The Perils of a Pregnant Pause
The Impact of an Interprofessional Pediatric Oral Health Clerkship on Advancing Interprofessional Education Outcomes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative pediatric interprofessional education clinical experience using oral-systemic health as the clinical population example for improving the self-reported interprofessional competencies of family nurse practitioner, dental, and medical students. The objectives of the interprofessional experience were for students to apply pediatric oral health assessment, identify the pediatric oral-systemic connection, and practice a team-based approach to improve oral-systemic outcomes. In spring 2015, fall 2015, and spring 2016, a total of 162 family nurse practitioner, dental, and medical students participated in this interprofessional experience at Bellevue Pediatric Outpatient Clinics together with a pediatric dental resident. Team members collaborated in reviewing the patient chart, taking the patient's medical and dental history, performing an oral assessment, applying fluoride varnish, and providing education and anticipatory guidance. The Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey (ICCAS) was used as a pretest and posttest to evaluate the degree to which students perceived changes in their attitudes about interprofessional competencies following the learning experience. In the results, all students had improved mean scores from pretest to posttest after the experience, and these changes were statistically significant for all students: nurse practitioner (p<0.01), dentistry (p<0.01), and medicine (p<0.001). The mean change from pretest to posttest was statistically significant for each of the six interprofessional competency domains (p<0.01). In both pediatric dental and primary care settings, the changes from pre- to posttest were significant (p<0.001). The experience was similarly effective for all groups of students in increasing their attitudes about interprofessional collaboration. These findings suggest that a clinical approach can be an effective strategy for helping health professions students develop interprofessional competence.
Tackling Implicit and Explicit Bias Through Objective Structured Teaching Exercises for Faculty
Evaluation of a Speed Mentoring Program: Achievement of Short-Term Mentee Goals and Potential for Longer-Term Relationships
OBJECTIVE: Speed mentoring provides brief mentoring and networking opportunities. We evaluated 1) a national speed mentoring program's ability to encourage in-person networking and advice-sharing, and 2) 2 potential outcomes: helping mentees achieve 3-month goals, and fostering mentoring relationships after the program. METHODS: An outcome approach logic model guided our program evaluation. Sixty mentees and 60 mentors participated. Each mentee met with 6 mentors for 10 minutes per pairing. At the program, mentees created goals. At 3 months, mentors sent mentees a reminder e-mail. At 4 months, participants received a Web-based survey. RESULTS: Forty-two (70%) mentees and 46 (77%) mentors completed the survey. Participants reported the program allowed them to share/receive advice, to network, to provide/gain different perspectives, and to learn from each other. Mentors as well as mentees identified shared interests, mentor-mentee chemistry, mentee initiative, and mentor approachability as key qualities contributing to ongoing relationships. Many mentor-mentee dyads had additional contact (approximately 60%) after the program and approximately one-third thought they were likely to continue the relationship. Goal-setting encouraged subsequent mentor-mentee contact and motivated mentees to work toward attaining their 3-month goals. The mentors aided mentees goal attainment by providing advice, offering support, and holding mentees accountable. CONCLUSIONS: A national speed mentoring program was an effective and efficient way to establish national connections, obtain different perspectives, and receive advice. Goal-setting helped mentees in achieving 3-month goals and fostering mentoring relationships outside of the program. These elements continue to be a part of this program and might be valuable for similar programs.
Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians
Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources.
Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty
Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.
Does being a chief resident predict leadership in pediatric careers?
OBJECTIVE: Many organizations make efforts to identify future pediatric leaders, often focusing on chief residents (CRs). Identifying future leaders is an issue of great importance not only to the ultimate success of the organization but also to the profession. Because little is known regarding whether completing a CR predicts future leadership in medicine, we sought to determine if former pediatric CRs when compared with pediatric residents who were not CRs reported more often that they were leaders in their profession. DESIGN/METHODS: Twenty-four pediatric training programs stratified by resident size (<18, 18-36, and >36) and geography (East, South, Midwest, and West) were selected randomly from the Graduate Medical Education Directory (American Medical Association, Chicago, IL). Program directors were contacted by mail and telephone and asked to provide their housestaff rosters from 1965-1985. The resulting resident sample was surveyed by questionnaire in 1995. RESULTS: Fifteen of 17 program directors (88%) who possessed the requested data provided 1965-1985 rosters yielding a sample of 963 residents. Fifty-five percent of the resident sample (533) responded. Fifty-eight of the respondents had not completed a pediatric residency, leaving a survey sample of 475. Thirty-four percent (163) were CRs. The sample had a mean age of 47, 67% were male and 87% married. Fellowships were completed by 51%. More former CRs compared with non-CRs (75% vs 64%), more former fellows than non-fellows (75% vs 60%) and more males than females (74% vs 55%) reported they were professional leaders. These associations persisted in a logistic regression that controlled for CR status, gender, marital status, and fellowship status as leadership predictors. Former CRs, former fellows, and men were, respectively, 1.8, 2.3, and 2.3 times more likely to report professional leadership. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric residents who were former CRs and/or fellows, and males were more likely to report professional leadership. Although men were more likely to report professional leadership, with more women entering pediatrics the reported gender differences will likely disappear over time
CHANGES IN INFANT-MORTALITY DURING MEDICAID EXPANSION FOR PREGNANT-WOMEN AND CHILDREN [Meeting Abstract]
Pediatrics and child advocacy: preparing for the 21st century
2 PLANS FOR UNIVERSAL HEALTH-INSURANCE [Letter]