The order of surgery and chemotherapy matters: Multimodality therapy and stage-specific differences in survival in gastric cancer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Multimodality treatment improves survival for gastric cancer (GC). However, the effect of treatment sequence by stage remains unclear. We aim to compare outcomes between patients receiving neoadjuvant(neoadj) and adjuvant chemotherapy (adj). METHODS:Nonmetastatic GC patients with clinical stageâ€‰â‰¥â€‰T2N0 who underwent both resection and neoadj or adj were identified using the National Cancer Database (2005-2014). Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed on propensity score-matched (PSM) cohorts stratified by stage to compare overall survival (OS). RESULTS:We identified 11â€‰984 patients; 55% stage I (SI), 76% stage II (SII) and 57% stage III (SIII) received neoadj. Unadjusted analysis showed worse survival among SI neoadj patients (hazard ratio [HR] 1.195, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.38) and improved survival for SII (HR 0.93 CI 0.87-0.998) and SIII (HR 0.75, CI 0.68-0.84). After PSM, SI patients with neoadj had worse OS with increased risk of death compared to Adj (HR 1.186, CI 1.004-1.402). SII patients had no difference in OS (HR 0.98, CI 0.91-1.07) and SIII patients had improved OS (HR 0.78, CI 0.69-0.90). CONCLUSIONS:In patients who received surgery and chemotherapy, the benefit of neoadj was limited to SIII with worse survival for SI. A clinical trial to examine the optimal sequence of chemotherapy is warranted.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients: Clinical Presentation and Outcomes in a Racially Diverse Urban Population
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:As life expectancy for HIV patients improve, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a non-AIDS defining illness with a high impact on morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals. We sought to compare outcomes in HIV- versus non-HIV-infected patients treated for HCC at a multiethnic academic medical health system. METHODS:A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with HCC from 1/1/2005 to 12/31/2016 was performed. Differences in characteristics among HIV and non-HIV subjects were assessed. Associations between HIV status, viral load, CD4 count, and overall survival (OS) were also assessed. RESULTS:We identified 915 subjects (842 non-HIV and 73 with HIV). HIV-infected subjects were younger, predominantly male non-Hispanic Blacks, and more likely to have HBV and HCV co-infection, and alcohol use at diagnosis compared to non-HIV counterparts. Stage, MELD score, Child-Pugh, and ECOG performance status were similar. HIV-positive patients received systemic therapy at significantly higher rates and liver transplantation for HCC at significantly lower rates than those without HIV. The actuarial 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) for all patients was 48.3% and 39.4%. For HIV-infected subjects, 3- and 5-year OS was significantly worse at 36.8% and 28.3% compared to 49.3% and 40.4%, respectively, for non-HIV subjects (log rank pâ€‰=â€‰0.033). CONCLUSIONS:HIV-infected HCC patients have lower survival rates compared to those without HIV. Despite younger age and similar stage, MELD, and ECOG at diagnosis, HIV portends worse outcomes in patients with HCC.
Listeria delivers tetanus toxoid protein to pancreatic tumors and induces cancer cell death in mice
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly metastatic disease. Tumors are poorly immunogenic and immunosuppressive, preventing T cell activation in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we present a microbial-based immunotherapeutic treatment for selective delivery of an immunogenic tetanus toxoid protein (TT856-1313) into PDAC tumor cells by attenuated Listeria monocytogenes. This treatment reactivated preexisting TT-specific memory T cells to kill infected tumor cells in mice. Treatment of KrasG12D,p53R172H, Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mice with Listeria-TT resulted in TT accumulation inside tumor cells, attraction of TT-specific memory CD4 T cells to the tumor microenvironment, and production of perforin and granzyme B in tumors. Low doses of gemcitabine (GEM) increased immune effects of Listeria-TT, turning immunologically cold into hot tumors in mice. In vivo depletion of T cells from Listeria-TT + GEM-treated mice demonstrated a CD4 T cell-mediated reduction in tumor burden. CD4 T cells from TT-vaccinated mice were able to kill TT-expressing Panc-02 tumor cells in vitro. In addition, peritumoral lymph node-like structures were observed in close contact with pancreatic tumors in KPC mice treated with Listeria-TT or Listeria-TT + GEM. These structures displayed CD4 and CD8 T cells producing perforin and granzyme B. Whereas CD4 T cells efficiently infiltrated the KPC tumors, CD8 T cells did not. Listeria-TT + GEM treatment of KPC mice with advanced PDAC reduced tumor burden by 80% and metastases by 87% after treatment and increased survival by 40% compared to nontreated mice. These results suggest that Listeria-delivered recall antigens could be an alternative to neoantigen-mediated cancer immunotherapy.
The Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio is a Prognostic Biomarker in An Ethnically Diverse Patient Population with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with decreased overall survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) in studies including few minority patients. We investigated the association between NLR and survival in patients with advanced PAC in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:We retrospectively evaluated 226 patients with advanced PAC treated at Montefiore Medical Center between 2006 and 2015. Adjusted Cox proportion hazard regression models were utilized to derive effect estimates for survival duration. RESULTS:Patients with a NLR â‰¤ 5 (126 patients, median age 66 years) were more likely to be non-Hispanic Black (30.8% vs. 20%), while patients with a NLR > 5 (70 patients, median age 66 years) were more likely to be non-Hispanic White (21.4% vs. 12.2%) or Hispanic (44.3% vs. 34%). A NLR > 5 compared with a NLR â‰¤ 5 was significantly associated with a worse overall survival when adjusted for a priori and exploratory variables from the univariate analysis (median survival 7.4 vs. 12 months, HR 1.650, 95% CI 1.139, 2.390). CONCLUSIONS:In an ethnically diverse population, elevated NLR is an independent marker of poor prognosis and a potentially valuable factor in driving therapeutic decisions and defining prognosis for patients in the locally advanced or metastatic for PAC setting, meriting investigation in prospective clinical trials.
Comparing outcomes following total neoadjuvant therapy and following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer
Background/UNASSIGNED:There is recent interest in treating locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) patients with total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT). However, whether TNT is associated with improved overall survival (OS) remains unknown. This study compares outcomes following TNT and following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (nCRT) in patients with LARC, clinically defined cT3/4 or node positive disease, using the National Cancer Database. Methods/UNASSIGNED:LARC patients diagnosed between 2004-2015 were included. TNT was defined as multi-agent chemotherapy given at least 2 months before RT followed by pre-operative chemoradiation therapy and definitive surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy. nCRT was defined as pre-operative RT and chemotherapy started within 2 weeks from each other followed by definitive surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier curve with logrank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to analyse the primary endpoint of overall survival (OS). Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used for secondary outcomes to determine if TNT is associated with pathological complete response (pCR), defined as ypT0N0, and negative circumferential resection margin (CRM). Findings/UNASSIGNED:Â =Â 0â€¢19) in multivariable logistic regression modelling. Interpretation/UNASSIGNED:With results from current clinical trials pending, our data suggested that TNT and nCRT resulted in similar survival, while TNT led to higher pCR and CRM negative rate, albeit not statistically significant.
Human papillomavirus, radiation dose and survival of patients with anal cancer
Purpose: To determine if anal cancer patients with HPV positive disease have different overall survival (OS) compared to those with HPV negative disease, and to elucidate differences in the association between radiation dose and OS. Patients and methods: We utilized the National Cancer Database (NCDB) registry to identify a cohort of non-metastatic anal cancer patients treated with curative intent between 2008 and 2014. Propensity score matching was used to account for potential selection bias between patients with HPV positive and negative disease. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the association between HPV status and OS. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to compare actuarial survival estimates. Results: We identified 5927 patients with tumor HPV status for this analysis, 3523 (59.4%) had HPV positive disease and 2404 (40.6%) had HPV negative disease. Propensity-matched analysis demonstrated that patients with HPV positive locally advanced (T3-4 or node positive) anal cancer had better OS (HR = 0.81 (95%CI: 0.68-0.96), p=.018). For patients with early stage disease (T1-2 and node negative) there was no difference in OS (HR = 1.11 (95%CI: 0.86-1.43), p=.43). In the unmatched cohort, we found a significant improvement in OS with increasing radiation dose only for patients with locally advanced, HPV negative disease (p<.001). In those patients, significant improvement in OS compared to the group receiving 30-45â€‰Gy was seen for increasing doses up to 55-60â€‰Gy, but not beyond 60â€‰Gy. Conclusion: We found HPV to be a significant prognostic marker in anal tumors, especially for locally advanced disease. We further found that higher radiation dose up to 55-60â€‰Gy was associated with better OS, but only for patients with locally advanced, HPV negative disease.
Bridging therapy effectiveness in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to orthotopic liver transplantation
Background/UNASSIGNED:Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the most effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with underlying cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Availability of OLT is limited by donor-organ shortages, which increase patient waiting time until OLT. A variety of bridging therapies (BT) have been used to halt tumor progression in patients on the OLT waiting list. Despite complete radiologic responses following BT, viable tumor is often present in explants. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Treatment outcomes were evaluated in 50 patients who had a total of 125 BT for treatment of 93 nodules. Success of BT was assessed by radiologic response compared to histopathological examination of explanted livers. Results/UNASSIGNED:Pre-transplant treatments included: transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), alcohol ablation (ETOH), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Fifty-nine (64%) nodules had a complete radiographic response to therapy; however, only 28 nodules (30%) had complete tumor necrosis (CTN) on explant examination. Ten nodules with CTN were treated with TACE alone. Seven of the 28 nodules with CTN were treated with TACE and RFA. Three of seven nodules treated with TACE and SIRT had CTN. Patients underwent a mean of 2.5 BTs. Six of 50 patients (12%) had no residual HCC in their explants. Five of those six patients (83%) had complete response (CR) on pre-transplant imaging. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Although favorable radiologic responses are seen following BT, viable HCC is seen in the majority of liver explants and radiographic imaging cannot always accurately predict pathological response. This underscores the need for aggressive treatment of patients who otherwise may not be eligible for OLT.
Speaking the same language: a feasibility trial for a novel visual communication tool for oncologist-patient treatment discussions [Letter]
The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor among a diverse population with advanced pancreatic cancer. [Meeting Abstract]
Risks and benefits of phase I trials: Eighteen-year experience from a single institution. [Meeting Abstract]