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Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation dissemination and integration with organ preservation in the USA: ethical and logistical considerations

Schiff, Tamar; Koziatek, Christian; Pomerantz, Erin; Bosson, Nichole; Montgomery, Robert; Parent, Brendan; Wall, Stephen P
Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, termed eCPR, offers the prospect of improving survival with good neurological function after cardiac arrest. After death, ECMO can also be used for enhanced preservation of abdominal and thoracic organs, designated normothermic regional perfusion (NRP), before organ recovery for transplantation. To optimize resuscitation and transplantation outcomes, healthcare networks in Portugal and Italy have developed cardiac arrest protocols that integrate use of eCPR with NRP. Similar dissemination of eCPR and its integration with NRP in the USA raise novel ethical issues due to a non-nationalized health system and an opt-in framework for organ donation, as well as other legal and cultural factors. Nonetheless, eCPR investigations are ongoing, and both eCPR and NRP are selectively employed in clinical practice. This paper delineates the most pressing relevant ethical considerations and proposes recommendations for implementation of protocols that aim to promote public trust and reduce conflicts of interest. Transparent policies should rely on protocols that separate lifesaving from organ preservation considerations; robust, centralized eCPR data to inform equitable and evidence-based allocations; uniform practices concerning clinical decision-making and resource utilization; and partnership with community stakeholders, allowing patients to make decisions about emergency care that align with their values. Proactively addressing these ethical and logistical challenges could enable eCPR dissemination and integration with NRP protocols in the USA, with the potential to maximize lives saved through both improved resuscitation with good neurological outcomes and increased organ donation opportunities when resuscitation is unsuccessful or not in accordance with individuals' wishes.
PMID: 37072806
ISSN: 1466-609x
CID: 5459662

A Rare Malposition of a Left Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheter into the Left Internal Mammary Vein

Koziatek, Christian A; Idowu, Damilola; White, Richard
CASE PRESENTATION/METHODS:We describe a case of left internal jugular central venous access with rare malpositioning into the internal mammary vein. Despite various confirmatory measures at the time of placement including ultrasonography of the internal jugular vein, as well as blood gas analysis consistent with venous blood by oxygen saturation and good venous flow in all three ports of the catheter, subsequent imaging confirmed misplacement into the internal mammary vein. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Central venous access is a frequently used procedure by emergency physicians for a variety of indications. Emergency physicians must be facile with both the technical process of central venous catheter placement, as well as possible pitfalls and complications of the procedure. Common complications, such as bleeding, pneumothorax, arterial injury, infection, and hematomas, are usually well known; less frequently encountered is malposition of the catheter despite seemingly appropriate placement.
PMID: 36859327
ISSN: 2474-252x
CID: 5459652

Thromboelastography in the setting of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

Mohan, Sanjay; Koziatek, Christian; Swartz, Jordan; Howland, Mary Ann; Su, Mark K
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Severe acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning can result in fulminant hepatic failure and abnormal tests of coagulation. Although the international normalized ratio (INR) may be elevated, the actual hemostatic status of patients with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity is unknown. Few studies exist investigating the clinical use of thromboelastography (TEG) to evaluate the hemostatic status in the setting of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We performed a retrospective review of patients who were admitted for APAP toxicity and received TEG testing at a single transplant center. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Nine patients had detectable APAP concentrations and exhibited elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities. Seven had thrombocytopenia. TEG revealed a decreased median alpha angle and maximum amplitude but other values were within the normal reference range. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:Based on our study of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, TEG showed a decreased rate of fibrin formation and cross-linking, as well as reduced clot strength. These findings suggest that patients with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia have a theoretically increased bleeding risk as demonstrated by both elevated INR and abnormal TEG values. However, these TEG findings are more likely related to thrombocytopenia rather than directly to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Further studies should be performed to elucidate the potential role of TEG in various stages of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.
PMID: 35014913
ISSN: 1556-9519
CID: 5116742

Food Insecurity in Rural Communities Before and During the COVID-Pandemic [Meeting Abstract]

Arias, Carolina Quintero; Rony, Melissa; Jensen, Erica; Patel, Rahi; O\Callaghan, Stasha; Koziatek, Christian A.; Doran, Kelly; Anthopolos, Rebeccca; Thorpe, Lorna; Elbel, Brian; Mcgraw, Nancy A.; Lee, David C.
ISSN: 0012-1797
CID: 5421252

Using Machine Learning to Improve Screening for Undiagnosed Diabetes among Emergency Department Patients [Meeting Abstract]

Bohart, Isaac; Caldwell, J. Reed; Swartz, Jordan; Rosen, Perry E.; Genes, Nicholas; Koziatek, Christian A.; Neill, Daniel B.; Lee, David C.
ISSN: 0012-1797
CID: 5421242

Pulmonary thromboembolism in COVID-19: Evaluating the role of D-dimer and computed tomography pulmonary angiography results [Letter]

Ramadan, Leena; Koziatek, Christian A; Caldwell, J Reed; Pecoriello, Jillian; Kuhner, Christopher; Subaiya, Saleena; Lee, David C
PMID: 32928606
ISSN: 1532-8171
CID: 4591172

Use of a telehealth follow-up system to facilitate treatment and discharge of emergency department patients with severe cellulitis

Koziatek, Christian; Klein, Noah; Mohan, Sanjay; Lakdawala, Viraj; Swartz, Jordan; Femia, Robert; Press, Robert; Caspers, Christopher
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Novel long-acting lipoglycopeptide antibiotics allow for the treatment and discharge of selected emergency department (ED) patients with cellulitis who require intravenous antibiotics. Telehealth systems have shown success in remote management of dermatologic conditions; we implemented a telehealth follow-up program for patients diagnosed with cellulitis in the ED, treated with single-dose dalbavancin, and discharged. METHODS:This was a prospective, multi-center observational study. Patients were included based on clinical criteria and ability to complete follow-up using a smartphone and enroll in an online care portal. We examined the rate of successful telehealth follow-up at 24- and 72-hour intervals from discharge. We also examined the ED return rate within 14 days, reviewed any visits to determine cause of return, and for admission. RESULTS:55 patients were enrolled. 54/55 patients completed at least one telehealth follow up encounter (98.2%). 13 patients (23.6%) had a return ED visit within 14 days; no patients required admission for worsening cellulitis. Patient engagement in the telehealth program decreased over time; there was an approximately 11% decrease in engagement between the 24 and 72-hour follow-up call, and a 15% decrease in engagement between the 24 and 72-hour image upload. Patients over 65 had a lower rate of image upload (31%) than younger patients (80.6%). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:A telehealth follow-up system for discharged emergency department patients with cellulitis demonstrated high rates of engagement. In these patients who -may have otherwise required admission for intravenous antibiotics, telehealth-facilitated outpatient management resulted in a low ED return rate and no inpatient admissions for cellulitis.
PMID: 32081554
ISSN: 1532-8171
CID: 4313372

Virtual Urgent Care Quality and Safety in the Time of Coronavirus

Smith, Silas W; Tiu, Janelle; Caspers, Christopher G; Lakdawala, Viraj S; Koziatek, Christian A; Swartz, Jordan L; Lee, David C; Jamin, Catherine T; Femia, Robert J; Haines, Elizabeth J
BACKGROUND:Telemedicine use rapidly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed quality aspects of rapid expansion of a virtual urgent care (VUC) telehealth system and the effects of a secondary telephonic screening initiative during the pandemic. METHODS:A retrospective cohort analysis was performed in a single health care network of VUC patients from March 1, 2020, through April 20, 2020. Researchers abstracted demographic data, comorbidities, VUC return visits, emergency department (ED) referrals and ED visits, dispositions, intubations, and deaths. The team also reviewed incomplete visits. For comparison, the study evaluated outcomes of non-admission dispositions from the ED: return visits with and without admission and deaths. We separately analyzed the effects of enhanced callback system targeting higher-risk patients with COVID-like illness during the last two weeks of the study period. RESULTS:A total of 18,278 unique adult patients completed 22,413 VUC visits. Separately, 718 patient-scheduled visits were incomplete; the majority were no-shows. The study found that 50.9% of all patients and 74.1% of patients aged 60 years or older had comorbidities. Of VUC visits, 6.8% had a subsequent VUC encounter within 72 hours; 1.8% had a subsequent ED visit. Of patients with enhanced follow-up, 4.3% were referred for ED evaluation. Mortality was 0.20% overall; 0.21% initially and 0.16% with enhanced follow-up (p = 0.59). Males and black patients were significantly overrepresented in decedents. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Appropriately deployed VUC services can provide a pragmatic strategy to care for large numbers of patients. Ongoing surveillance of operational, technical, and clinical factors is critical for patient quality and safety with this modality.
PMID: 33358323
ISSN: 1938-131x
CID: 4731212

Assessing the Impact of a Rapidly Scaled Virtual Urgent Care in New York City During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Koziatek, Christian A; Rubin, Ada; Lakdawala, Viraj; Lee, David C; Swartz, Jordan; Auld, Elizabeth; Smith, Silas W; Reddy, Harita; Jamin, Catherine; Testa, Paul; Femia, Robert; Caspers, Christopher
BACKGROUND:The coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic quickly challenged New York City health care systems. Telemedicine has been suggested to manage acute complaints and divert patients from in-person care. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to describe and assess the impact of a rapidly scaled virtual urgent care platform during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who presented to a virtual urgent care platform over 1 month during the COVID-19 pandemic surge. We described scaling our telemedicine urgent care capacity, described patient clinical characteristics, assessed for emergency department (ED) referrals, and analyzed postvisit surveys. RESULTS:During the study period, a total of 17,730 patients were seen via virtual urgent care; 454 (2.56%) were referred to an ED. The most frequent diagnoses were COVID-19 related or upper respiratory symptoms. Geospatial analysis indicated a wide catchment area. There were 251 providers onboarded to the platform; at peak, 62 providers supplied 364 h of coverage in 1 day. The average patient satisfaction score was 4.4/5. There were 2668 patients (15.05%) who responded to the postvisit survey; 1236 (49.35%) would have sought care in an ED (11.86%) or in-person urgent care (37.49%). CONCLUSIONS:A virtual urgent care platform was scaled to manage a volume of more than 800 patients a day across a large catchment area during the pandemic surge. About half of the patients would otherwise have presented to an ED or urgent care in person. Virtual urgent care is an option for appropriate patients while minimizing in-person visits during the COVID-19 pandemic.
PMID: 32737005
ISSN: 0736-4679
CID: 4552202

Risk Stratification of COVID-19 Patients Using Ambulatory Oxygen Saturation in the Emergency Department

Akhavan, Arvin R; Habboushe, Joseph P; Gulati, Rajneesh; Iheagwara, Oluchi; Watterson, Joanna; Thomas, Shawn; Swartz, Jordan L; Koziatek, Christian A; Lee, David C
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:It is difficult to determine illness severity for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, especially among stable-appearing emergency department (ED) patients. We evaluated patient outcomes among ED patients with a documented ambulatory oxygen saturation measurement. METHODS:This was a retrospective chart review of ED patients seen at New York University Langone Health during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. We identified ED patients who had a documented ambulatory oxygen saturation. We studied the outcomes of high oxygen requirement (defined as >4 liters per minute) and mechanical ventilation among admitted patients and bounceback admissions among discharged patients. We also performed logistic regression and compared the performance of different ambulatory oxygen saturation cutoffs in predicting these outcomes. RESULTS:Between March 15-April 14, 2020, 6194 patients presented with fever, cough, or shortness of breath at our EDs. Of these patients, 648 (11%) had a documented ambulatory oxygen saturation, of which 165 (24%) were admitted. Notably, admitted and discharged patients had similar initial vital signs. However, the average ambulatory oxygen saturation among admitted patients was significantly lower at 89% compared to 96% among discharged patients (p<0.01). Among admitted patients with an ambulatory oxygen saturation, 30% had high oxygen requirements and 8% required mechanical ventilation. These rates were predicted by low ambulatory oxygen saturation (p<0.01). Among discharged patients, 50 (10%) had a subsequent ED visit resulting in admission. Although bounceback admissions were predicted by ambulatory oxygen saturation at the first ED visit (p<0.01), our analysis of cutoffs suggested that this association may not be clinically useful. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Measuring ambulatory oxygen saturation can help ED clinicians identify patients who may require high levels of oxygen or mechanical ventilation during admission. However, it is less useful for identifying which patients may deteriorate clinically in the days after ED discharge and require subsequent hospitalization.
PMID: 33052820
ISSN: 1936-9018
CID: 4641502