Factors associated with hospital admission and critical illness among 5279 people with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City: prospective cohort study
OBJECTIVE:To describe outcomes of people admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States, and the clinical and laboratory characteristics associated with severity of illness. DESIGN/METHODS:Prospective cohort study. SETTING/METHODS:Single academic medical center in New York City and Long Island. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:5279 patients with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) infection between 1 March 2020 and 8 April 2020. The final date of follow up was 5 May 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Outcomes were admission to hospital, critical illness (intensive care, mechanical ventilation, discharge to hospice care, or death), and discharge to hospice care or death. Predictors included patient characteristics, medical history, vital signs, and laboratory results. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify risk factors for adverse outcomes, and competing risk survival analysis for mortality. RESULTS:Of 11â€‰544 people tested for SARS-Cov-2, 5566 (48.2%) were positive. After exclusions, 5279 were included. 2741 of these 5279 (51.9%) were admitted to hospital, of whom 1904 (69.5%) were discharged alive without hospice care and 665 (24.3%) were discharged to hospice care or died. Of 647 (23.6%) patients requiring mechanical ventilation, 391 (60.4%) died and 170 (26.2%) were extubated or discharged. The strongest risk for hospital admission was associated with age, with an odds ratio of >2 for all age groups older than 44 years and 37.9 (95% confidence interval 26.1 to 56.0) for ages 75 years and older. Other risks were heart failure (4.4, 2.6 to 8.0), male sex (2.8, 2.4 to 3.2), chronic kidney disease (2.6, 1.9 to 3.6), and any increase in body mass index (BMI) (eg, for BMI >40: 2.5, 1.8 to 3.4). The strongest risks for critical illness besides age were associated with heart failure (1.9, 1.4 to 2.5), BMI >40 (1.5, 1.0 to 2.2), and male sex (1.5, 1.3 to 1.8). Admission oxygen saturation of <88% (3.7, 2.8 to 4.8), troponin level >1 (4.8, 2.1 to 10.9), C reactive protein level >200 (5.1, 2.8 to 9.2), and D-dimer level >2500 (3.9, 2.6 to 6.0) were, however, more strongly associated with critical illness than age or comorbidities. Risk of critical illness decreased significantly over the study period. Similar associations were found for mortality alone. CONCLUSIONS:Age and comorbidities were found to be strong predictors of hospital admission and to a lesser extent of critical illness and mortality in people with covid-19; however, impairment of oxygen on admission and markers of inflammation were most strongly associated with critical illness and mortality. Outcomes seem to be improving over time, potentially suggesting improvements in care.
Prevalence and Outcomes of D-Dimer Elevation in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19
OBJECTIVE:<0.001). Rates of adverse events increased with the magnitude of D-dimer elevation; individuals with presenting D-dimer >2000 ng/mL had the highest risk of critical illness (66%), thrombotic event (37.8%), acute kidney injury (58.3%), and death (47%). CONCLUSIONS:Abnormal D-dimer was frequently observed at admission with COVID-19 and was associated with higher incidence of critical illness, thrombotic events, acute kidney injury, and death. The optimal management of patients with elevated D-dimer in COVID-19 requires further study.
Interferon pathway lupus risk alleles modulate risk of death from acute COVID-19
Type I interferon (IFN) is critical in our defense against viral infections. Increased type I IFN pathway activation is a genetic risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and a number of common risk alleles contribute to the high IFN trait. We hypothesized that these common gain-of-function IFN pathway alleles may be associated with protection from mortality in acute COVID-19. We studied patients admitted with acute COVID-19 (756 European-American and 398 African-American ancestry). Ancestral backgrounds were analyzed separately, and mortality after acute COVID-19 was the primary outcome. In European-American ancestry, we found that a haplotype of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and alleles of protein kinase cGMP-dependent 1 (PRKG1) were associated with mortality from COVID-19. Interestingly, these were much stronger risk factors in younger patients (OR=29.2 for PRKG1 in ages 45-54). Variants in the IRF7 and IRF8 genes were associated with mortality from COVID-19 in African-American subjects, and these genetic effects were more pronounced in older subjects. Combining genetic information with blood biomarker data such as C-reactive protein, troponin, and D-dimer resulted in significantly improved predictive capacity, and in both ancestral backgrounds the risk genotypes were most relevant in those with positive biomarkers (OR for death between 14 and 111 in high risk genetic/biomarker groups). This study confirms the critical role of the IFN pathway in defense against COVID-19 and viral infections, and supports the idea that some common SLE risk alleles exert protective effects in anti-viral immunity. BACKGROUND: We find that a number of IFN pathway lupus risk alleles significantly impact mortality following COVID-19 infection. These data support the idea that type I IFN pathway risk alleles for autoimmune disease may persist in high frequency in modern human populations due to a benefit in our defense against viral infections. TRANSLATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE: We develop multivariate prediction models which combine genetics and known biomarkers of severity to result in greatly improved prediction of mortality in acute COVID-19. The specific associated alleles provide some clues about key points in our defense against COVID-19.
Prior bariatric surgery in COVID-19-positive patients may be protective
BACKGROUND:Patients infected with novel COVID-19 virus have a spectrum of illnesses ranging from asymptomatic to death. Data have shown that age, sex, and obesity are strongly correlated with poor outcomes in COVID-19-positive patients. Bariatric surgery is the only treatment that provides significant, sustained weight loss in the severely obese. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Examine if prior bariatric surgery correlates with increased risk of hospitalization and outcome severity after COVID-19 infection. SETTING/METHODS:test or Fisher's exact test. Additionally, overall length of stay and duration of time in intensive care unit (ICU) were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Conditional logistic regression analyses were done to determine both unadjusted (UOR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS:(SD = 6.5, P < .0001). There was also less burden of diabetes in the bariatric group (32%) compared with the control group (48%) (P = .0019). Patients with a history of bariatric surgery were less likely to be admitted through the emergency room (UOR = .39, P = .0001), less likely to require a ventilator during the admission (UOR=.42, P = .028), hadÂ aÂ shorter length of stay in both the ICU (P = .033) and overall (UOR = .44, PÂ =Â .0002), and were less likely to be deceased at discharge compared with the control group (ORÂ = .42, P = .028). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:A history of bariatric surgery significantly decreases the risk of emergency room admission, mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay, and death in patients with COVID-19. Even when adjusted for BMI and the co-morbidities associated with obesity, patients with a history of bariatric surgery still have a significant decrease in the risk of emergency room admission.
Gastrostomy tubes in patients with COVID-19: Reduction of in-hospital mortality with a multidisciplinary team-based approach [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Critically-ill patients with COVID-19 often require long-term enteral access due to prolonged ventilator support and slow recovery from neurologic injury. The outcomes of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 who received gastrostomy tubes (GTs) are unknown and limited guidance exists on how to safely triage GT placement in this population. The Enteral Access Team (EAT) is a multidisciplinary team led by an attending gastroenterologist (GI) hospitalist with advanced practice providers who collaborate with Palliative Care, Geriatrics, Speech-Language Pathology, and Nutrition to reduce unnecessary feeding tube placements at the end-of-life. The EAT reviews the appropriateness of GT placement and triages each case to the indicated procedural service. The EAT's multidisciplinary approach was applied for patients with COVID-19.
Method(s): We performed a retrospective study of 135 hospitalized patients with positive PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 who received GTs between 3/2020 and 4/2021. The GTs were placed by 3 services (gastroenterology, interventional radiology and surgery) at 3 hospitals within 1 health system in New York. One of the hospitals employed the multidisciplinary EAT approach to its triage of GT placement. Outcomes were compared between the EAT site and control sites where GT placement was decided through direct consultation by the primary team with one of the procedural services.
Result(s): Demographics for the two groups, including overall numbers of COVID-19 admissions, can be seen in Table 1. At the EAT site (n =43) 5% of patients expired prior to discharge following GT placement compared with 25% at the control sites (P <0.05). Patients at the EAT site were older with a mean age of 70 years compared to the control sites with a mean age of 63 years (P=0.01). There was no significant difference in the percentage of COVID-19 patients who received GTs, length-ofstay, or time from gastrostomy to discharge or death. Multivariable analysis showed the odds of in hospital mortality were 10.1 times greater with the standard workflow than with the EAT workflow (OR 10.1, [95% CI: 1.7-60.6], P <0.05).
Conclusion(s): The EAT's novel multidisciplinary team-based approach helps to appropriately select hospitalized patients with SARs-CoV-2 for long-term enteral access leading to reduced in-hospital mortality following GT placement. Additionally, this approach may help to mediate the national shortage of GTs and reduce the risk of exposure to providers involved in GT placement
Interferon pathway lupus risk alleles modulate risk of death from acute covid-19 [Meeting Abstract]
Background/Purpose: Type I interferon (IFN) is critical in our defense against viral infections. Increased type I IFN pathway activation is a genetic risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and a number of common alleles contribute to the genetic high IFN trait. In this study, we examine whether these common gain-of-function alleles in the type I IFN pathway are associated with protection from mortality in acute COVID-19.
Method(s): We studied IFN pathway SLE risk genes in patients with acute COVID-19 admitted to NYU Langone hospitals (751 European-American and 398 African-American ancestry). The samples were genotyped using low depth sequencing and imputation, and we analyzed data from the following SNPs: IRF5 (rs2004640, rs3807306, rs10488631, rs2280714), IRF7/PHRF (rs1131665, rs4963128), IRF8 (rs17445836, rs12444486), and PRKG1 (rs7897633). Ancestral backgrounds were analyzed separately, and mortality after acute COVID-19 was the primary outcome.
Result(s): We observed specific IRF5 haplotypes that are protective against SLE risk were associated with increased risk of mortality in acute COVID-19 patients in European-American ancestry (OR=3.74, p=0.015). Alleles of PRKG1 were also associated with mortality from COVID-19 in the European-American ancestry cohort (OR=1.80, p=0.0057), and this risk factor was particularly strong in younger patients (OR=29.2, p=0.01 in ages 45-54). IRF8 genotype at rs1244486 was associated with protection from mortality in COVID-19 in African-American subjects aged 65 and older (OR=0.34, p=0.04).
Conclusion(s): We find that a number of type I IFN pathway genes associated with risk of SLE also modulate risk of death during acute COVID-19. Similar to their associations with SLE, these alleles are variably associated with COVID-19 mortality across ancestral backgrounds, suggesting ancestral differences in the genetic regulation of the IFN pathway. These data confirm the critical role of the IFN pathway in our defense against viral infections, and support the idea that some common SLE risk alleles exert protective effects in anti-viral immunity
Outcomes among Hospitalized Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with COVID-19
Background/UNASSIGNED:Patients with CKD ha ve impaired immunity, increased risk of infection-related mortality, and worsened COVID-19 outcomes. However, data comparing nondialysis CKD and ESKD are sparse. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Patients with COVID-19 admitted to three hospitals in the New York area, between March 2 and August 27, 2020, were retrospectively studied using electronic health records. Patients were classified as those without CKD, those with nondialysis CKD, and those with ESKD, with outcomes including hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mortality rates. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of 3905 patients, 588 (15%) had nondialysis CKD and 128 (3%) had ESKD. The nondialysis CKD and ESKD groups had a greater prevalence of comorbidities and higher admission D-dimer levels, whereas patients with ESKD had lower C-reactive protein levels at admission. ICU admission rates were similar across all three groups (23%-25%). The overall, unadjusted hospital mortality was 25%, and the mortality was 24% for those without CKD, 34% for those with nondialysis CKD, and 27% for those with ESKD. Among patients in the ICU, mortality was 56%, 64%, and 56%, respectively. Although patients with nondialysis CKD had higher odds of overall mortality versus those without CKD in univariate analysis (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.91), this was no longer significant in fully adjusted models (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.40). Also, ESKD status did not associate with a higher risk of mortality compared with non-CKD in adjusted analyses, but did have reduced mortality when compared with nondialysis CKD (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.95). Mortality rates declined precipitously after the first 2 months of the pandemic, from 26% to 14%, which was reflected in all three subgroups. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:In a diverse cohort of patients with COVID-19, we observed higher crude mortality rates for patients with nondialysis CKD and, to a lesser extent, ESKD, which were not significant after risk adjustment. Moreover, patients with ESKD appear to have better outcom es than those with nondialysis CKD.
Trends in Risk-Adjusted 28-Day Mortality Rates for Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 in England
Early reports showed high mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mortality rates have recently been lower; however, patients are also now younger, with fewer comorbidities. We explored 28-day mortality for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in England over a 5-month period, adjusting for a range of potentially mitigating variables, including sociodemographics and comorbidities. Among 102,610 hospitalizations, crude mortality decreased from 33.4% (95% CI, 32.9-34.0) in March 2020 to 15.5% (95% CI, 14.1-17.0) in July. Adjusted mortality decreased from 33.4% (95% CI, 32.8-34.1) in March to 17.4% (95% CI, 11.3-26.9) in July. The relative risk of mortality decreased from a reference of 1 in March to 0.52 (95% CI, 0.34-0.80) in July. This demonstrates that the reduction in mortality is not solely due to changes in the demographics of those with COVID-19.
Decreasing Incidence of AKI in Patients with COVID-19 critical illness in New York City
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Reports from the United States suggest that acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently complicates COVID-19, but understanding of AKI risks and outcomes is incomplete. Additionally, whether kidney outcomes have evolved during the course of the pandemic is unknown. Methods/UNASSIGNED:We used electronic records to identify COVID-19 patients with and without AKI admitted to 3 New York Hospitals between March 2 and August 25, 2020. Outcomes included AKI overall and according to admission week, AKI stage, the requirement for new renal replacement therapy (RRT), mortality and recovery of kidney function. Logistic regression was utilized to assess associations of patient characteristics and outcomes. Results/UNASSIGNED:Out of 4732 admissions 1386 (29.3%) patients had AKI. Among those with AKI, 717 (51.7%) had Stage 1, 132 (9.5%) Stage 2, 537 (38.7%) stage 3, and 237 (17.1%) required RRT initiation. In March 536/1648 (32.5%) of patients developed AKI compared with 15/87 (17.2%) in August (P<0.001 for monthly trend) whereas RRT initiation was required in 6.9% and 0% of admission, in March and August respectively. Mortality was higher with than without AKI (51.6% vs 8.6%) and was 71.9% in individuals requiring RRT. However, most patients with AKI who survived hospitalization (77%) recovered to within 0.3 mg/dL of baseline creatinine. Among those surviving to discharge, 62% discontinued RRT. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:AKI impacts a high proportion of admitted COVID-19 patients and is associated with high mortality, particularly when RRT is required. AKI incidence appears to be decreasing over time and kidney function frequently recovers in those who survive.
Medication Reconciliation Tool Reduces Errors in Patients Admitted From the ED to Hospital