemaker. Among patients with normal sinus function and complete AVB (n=54), mean resting AVS was 85.4% at 1-month, while ambulatory AVS was 74.8%. In the subset of patients (n=20) with programming optimization, mean ambulatory AVS was 82.6%, representing a 10.5% improvement (P<0.001). Quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D-3L improved significantly from pre-implant to 3 months (P=0.031). In 37 patients with AVB at both 1-month and 3-months, mean AVS during rest did not differ (86.1% vs 84.1%, P=0.43). There were no upgrades to dual-chamber devices or CRT through 3 months. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Accelerometer-based mechanical atrial sensing provided by a leadless pacemaker implanted in the right ventricle significantly improves quality of life in a select cohort of patients with AV block and normal sinus function. AVS remained stable through 3 months and there were no system upgrades to dual-chamber pacemakers.
Correlation between AV synchrony and device collected AM-VP sequence counter in atrioventricular synchronous leadless pacemakers: A real-world assessment
Garweg, Christophe; Piccini, Jonathan P; Epstein, Laurence M; Frazier-Mills, Camille; Chinitz, Larry A; Steinwender, Clemens; Stromberg, Kurt; Sheldon, Todd; Fagan, Dedra H; El-Chami, Mikhael F
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Micra atrioventricularÂ (AV) provides leadless atrioventricular synchronous pacing by sensing atrial contraction (A4 signal). Real-world operation and reliability of AV synchrony (AVS) assessment using device data have not been described. The purposes of this study were to (1) assess the correlation between AVS and atrial mechanical sensed-ventricular pacingÂ (AM-VP) percentages in patients with permanent high-degree AV block and (2) report on the real-world effectiveness of Micra AV. METHODS:The correlation between ECG-determined AVS in-clinic and device-collected %AM-VP was assessed using data from 40 patients with high-degree AV block enrolled in the Micra Atrial tRacking using a Ventricular AccELerometerÂ (MARVEL) 2 study. A retrospective analysis to assess continuously-sampled %AM-VP since last session, device programming, and electrical parameters was performed using Micra AV transmissions from the Medtronic CareLink database. Patients with transmissions â‰¥180 days postimplant were included. RESULTS:at 28 weeks. In patients with %VPÂ >90% (nâ€‰=â€‰1662), the median %AM-VP was 74.7%. For the full cohort, median %VP was 65.6% and median projected battery longevity was 10.5 years. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In patients with a high pacing burden, %AM-VP provides a reasonable estimation of AVS. The first large real-world analysis of Micra AV patients with >90% VP showed stable atrial sensing over time with a median %AM-VP, a correlate of AVS, of 74.7%.
Sex differences in outcomes of transvenous lead extraction: insights from National Readmission Database
Khalil, Mahmoud; Maqsood, Muhammad Haisum; Maraey, Ahmed; Elzanaty, Ahmed; Saeyeldin, Ayman; Ong, Kenneth; Barbhaiya, Chirag R; Chinitz, Larry A; Bernstein, Scott; Shokr, Mohamed
BACKGROUND:With the growing use of implantable cardiac devices, the need for transvenous lead extraction has increased, which translates to increased procedural volumes. Sex differences in lead extraction outcomes are not well studied. OBJECTIVE:The present study aims at evaluating the impact of sex on outcomes of lead extraction. METHODS:We identified 71,754 patients who presented between 2016 and 2019 and underwent transvenous lead extraction. Their clinical data were retrospectively accrued from the National Readmission Database (NRD) using the corresponding diagnosis codes. We compared clinical outcomes between male and female patients. Odds ratios (ORs) for the primary and secondary outcomes were calculated, and multivariable regression analysis was utilized to adjust for confounding variables. RESULTS:Compared to male patients, female patients had higher in-hospital complications including pneumothorax (OR 1.26, 95% CI (1.07-1.4), P < 0.01), hemopericardium (OR 1.39, 95% CI (1.02-1.88), P = 0.036), injury to superior vena cava and innominate vein requiring repair (OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.14-3.1), P = 0.014; OR 3.4, 95% CI (1.8-6.5), P < 0.01), need for blood transfusion (OR 1.28, 95% CI (1.18-1.38), P < 0.01), and pericardiocentesis (OR 1.6, 95% CI (1.3-2), P < 0.01). Thirty-day readmission was also significantly higher in female patients (OR 1.09, 95% CI (1.02-1.17), P < 0.01). There was no significant difference regarding in-hospital mortality (OR 0.99, 95% CI (0.87-1.14), P = 0.95). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In female patients, lead extraction is associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher 30-day readmission rate.