Resident Education Curriculum in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: The Short Curriculum 3.0
Exposure to pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) varies across residency programs in obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine, and pediatrics, as well as fellowship programs in adolescent medicine. Nevertheless, these programs are responsible for training residents and fellows and providing opportunities within their programs to fulfill PAG learning objectives. To that end, the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology has taken a leadership role in PAG education by creating and systematically updating the Short Curriculum. This curriculum outlines specific learning objectives that are central to PAG education and lists essential resources for learners' reference. This updated curriculum replaces the previous 2018 publication with added content, resources, and updated references.
Case of a Girl with Vaginal Discharge Who Has Sex with Girls
[S.l.] : Springer International, 2018
Description of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviors among High School Girls in New York City
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and chi2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. CONCLUSION: Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Under-recognized Cause of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Adolescents Admitted to a Children's Hospital
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether ovulatory dysfunction due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common underlying etiology of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents who require hospitalization and to explore etiology, treatment, and complications of AUB with severe anemia in adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We identified female patients aged 8-20 years admitted to a children's hospital for treatment of AUB from January 2000 to December 2014. Our hospital protocol advises hormonal testing for PCOS and other disorders before treatment for AUB. We reviewed medical records and recorded laboratory evaluations, treatments, and final underlying diagnoses as well as recurrences of AUB and readmissions in the subsequent year. RESULTS: Of the 125 subjects, the mean age was 16.5 +/- 2.9 years; mean hemoglobin level was 7.0 +/- 1.8 g/dL; 54% were overweight/obese; and 41% sexually active. PCOS accounted for 33% of admissions; hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis immaturity 31%; endometritis 13%; bleeding disorders 10%. Girls with PCOS were more likely to be overweight/obese (74% vs 46%; P < .01) and girls with hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis immaturity had lower hemoglobin levels (6.4 g/dL vs 7.4 g/dL; P < .05), than girls with all other etiologies of AUB. Treating physicians failed to diagnose endometritis as the etiology for AUB in 4 of 8 girls with positive tests for sexually transmitted infection and no other etiology. CONCLUSION: PCOS was the most common underlying etiology in adolescents hospitalized with AUB. Screening for hyperandrogenemia is important for early diagnosis of PCOS to allow ongoing management and prevention of comorbidities. Endometritis was frequently underestimated as an etiology for AUB.