Quantitative magnetic resonance evaluation of the trigeminal nerve in familial dysautonomia
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that affects the development of sensory and autonomic neurons, including those in the cranial nerves. We aimed to determine whether conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could detect morphologic changes in the trigeminal nerves of these patients. METHODS:Cross-sectional analysis of brain MRI of patients with genetically confirmed FD and age- and sex-matched controls. High-resolution 3D gradient-echo T1-weighted sequences were used to obtain measurements of the cisternal segment of the trigeminal nerves. Measurements were obtained using a two-reader consensus. RESULTS:in controls (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). No association between trigeminal nerve area and age was found in patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS:Using conventional MRI, the caliber of the trigeminal nerves was significantly reduced bilaterally in patients with FD compared to controls, a finding that appears to be highly characteristic of this disorder. The lack of correlation between age and trigeminal nerve size supports arrested neuronal development rather than progressive atrophy.
Nonpituitary Sellar Masses and Infiltrative Disorders
Cham, Switzerland : Humana Press, 
Primary Ewing Sarcoma of the Mastoid: A Novel Case Mimicking Acute Mastoiditis
Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in bone or soft tissue. It is the second most common primary bone malignancy of children and adolescents, with a peak incidence in the second decade of life. It most often arises in the long bones of the extremities and pelvis. Here, we present a novel case of EWS arising from the mastoid bone in a 5-year-old African American male who presented with symptoms of acute mastoiditis. This unique presentation highlights the importance of considering EWS in a patient who presents with atypical mastoiditis or a rapidly growing mass in the postauricular region.
Minor Suture Fusion in Syndromic Craniosynostosis
BACKGROUND: Infants with craniofacial dysostosis syndromes may present with midface abnormalities but without major (calvarial) suture synostosis and head shape anomalies. Delayed presentation of their calvarial phenotype is known as progressive postnatal craniosynostosis. Minor sutures/synchondroses are continuations of major sutures toward and within the skull base. The authors hypothesized that minor suture synostosis is present in infants with syndromic, progressive postnatal craniosynostosis, and is associated with major suture synostosis. METHODS: The authors performed a two-institution review of infants (<1 year) with syndromic craniosynostosis and available computed tomographic scans. Major (i.e., metopic, sagittal, coronal, and lambdoid) and minor suture/synchondrosis fusion was determined by two craniofacial surgeons and one radiologist using Mimics or Radiant software. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients with 84 scans were included. Those with FGFR2 mutations were more likely to lack any major suture fusion (OR, 19.0; p = 0.044). Minor suture fusion occurred more often in the posterior branch of the coronal arch (OR, 3.33; p < 0.001), squamosal arch (OR, 7.32; p < 0.001), and posterior intraoccipital synchondroses (OR, 15.84; p < 0.001), among FGFR2 versus other patients. Patients (n = 9) with multiple scans showed a pattern of minor suture fusion followed by increased minor and major suture synostosis. Over 84 percent of FGFR2 patients had minor suture fusion; however, six (13 percent) were identified with isolated major suture synostosis. CONCLUSIONS: Minor suture fusion occurs in most patients with FGFR2-related craniofacial dysostosis. Syndromic patients with patent calvarial sutures should be investigated for minor suture involvement. These data have important implications for the pathophysiology of skull growth and development in this select group of patients. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.
Endothelium-Independent Primitive Myxoid Vascularization Creates Invertebrate-Like Channels to Maintain Blood Supply in Optic Gliomas
Optic gliomas are brain tumors characterized by slow growth, progressive loss of vision, and limited therapeutic options. Optic gliomas contain various amounts of myxoid matrix, which can represent most of the tumor mass. We sought to investigate biological function and protein structure of the myxoid matrix in optic gliomas to identify novel therapeutic targets. We reviewed histological features and clinical imaging properties, analyzed vasculature by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, and performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on optic gliomas, which varied in the amount of myxoid matrix. We found that although subtypes of optic gliomas are indistinguishable on imaging, the microvascular network of pilomyxoid astrocytoma, a subtype of optic glioma with abundant myxoid matrix, is characterized by the presence of endothelium-free channels in the myxoid matrix. These tumors show normal perfusion by clinical imaging and lack histological evidence of hemorrhage organization or thrombosis. The myxoid matrix is composed predominantly of the proteoglycan versican and its linking protein, a vertebrate hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1. We propose that pediatric optic gliomas can maintain blood supply without endothelial cells by using invertebrate-like channels, which we termed primitive myxoid vascularization. Enzymatic targeting of the proteoglycan versican/hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 rich myxoid matrix, which is in direct contact with circulating blood, can provide novel therapeutic avenues for optic gliomas of childhood.
BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION OF MYXOID MATRIX IN OPTIC GLIOMAS [Meeting Abstract]
Palliative CT-Guided Cordotomy for Medically Intractable Pain in Patients with Cancer
Palliative cervical cordotomy can be performed via percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of the lateral C1-2 spinothalamic tract. This rare procedure can be safe, effective, and advantageous in mitigating medically intractable unilateral extremity pain for selected patients with end-stage cancer. This report reviews the indications, techniques, risks, and potential benefits of cordotomy. We describe our recent experience treating 3 patients with CT-guided C1-2 cordotomy and provide the first characterization of spinal cord diffusion MR imaging changes associated with successful cordotomy.
MIDBRAIN GLIOMAS: A LARGE SERIES THAT IDENTIFIES FEATURES CORRESPONDING WITH OUTCOME [Meeting Abstract]
MIDBRAIN GLIOMAS: A LARGE SERIES OF CLINICALLY AND RADIOGRAPHICALLY HETEROGENEOUS TUMORS [Meeting Abstract]
Endothelium-independent primitive myxoid vascularization creates invertebrate-like channels to maintain blood supply in optic gliomas [Meeting Abstract]
INTRODUCTION: Optic gliomas are classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) or pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMXA). Abundant bluish chondroid myxoid matrix is characteristic of PMXA but not PA. We sought to investigate the molecular composition of myxoid matrix and its biologic role in angiogenesis of optic gliomas. We reviewed clinical and pathological data on a cohort of 120 patients with optic glioma diagnosed at NYU Langone Medical Center from 1996 to 2014. We analyzed microvascular density (MVD), perfusion, hypoxia and proliferation by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural features by electron microscopy. To identify the composition of the myxoid matrix in PMXA we performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) without sample fractionation quantified using peptide spectral counts. PMXA showed significantly lower MVD by CD34 (8.1 vs 14.5, p-value < 0.002) and Erg (7 vs. 13.6, p-value 0.003) than PA, however GLUT-1 showed equal perfusion. Electron microscopy showed that PMXA contain both regular blood vessels with endothelial lining and channels completely lacking endothelial and smooth muscle cells. LC-MS stratified optic gliomas into three distinct groups. We identified 5389 proteins of which 188 were differentially expressed in the three groups (p<0.05, Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment). Between PA and PMXA, we found that most of differentially expressed proteins (146/188) displayed a positive fold change (increasing in PMXA relative to PA), and a minority (42/188) showed a negative fold change. The most abundant extracellular matrix proteins were a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican (VCAN 3.7-fold increase Q=0.000463) and its paralog vertebrate Hyaluronan And Proteoglycan Link Protein 1 (HAPLN1, 22-fold increase from the PA to the PMXA group Q=4.60x10-7). Optic gliomas can develop endothelium-independent channels reminiscent of those in invertebrates to maintain blood supply. The myxoid matrix is composed of VCAN and its linking paralog HAPLN1. Targeting the myxoid matrix may provide novel avenues for therapy of optic gliom