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Early Neurorehabilitation and Recovery from Disorders of Consciousness After Severe COVID-19

Gurin, Lindsey; Evangelist, Megan; Laverty, Patricia; Hanley, Kaitlin; Corcoran, John; Herbsman, Jodi; Im, Brian; Frontera, Jennifer; Flanagan, Steven; Galetta, Steven; Lewis, Ariane
BACKGROUND:Early neurorehabilitation improves outcomes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) after brain injury, but its applicability in COVID-19 is unknown. We describe our experience implementing an early neurorehabilitation protocol for patients with COVID-19-associated DoC in the intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with recovery. METHODS:During the initial COVID-19 surge in New York City between March 10 and May 20, 2020, faced with a disproportionately high number of ICU patients with prolonged unresponsiveness, we developed and implemented an early neurorehabilitation protocol, applying standard practices from brain injury rehabilitation care to the ICU setting. Twenty-one patients with delayed recovery of consciousness after severe COVID-19 participated in a pilot early neurorehabilitation program that included serial Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) assessments, multimodal treatment, and access to clinicians specializing in brain injury medicine. We retrospectively compared clinical features of patients who did and did not recover to the minimally conscious state (MCS) or better, defined as a CRS-R total score (TS) ≥ 8, before discharge. We additionally examined factors associated with best CRS-R TS, last CRS-R TS, hospital length of stay, and time on mechanical ventilation. RESULTS:Patients underwent CRS-R assessments a median of six (interquartile range [IQR] 3-10) times before discharge, beginning a median of 48 days (IQR 40-55) from admission. Twelve (57%) patients recovered to MCS after a median of 8 days (IQR 2-14) off continuous sedation; they had lower body mass index (p = 0.009), lower peak serum C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.023), higher minimum arterial partial pressure of oxygen (p = 0.028), and earlier fentanyl discontinuation (p = 0.018). CRS-R scores fluctuated over time, and the best CRS-R TS was significantly higher than the last CRS-R TS (median 8 [IQR 5-23] vs. 5 [IQR 3-18], p = 0.002). Earlier fentanyl (p = 0.001) and neuromuscular blockade (p = 0.015) discontinuation correlated with a higher last CRS-R TS. CONCLUSIONS:More than half of our cohort of patients with prolonged unresponsiveness following severe COVID-19 recovered to MCS or better before hospital discharge, achieving a clinical benchmark known to have relatively favorable long-term prognostic implications in DoC of other etiologies. Hypoxia, systemic inflammation, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade may impact diagnostic assessment and prognosis, and fluctuations in level of consciousness make serial assessments essential. Early neurorehabilitation of these patients in the ICU can be accomplished but is associated with unique challenges. Further research should evaluate factors associated with longer-term neurologic recovery and benefits of early rehabilitation in patients with severe COVID-19.
PMID: 34611810
ISSN: 1556-0961
CID: 5067712

Increasing Rates of Prone Positioning in Acute Care Patients with COVID-19

Zaretsky, Jonah; Corcoran, John R; Savage, Elizabeth; Berke, Jolie; Herbsman, Jodi; Fischer, Mary; Kmita, Diana; Laverty, Patricia; Sweeney, Greg; Horwitz, Leora I
BACKGROUND:Prone positioning improves mortality in patients intubated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and has been proposed as a treatment for nonintubated patients with COVID-19 outside the ICU. However, there are substantial patient and operational barriers to prone positioning on acute floors. The objective of this project was to increase the frequency of prone positioning among acute care patients with COVID-19. METHODS:The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of all adult patients admitted to the acute care floors with COVID-19 respiratory failure. A run chart was used to quantify the frequency of prone positioning over time. For the subset of patients assisted by a dedicated physical therapy team, oxygen before and after positioning was compared. The initiative consisted of four separate interventions: (1) nursing, physical therapy, physician, and patient education; (2) optimization of supply management and operations; (3) an acute care prone positioning team; and (4) electronic health record optimization. RESULTS:From March 9, 2020, to August 26, 2020, 176/875 (20.1%) patients were placed in prone position. Among these, 43 (24.4%) were placed in the prone position by the physical therapy team. Only 2/94 (2.1%) eligible patients admitted in the first two weeks of the pandemic were ever documented in prone position. After launching the initiative, weekly frequency peaked at 13/28 (46.4%). Mean oxygen saturation was 91% prior to prone positioning vs. 95.2% after (p < 0.001) in those positioned by physical therapy. CONCLUSION:A multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative increased frequency of prone positioning by proactively addressing barriers in knowledge, equipment, training, and information technology.
PMID: 34848158
ISSN: 1938-131x
CID: 5449292

Early Neurorehabilitation and Recovery from Disorders of Consciousness after Severe COVID-19: Findings from a Pilot Feasibility Study [Meeting Abstract]

Gurin, Lindsey; Evangelist, Megan; Laverty, Patricia; Hanley, Kaitlin; Corcoran, John; Herbsman, Jodi; Im, Brian; Frontera, Jennifer; Flanagan, Steven; Galetta, Steven; Lewis, Ariane
ISSN: 0269-9052
CID: 5243022

Effects of Biophilic Nature Imagery on Indexes of Satisfaction in Medically Complex Physical Rehabilitation Patients: An Exploratory Study

Wichrowski, Matthew J; Corchoran, John R; Haas, Francois; Sweeney, Greg; Mcgee, Arlene
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Exposure to nature has been shown to influence various dimensions of human experience in the healthcare environment. This mixed method study explores the effects of the presence of biophilic, nature-based imagery on patient perceptions of their hospital room and aspects of their experience in rehabilitation. BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:In settings where patients have high degrees of medical acuity and infection control is a major concern, exposure to the benefits of real nature may be precluded. This is also true in many older healthcare facilities which were not designed with salutatory nature exposure in mind. In these settings, the presence of nature imagery may provide benefits which positively impact patient experience. METHOD/UNASSIGNED:Seventy-six physical rehabilitation patients on a medically complex/cardiopulmonary rehabilitation unit filled out questionnaires assessing their perceptions of their room and various indexes of patient satisfaction. Data were collected from 47 patients in enhanced room containing nature imagery and 29 patients in standard rooms which served as controls. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .0071). Ratings of quality of room, quality of stay, quality of sleep, and overall care trended in the direction of the hypothesis but were not significant. Data from qualitative questionnaires supported the results of the EAS. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:We conclude that the presence of biophilic nature imagery in the hospital rooms had a significant effect on patients' room ratings and positively influenced indexes of patient satisfaction.
PMID: 33840230
ISSN: 2167-5112
CID: 4845592

Acute Rehabilitation in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Report of Physical Therapy Perspectives From the Front Line

Sweeney, Greg; Herbsman, Jodi; Chan, Wendy; Chae, Helen; Fischer, Mary; Laverty, Patricia; Pierre, Alicia; Finley, William; Corcoran, John R
ISSN: 1541-7891
CID: 5152822

Early Mobilization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Quality Improvement Initiative

Herbsman, Jodi M; D'Agati, Michael; Klein, Daniella; O'Donnell, Siobhan; Corcoran, John R; Folks, Tiffany D; Al-Qaqaa, Yasir M
Mobilizing patients during an intensive care unit admission results in improved clinical and functional outcomes. The goal of this quality improvement project was to increase the percentage of patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) mobilized early from 62% to 80%. Early mobilization was within 18 hours of admission for nonmechanically ventilated (non-MV) patients and 48 hours for mechanically ventilated (MV) patients.
PMID: 32190800
ISSN: 2472-0054
CID: 4352892

Early Rehabilitation in the Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units for Patients With and Without Mechanical Ventilation: An Interprofessional Performance Improvement Project

Corcoran, John R; Herbsman, Jodi M; Bushnik, Tamara; Van Lew, Steve; Stolfi, Angela; Parkin, Kate; McKenzie, Alison; Hall, Geoffrey W; Joseph, Waveney; Whiteson, Jonathan; Flanagan, Steven R
BACKGROUND: Most early mobility studies focus on patients on mechanical ventilation and the role of physical and occupational therapy. This Performance Improvement Project (PIP) project examined early mobility and increased intensity of therapy services on ICU patients with and without mechanical ventilation. In addition, Speech-Language Pathology rehabilitation was added to the early mobilization program. OBJECTIVE: 1. To assess the efficacy of early mobilization of patients with and without mechanical ventilation in the intensive care units (ICUs) on length of stay (LOS) and patient outcomes. 2. To determine the financial viability of the program. DESIGN: PIP. Prospective data collection in 2014 (PIP) compared to a historical patient population in 2012 (pre-PIP). SETTING: Medical and surgical ICUs of a Level 2 trauma hospital. PATIENTS: 160 in the PIP and 123 in the pre-PIP. INTERVENTIONS: Interprofessional training to improve collaboration and increase intensity of rehabilitation therapy services in the MICU and SICU for medically appropriate patients. MEASUREMENTS: Demographics; intensity of service; ICU and hospital LOS; medications; pain; discharge disposition; functional mobility; average cost per day. MAIN RESULTS: Rehabilitation therapy services increased from 2012 to 2014 by approximately 60 minutes per patient. The average ICU LOS decreased by more than 20% from 4.6 days (pre-PIP) to 3.8 days (PIP) (p=.05). A decrease of 30% was observed in the floor bed average LOS from 6.0 days (pre-PIP) to 3.4 days (PIP) (p<.01). An increased percentage of PIP patients, 40.5%, were discharged home without services compared to 18.2% in the pre-PIP phase (p<.01). Average cost per day in the ICU and floor bed decreased in the PIP group resulting in an annualized net cost savings of $1.5 million. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the PIP indicate that enhanced rehabilitation services in the ICU is clinically feasible, results in improved patient outcomes, and is fiscally sound. Most early mobility studies focus on patients on mechanical ventilation. The results of this PIP project demonstrate that there are significant benefits to early mobility and increased intensity of therapy services on ICU patients with and without mechanical ventilation. Benefits include reduced hospitalization LOS, decreased health care costs and decreased need for post-acute care services.
PMID: 27346093
ISSN: 1934-1563
CID: 2166822


Chapter by: Parkin, Kate; Corcoran, John R; Stolfi, Angela
in: Medical aspects of disability for the rehabilitation professionals by Moroz, Alex; Flanagan, Steven R; Zaretsky, Herbert H [Eds]
[New York] : Springer Publishing Company, 2017
pp. ?-?
ISBN: 9780826133199
CID: 2558762

A transdisciplinary team approach to pain management in inpatient health care settings

Gordon, Robert M; Corcoran, John R; Bartley-Daniele, Patricia; Sklenar, Dennis; Sutton, Phyllis Roach; Cartwright, Frances
This paper will discuss the transition from multidisciplinary to interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary team approaches to pain management at New York University Langone Medical Center - Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. A transdisciplinary team approach to pain management emphasizes mutual learning, training, and education, and the flexible exchange of discipline-specific roles. Clinicians are enabled to implement a unified, holistic, and integrated treatment plan with all members of the team responsible for the same patient-centered goals. The model promotes and empowers patient and family/support system goals within a cultural context. Topics of exploration include the descriptions of three team approaches to patient care, including their practical, philosophical, and historical basis, strengths and challenges, research support, and cultural diversity. Case vignettes will highlight the strengths and limitations of the transdisciplinary team approach to pain management throughout a broad and diverse continuum of care, including acute medical, palliative, and perioperative care and acute inpatient rehabilitation services.
PMID: 23522877
ISSN: 1524-9042
CID: 832662


Chapter by: Parkin, Kate; Corcoran, John R; Denham, Tara
in: Medical aspects of disability : a handbook for the rehabilitation professional by Flanagan, Steven R; Zaretsky, Herbert H; Moroz, Alex [Eds]
New York : Springer, 2011
pp. 1-14
ISBN: 0826127843
CID: 1910172