Coronary Artery Disease and Reticular Macular Disease, a Subphenotype of Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration
PURPOSE: Reticular macular disease (RMD) is the highest risk form of early age-related macular degeneration and also specifically confers decreased longevity. However, because RMD requires advanced retinal imaging for adequate detection of its characteristic subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), it has not yet been completely studied with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death in the developed world. Because CAD appears in middle age, our purpose was to screen patients aged 45-80 years, documented either with or without CAD, to determine if CAD is associated with RMD. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of patients with documented CAD status and no known retinal disease in a clinical practice setting at one institution. Subjects and Controls: A number of 76 eyes from 38 consecutive patients (23 with documented CAD, 15 controls documented without CAD; 47.4% female; mean age 66.7 years). METHODS: Patients were imaged with near-infrared reflectance/spectral domain optical coherence tomography and assessed in masked fashion by two graders for the presence of SDD lesions of RMD and soft drusen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence or absence of RMD/SDD and soft drusen. RESULTS: RMD was more frequent in patients with CAD versus those without (Relative Risk [RR] = 2.1, CI = 1.08-3.95, P = 0.03). There was no association of CAD with soft drusen. CONCLUSIONS: A specific relationship between CAD and RMD suggests common systemic causes for both and warrants further study.