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World Trade Center (WTC) dust

Chapter by: Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Lung-Chi; Lippmann, Morton
in: Environmental toxicants : human exposures and their health effects by Lippmann, Morton; Leikauf, George D (Eds)
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2020
pp. 973-997
ISBN: 9781119438915
CID: 4584082


Chapter by: Sun, Hong; Cohen, Mitchell D
in: Environmental toxicants : human exposures and their health effects by Lippmann, Morton; Leikauf, George D (Eds)
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2020
pp. 487-513
ISBN: 9781119438915
CID: 4584072

Complementary biobank of rodent tissue samples to study the effect of World Trade Center exposure on cancer development

Lieberman-Cribbin, Wil; Tuminello, Stephanie; Gillezeau, Christina; van Gerwen, Maaike; Brody, Rachel; Mulholland, David J; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Prophete, Colette; Zelikoff, Judith; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Park, Sung-Hyun; Chen, Lung-Chi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Taioli, Emanuela
World Trade Center (WTC) responders were exposed to mixture of dust, smoke, chemicals and carcinogens. New York University (NYU) and Mount Sinai have recreated WTC exposure in rodents to observe the resulting systemic and local biological responses. These experiments aid in the interpretation of epidemiological observations and are useful for understanding the carcinogenesis process in the exposed human WTC cohort. Here we describe the implementation of a tissue bank system for the rodents experimentally exposed to WTC dust. NYU samples were experimentally exposed to WTC dust via intratracheal inhalation that mimicked conditions in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. Tissue from Mount Sinai was derived from genetically modified mice exposed to WTC dust via nasal instillation. All processed tissues include annotations of the experimental design, WTC dust concentration/dose, exposure route and duration, genetic background of the rodent, and method of tissue isolation/storage. A biobank of tissue from rodents exposed to WTC dust has been compiled representing an important resource for the scientific community. The biobank remains available as a scientific resource for future research through established mechanisms for samples request and utilization. Studies using the WTC tissue bank would benefit from confirming their findings in corresponding tissues from organs of animals experimentally exposed to WTC dust. Studies on rodent tissues will advance the understanding of the biology of the tumors developed by WTC responders and ultimately impact the modalities of treatment, and the probability of success and survival of WTC cancer patients.
PMID: 31601237
ISSN: 1479-5876
CID: 4130062

Prostate Cancer in World Trade Center Responders Demonstrates Evidence of an Inflammatory Cascade

Gong, Yixuan; Wang, Li; Yu, Haocheng; Alpert, Naomi; Cohen, Mitchell D; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Park, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi; Suarez-Farinas, Mayte; Donovan, Michael J; Aaronson, Stuart A; Galsky, Matthew; Zhu, Jun; Taioli, Emanuela; Oh, William K
An excess incidence of prostate cancer has been identified among World Trade Center (WTC) responders. In this study, we hypothesized that WTC dust, which contained carcinogens and tumor-promoting agents, could facilitate prostate cancer development by inducing DNA damage, promoting cell proliferation, and causing chronic inflammation. We compared expression of immunologic and inflammatory genes using a NanoString assay on archived prostate tumors from WTC Health Program (WTCHP) patients and non-WTC patients with prostate cancer. Furthermore, to assess immediate and delayed responses of prostate tissue to acute WTC dust exposure via intratracheal inhalation, we performed RNA-seq on the prostate of normal rats that were exposed to moderate to high doses of WTC dust. WTC prostate cancer cases showed significant upregulation of genes involved in DNA damage and G2-M arrest. Cell-type enrichment analysis showed that Th17 cells, a subset of proinflammatory Th cells, were specifically upregulated in WTC patients. In rats exposed to WTC dust, we observed upregulation of gene transcripts of cell types involved in both adaptive immune response (dendritic cells and B cells) and inflammatory response (Th17 cells) in the prostate. Unexpectedly, genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway were also significantly upregulated 30 days after acute dust exposure. Our results suggest that respiratory exposure to WTC dust can induce inflammatory and immune responses in prostate tissue.Implications: WTC-related prostate cancer displayed a distinct gene expression pattern that could be the result of exposure to specific carcinogens. Our data warrant further epidemiologic and cellular mechanistic studies to better understand the consequences of WTC dust exposure.Visual Overview:
PMID: 31221798
ISSN: 1557-3125
CID: 3954582

Immunotoxicology of Metals

Chapter by: Cohen, M. D.
in: Comprehensive Toxicology by
[S.l.] : Elsevier Inc., 2017
pp. 732-760
ISBN: 9780081006016
CID: 3031672

Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster's inadequate risk management

Lippmann, Morton; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Lung-Chi
The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings' huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80-90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from approximately 2.5 mum upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air currents. High concentrations of coarse and supercoarse WTC Dust were inhaled and deposited in the conductive airways in the head and lungs, and subsequently swallowed, causing both physical and chemical irritation to the respiratory and gastroesophageal epithelia. There were both acute and chronic adverse health effects in rescue/recovery workers; cleanup workers; residents; and office workers, especially in those lacking effective personal respiratory protective equipment. The numerous health effects in these people were not those associated with the monitored PM2.5 toxicants, which were present at low concentrations, that is, asbestos fibers, transition and heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and dioxins. Attention was never directed at the very high concentrations of the larger-sized and highly alkaline WTC Dust particles that, in retrospect, contained the more likely causal toxicants. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the air quality monitoring and guidance on exposure prevention programs on low-concentration components was never revised. Public agencies need to be better prepared to provide reliable guidance to the public on more appropriate means of exposure assessment, risk assessment, and preventive measures.
PMID: 26058443
ISSN: 1547-6898
CID: 1626362

Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium

Ghio, Andrew J; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline; Soukup, Joleen M; Dailey, Lisa A; Kesic, Matthew J; Cohen, Mitchell D
Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) showed a time- and dose-dependent increase in vanadium relative to PBS. HBE cells exposed to VOSO4 and then exposed to ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) significantly increased intracellular iron import supporting an interaction between the two metals. Following exposure to VOSO4, there was an increase (336+/-73%) in RNA for divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a major iron importer. With inclusion of VOSO4 in the incubation, vanadium could be measured in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions and the supernatant. Non-heme iron in the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions were decreased immediately following VOSO4 exposure while there was an increased concentration of non-heme iron in the supernatant. Provision of excess iron inhibited changes in the concentration of this metal provoked by VOSO4 exposures. Using Amplex Red, VOSO4 was shown to significantly increase oxidant generation by HBE cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HBE cells pre-treated with FAC and then exposed to VOSO4 demonstrated a decreased generation of oxidants. Similarly, activation of the transcription factor NF-kB promoter and release of interleukin-6 and -8 were increased following VOSO4 exposure and these effects were diminished by pre-treatment with FAC. We conclude that an initiating event in biological effect after exposure to vanadyl sulfate is a loss of requisite cell iron.
PMID: 25843360
ISSN: 1873-3344
CID: 1644462

Acute high-level exposure to WTC particles alters expression of genes associated with oxidative stress and immune function in the lung

Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Ward, William O; Peltier, Richard E; Zelikoff, Judith; Chen, Lung-Chi
Abstract First responders (FR) present at Ground Zero in the first 72 h after the World Trade Center (WTC) collapsed have progressively exhibited significant respiratory injuries. The few toxicology studies performed to date evaluated effects from just fine (< 2.5 microm) WTC dusts; none examined health effects/toxicities from atmospheres bearing larger particle sizes, despite the fact the majority (> 96%) of dusts were > 10 microm and most FR likely entrained dusts by mouth breathing. Using a system that generated/delivered supercoarse (10-53 microm) WTC dusts to F344 rats (in a manner that mimicked FR exposures), this study sought to examine potential toxicities in the lungs. In this exploratory study, rats were exposed for 2 h to 100 mg WTC dust/m(3) (while under isoflurane [ISO] anesthesia) or an air/ISO mixture; this dose conservatively modeled likely exposures by mouth-breathing FR facing approximately 750-1000 mg WTC dust/m(3). Lungs were harvested 2 h post-exposure and total RNA extracted for subsequent global gene expression analysis. Among the > 1000 genes affected by WTC dust (under ISO) or ISO alone, 166 were unique to the dust exposure. In many instances, genes maximally-induced by the WTC dust exposure (relative to in naive rats) were unchanged/inhibited by ISO only; similarly, several genes maximally inhibited in WTC dust rats were largely induced/unchanged in rats that received ISO only. These outcomes reflect likely contrasting effects of ISO and the WTC dust on lung gene expression. Overall, the data show that lungs of rats exposed to WTC dust (under ISO) - after accounting for any impact from ISO alone - displayed increased expression of genes related to lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle control, while several involved in anti-oxidant function were inhibited. These changes suggested acute inflammogenic effects and oxidative stress in the lungs of WTC dust-exposed rats. This study, thus, concludes that a single very high exposure to WTC dusts could potentially have adversely affected the respiratory system - in terms of early inflammatory and oxidative stress processes. As these changes were not compared with other types of dusts, the uniqueness of these WTC-mediated effects remains to be confirmed. It also still remains to be determined if these effects might have any relevance to chronic lung pathologies that became evident among FR who encountered the highest dust levels on September 11, 2001 and the 2 days thereafter. Ongoing studies using longer-range post-exposure analyses (up to 1-year or more) will help to determine if effects seen here on genes were acute, reversible, or persistent, and associated with corresponding histopathologic/biochemical changes in situ.
PMID: 24911330
ISSN: 1547-691x
CID: 1462842

Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats

Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-Chi, Chen
Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12-13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6-11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled at Ground Zero in the critical initial 72-h period.
PMID: 26194034
ISSN: 1091-7691
CID: 1748982

Iron Diminishes The In Vitro Biological Effect Of Vanadium [Meeting Abstract]

Ghio, A; Soukup, J; Dailey, L; Kesic, MJ; Cohen, MD
ISSN: 1535-4970
CID: 2162062