Complications of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can result in recurrent instability, impairment, and progressive joint damage in athletes who return to high-risk sports activities. ACL reconstruction often is indicated. With refinement of surgical techniques and accelerated rehabilitation, the number of complications following ACL reconstruction has greatly decreased since the 1980s. Nevertheless, ACL reconstruction remains a complex procedure with multiple steps and many possible complications. Understanding the incidence and etiology of the more common complications associated with ACL reconstruction during the preoperative and postoperative periods is important to manage (if not avoid) the risk of these complications.
Indications in the treatment of patellar instability
Recent developments in patellar instability have focused on the passive restraints against mediolateral patellar motion. Viewed from this perspective, muscle alignment is considered secondary because, although muscle forces are important, their ability to cause or prevent patellar dislocation depends on passive stability or the lack thereof. In the normal knee, the patella seats quickly in the trochlea in early flexion, so that the ligamentous restraints are important only near full extension. In the unstable patellofemoral joint, the trochlea frequently is deficient and patella alta often exists. In such cases, the ligaments assume a greater role in preventing excessive lateral patellar displacement. The most pressing questions at the moment are: 1) which of the anatomical abnormalities must be corrected, alone or in combination, to prevent further patellar instability; and 2) what is the relative risk of corrective procedures compared to the natural history or competing surgical approaches? These questions must be addressed by clinical trials. Only a minority of patients who experience patellar dislocation will redislocate the patella, and surgical treatment does not always yield results that are superior to conservative care. Treatment recommendations should be based on an individual's risk of recurrent dislocation, pain, and disability, a thorough understanding of his or her anatomy, and clear treatment objectives. Lateral release has no role in the treatment of a hyperlax patellofemoral joint, as it adds additional laxity to a system that is already unstable. If surgery is performed, current evidence suggests techniques aimed at repair or reconstruction of the passive retinacular restraints are as effective as more extensive procedures at preventing subsequent dislocations. Among the latter procedures, realignment procedures use active muscle forces to help seat the patella in the femoral groove; however, biomechanical costs are associated with this approach and superior results have not been demonstrated with distal and combined realignments compared with more limited proximal procedures.
Use of an Electronic Medical Record to Assess Patient-Reported Morbidity Following Ureteroscopy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:With the extensive documentation afforded by our electronic medical record (EMR), we observed an unusually high number of patient-initiated encounters following ureteroscopy (URS). We sought to quantify and categorize patient encounters following URS to determine if we could identify avoidable common problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Following IRB approval, we reviewed the records of 298 consecutive patients with stones who underwent 314 URS procedures between July 2013 and November 2014. Patient demographics, stone characteristics and operative details, as well as telephone encounters, secure online patient-initiated (MyChart) messages, and emergency department (ED) visits following URS were extracted from our EMR (Epic, Verona, WI). We performed univariate (UVA) and multivariate (MVA) analysis to identify factors predictive of postoperative patient encounters and compared URS patients to a group of 56 patients undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) for number and type of encounters. RESULTS:We identified 443 encounters generated by 201 URS patients, including 334 telephone calls, 71 MyChart messages, and 38 ED visits. Among these encounters, 352 (79%) were medically related (pain comprised 45%) and the remainder involved scheduling issues. By UVA age, bilateral versus unilateral URS, stone location (both kidney and ureter), ureteral access sheath size, and total number of stones predicted a postoperative encounter. By MVA, only younger age and larger UAS size were independent predictors. When compared with TURBT patients, URS patients had a 2.5-fold higher risk of having a pain-related postoperative encounter (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.08-7.04, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients undergoing URS for stones, two-thirds made unprompted contact with a healthcare provider and 80% of contacts involved postoperative pain, a finding that is distinct from another endoscopic procedure that does not involve upper tract manipulation. Patients do not perceive URS as the benign procedure doctors do.