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Picking the Right Plane: A Comparison of Total Submuscular, Dual-Plane, and Prepectoral Implant-based Breast Reconstruction

Bekisz, Jonathan M; Salibian, Ara A; Frey, Jordan D; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
BACKGROUND:Implant-based breast reconstruction has evolved, with a recent resurgence of prepectoral techniques. Comparative reconstructive outcomes and complications have not been fully elucidated among the total submuscular (TSM), dual-plane (DP), and prepectoral planes of implant placement. METHODS:All immediate implant-based breast reconstructions from March 2017 through August 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were divided into TSM, DP, and prepectoral cohorts. Demographics, operative techniques, and reconstructive outcomes and complications were compared among groups. RESULTS:826 cases (510 patients) were identified and divided into TSM (n=392), DP (n=358), and prepectoral (n=76) cohorts. Average follow-up for all patients was 27 months. The prepectoral cohort had a higher average BMI and rate of prior reduction/mastopexy. Overall complications were lowest in the TSM group, though this difference was not statistically significant. Major infection occurred more frequently in the DP group compared to the TSM cohort. The prepectoral cohort had a significantly increased incidence of wound dehiscence than the TSM group, while both the dual-plane and prepectoral groups had higher rates of seroma formation and explantation compared to TSM. CONCLUSIONS:Overall reconstructive complication rates were comparable among the cohorts. Compared to those undergoing TSM reconstruction, the DP cohort was more likely to develop a major infection or require explantation, while the prepectoral group had significantly higher rates of isolated dehiscence, seroma formation, and explantation. This suggest that the absence of overlying vascularized muscle may lead to an inherent inability to tolerate wound healing complications, though further research is needed to clarify these observations.
PMID: 35862095
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5279302

Long-Term Cancer Recurrence Rates Following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: A 10-year Follow-up Study

Boyd, Carter J; Salibian, Ara A; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Axelrod, Deborah M; Guth, Amber A; Shapiro, Richard L; Schnabel, Freya R; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:Despite the increased utilization of nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM), there is limited data examining long-term cancer recurrence rates in these patients. The objective of this study was to analyze breast cancer recurrence in patients who received therapeutic NSM with a median of 10 years of follow-up. METHODS:All patients undergoing NSM at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed temporally to obtain a median of 10-years of follow up. Patient demographic factors, mastectomy specimen pathology, and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. RESULTS:126 therapeutic NSM were performed on 120 patients. The most frequently observed tumor histology included invasive ductal carcinoma (48.4%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (38.1%). Mean tumor size was 1.62 cm. Multifocal or multicentric disease and lymphovascular invasion were present in 31.0% and 10.3% of NSM specimens, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 84.9% of NSM and 17.8% were positive. The rate of positive frozen subareolar biopsy was 7.3% (n=82) and permanent subareolar pathology was 9.5% (n=126). The most frequently observed pathologic tumor stages was stage I (44.6%) and stage 0 (33.9%). Incidence of recurrent disease was 3.17% per mastectomy and 3.33% per patient. Upon univariate analysis, no demographic, operative, or tumor-specific variables were independent risk factors for locoregional recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:Overall recurrence rates are low in patients undergoing NSM at a median follow-up of 10-years. Close surveillance should remain a goal for patients and their providers to promptly identify potential recurrence.
PMID: 35943969
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5286852

Cryptocurrency as an Alternative Payment for Plastic Surgery

Boyd, Carter J; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Salibian, Ara A; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
PMID: 35852331
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5278922

The First Successful Combined Full Face and Bilateral Hand Transplant

Ramly, Elie P; Alfonso, Allyson R; Berman, Zoe P; Diep, Gustave K; Bass, Jonathan L; Catalano, Louis W; Ceradini, Daniel J; Choi, Mihye; Cohen, Oriana D; Flores, Roberto L; Golas, Alyssa R; Hacquebord, Jacques H; Levine, Jamie P; Saadeh, Pierre B; Sharma, Sheel; Staffenberg, David A; Thanik, Vishal D; Rojas, Allison; Bernstein, G Leslie; Gelb, Bruce E; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
BACKGROUND:Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has redefined the frontiers of plastic and reconstructive surgery. At the cutting edge of this evolving paradigm, we present the first successful combined full face and bilateral hand transplant (FT-BHT). METHODS:A 21-year-old man with sequelae of an 80% total body surface area burn injury sustained following a motor vehicle accident presented for evaluation. The injury included full face and bilateral upper extremity composite tissue defects, resulting in reduced quality of life and loss of independence. Multidisciplinary evaluation confirmed eligibility for combined FT-BHT. The operative approach was validated through 11 cadaveric rehearsals utilizing computerized surgical planning. Institutional review board and organ procurement organization approvals were obtained. The recipient, his caregiver, and the donor family consented to the procedure. RESULTS:Combined full face (eyelids, ears, nose, lips, and skeletal subunits) and bilateral hand transplantation (forearm level) was performed over 23 hours on August 12-13th, 2020. Triple induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy and infection prophylaxis were administered. Plasmapheresis was necessary postoperatively. Minor revisions were performed over seven subsequent operations, including five left upper extremity, seven right upper extremity, and seven facial secondary procedures. At eight months, the patient is approaching functional independence and remains free of acute rejection. He has significantly improved range of motion, motor power, and sensation of the face and hand allografts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Combined FT-BHT is feasible. This is the most comprehensive VCA procedure successfully performed to date, marking a new milestone in plastic and reconstructive surgery for patients with otherwise irremediable injuries.
PMID: 35674521
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5248392

Research Promotion is Associated with Broader Influence and Higher Impact of Plastic Surgery Publications

Boyd, Carter J; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Salibian, Ara A; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:Social media has altered the mechanisms by which published research is disseminated and accessed. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of promotion on research article dissemination, influence, and impact in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. METHODS:All articles published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from January 1, 2016-December 31, 2018 were obtained and reviewed to determine inclusion/exclusion and for the Altmetric Attention Score (AAS), citations, relative citation rate (RCR), and 16 unique promotional tags (journal club, editor's pick, press release, patient safety, etc.) as indexed on the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery website. 1,502 articles were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was completed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and Student t-tests where appropriate with a predetermined level of significance of p≤0.05. RESULTS:A total of 637 articles (42.4%) had a promotional tag, while 252 (16.8%) had multiple tags. Articles with promotional tags had higher AAS (30.35 vs 8.22; p<0.001), more citations (11.96 vs 8.47; p<0.001), and a higher RCR (2.97 vs 2.06; p<0.001) compared to articles without a tag. Articles with multiple tags had higher AAS (50.17 vs 17.39; p<0.001), more citations (15.78 vs 9.47; p<0.001), and a higher RCR (3.67 vs 2.51; p<0.001) compared to articles with only one tag. As the number of tags increased for an article, AAS (p<0.001), citation count (p<0.001), and RCR (p<0.001) likewise increased. CONCLUSIONS:This analysis strongly suggests that promotion of research articles is associated with significantly wider dissemination, broader visibility, and more subsequent citations in the literature.
PMID: 35687416
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5248542

Breast reconstruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: Single institution experience from the pandemic's epicenter in the United States

Boyd, Carter J; Hemal, Kshipra; Ramesh, Sruthi; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Salibian, Ara A; Thanik, Vishal; Levine, Jamie P; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic dramatically changed the delivery of breast cancer care. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the pandemic on breast cancer screening, treatment, and reconstruction at a single institution in New York City. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the number of mammograms, lumpectomies, mastectomies, and breast reconstruction operations performed between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2021. Outcomes analyzed included changes in mammography, oncologic surgery, and breast reconstruction surgery volume before, during and after the start of the pandemic. RESULTS:Mammography volume declined by 11% in March-May of 2020. Oncologic breast surgeries and reconstructive surgeries similarly declined by 6.8% and 11%, respectively, in 2020 compared with 2019, reaching their lowest levels in April 2020. The volume of all procedures increased during the summer of 2020. Mammography volumes in June and July 2020 were found to be at pre-COVID levels, and in October-December 2020 were 15% higher than in 2019. Oncologic breast surgeries saw a similar rebound in May 2020, with 24.6% more cases performed compared with May 2019. Breast reconstruction volumes increased, though changes in the types of reconstruction were noted. Oncoplastic closures were more common during the pandemic, while two-stage implant reconstruction and immediate autologous reconstruction decreased by 27% and 43%, respectively. All procedures are on track to increase in volume in 2021 compared to that in 2020. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The COVID-19 pandemic reduced the volume of breast cancer surveillance, surgical treatment, and reconstruction procedures. While it is reassuring that volumes have rebounded in 2021, efforts must be made to emphasize screening and treatment procedures in the face of subsequent surges, such as that recently attributable to the Delta and Omicron variants.
PMID: 35317981
ISSN: 1878-0539
CID: 5200492

Characterizing the Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Plastic Surgery Literature

Boyd, Carter J; Hemal, Kshipra; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Salibian, Ara A; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
PMID: 35231012
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5174342

Comparing Incision Choices in Immediate Microvascular Breast Reconstruction after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: Unique Considerations to Optimize Outcomes

Salibian, Ara A; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Frey, Jordan D; Thanik, Vishal D; Levine, Jamie P; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye
BACKGROUND:Incision planning is a critical factor in nipple-sparing mastectomy outcomes. Evidence on optimal incision patterns in patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate microvascular breast reconstruction is lacking in the literature. METHODS:A single-institution retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate microvascular autologous reconstruction from 2007 to 2019. Outcomes-including major mastectomy flap necrosis, full nipple-areola complex necrosis, and any major ischemic complication of the skin envelope-were compared among incision types. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with major ischemic complication. RESULTS:Two hundred seventy-nine reconstructions (163 patients) were identified, primarily using internal mammary recipient vessels (98.9 percent). Vertical incisions were used in 139 cases; inframammary, in 53; lateral radial, in 51; and inverted-T, in 35. Thirty-two cases (11.5 percent) had major mastectomy flap necrosis, 11 (3.9 percent) had full nipple-areola complex necrosis, and 38 (13.6 percent) had any major ischemic complication. Inframammary incisions had higher rates of major ischemic complication (25 percent) than vertical (5.8 percent; p < 0.001) and lateral radial (7.8 percent; p = 0.032) incisions. Inverted-T incisions also had higher rates of major ischemic complication (36.1 percent) than both vertical (p < 0.001) and lateral radial (p = 0.002) incisions. Inframammary incisions (OR, 4.382; p = 0.002), inverted-T incisions (OR, 3.952; p = 0.011), and mastectomy weight (OR, 1.003; p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased risk of major ischemic complication. Inframammary incisions with major ischemic complication demonstrated significantly higher body mass index, mastectomy weight, and flap weight compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS:Inframammary and inverted-T incisions are associated with a higher risk of major ischemic skin envelope complications after nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate microvascular breast reconstruction. Radial incisions can be considered to optimize recipient vessel exposure without compromising perfusion. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic, III.
PMID: 34644280
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5116122

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Microvascular Stacked and Conjoined-Flap Breast Reconstruction

Salibian, Ara A; Nolan, Ian T; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Frey, Jordan D; Karp, Nolan S; Choi, Mihye; Levine, Jamie P; Thanik, Vishal D
BACKGROUND: Stacked and conjoined (SC) flaps are a useful means of increasing flap volume in autologous breast reconstruction. The majority of studies, however, have been limited to smaller, single-center series. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to identify outcomes-based studies on microvascular SC-flap breast reconstruction. Pooled rates of flap and operative characteristics were analyzed. Meta-analytic effect size estimates were calculated for reconstructive complication rates and outcomes of studies comparing SC flaps to non-SC flaps. Meta-regression analysis identified risk factors for flap complications. RESULTS: = 0.00%), though rates of any flap and donor-site complication were similar. Age, body mass index, flap weight, and flap donor site and recipient vessels were not associated with increased risk of any flap complication. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: A global appraisal of the current evidence demonstrated the safety of SC-flap breast reconstruction with low complication rates, regardless of donor site, and lower rates of fat necrosis compared with non-SC flaps.
PMID: 33592635
ISSN: 1098-8947
CID: 4836342

Breast Reconstruction during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review

Hemal, Kshipra; Boyd, Carter J; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Salibian, Ara A; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:The COVID-19 pandemic posed unique challenges for breast reconstruction. Many professional organizations initially placed restrictions on breast reconstruction, leading surgeons to conceive innovative protocols for offering breast reconstruction. This study reviewed the current evidence on breast reconstruction during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide guidance for surgeons facing future crises. Methods/UNASSIGNED:The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for studies (1) describing implant and autologous breast reconstruction following mastectomy and (2) occurring during or pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of the 1347 studies identified, 26 were included. Studies discussed type of reconstruction (18, 69%), complications (11, 42%), timing of reconstruction (10, 38%), protocols (10, 38%), COVID-19 screening (7, 27%), and length of hospital stay (7, 27%). The type of reconstruction varied depending on the stage of the pandemic: early on, autologous breast reconstruction was halted to preserve resources, but was later resumed. Within implant-based reconstruction, direct-to-implant was favored over serial tissue expansion. Several protocols were developed, with many emphasizing multidisciplinary collaborations for patient selection, use of specialized measures to reduce risk of COVID-19 transmission, and optimization of same-day discharge. Complication rates following breast reconstruction were similar to pre-pandemic rates. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The COVID-19 pandemic has forever changed the landscape of breast reconstruction by raising important questions about delivery of care, cost, and resource utilization. The findings of this review may inform surgeons as they plan for similar future crises or strive for improved patient care and efficacy even during nonpandemic times.
PMID: 34584831
ISSN: 2169-7574
CID: 5067452