Mutations in MAST1 Cause Mega-Corpus-Callosum Syndrome with Cerebellar Hypoplasia and Cortical Malformations
Corpus callosum malformations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental diseases. We report that de novo mutations in MAST1 cause mega-corpus-callosum syndrome with cerebellar hypoplasia and cortical malformations (MCC-CH-CM) in the absence of megalencephaly. We show that MAST1 is a microtubule-associated protein that is predominantly expressed in post-mitotic neurons and is present in both dendritic and axonal compartments. We further show that Mast1 null animals are phenotypically normal, whereas the deletion of a single amino acid (L278del) recapitulates the distinct neurological phenotype observed in patients. In animals harboring Mast1 microdeletions, we find that the PI3K/AKT3/mTOR pathway is unperturbed, whereas Mast2 and Mast3 levels are diminished, indicative of a dominant-negative mode of action. Finally, we report that de novo MAST1 substitutions are present in patients with autism and microcephaly, raising the prospect that mutations in this gene give rise to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases.
NOVEL MUTATIONS IN TBCD ASSOCIATED WITH SECONDARY MICROCEPHALY [Meeting Abstract]
Tubulin genes: Structure, expression, and regulation
[S.l. : s.n.], 2018
Mutations in TUBB4B Cause a Distinctive Sensorineural Disease
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a neurodegenerative disease of photoreceptor cells that causes blindness within the first year of life. It occasionally occurs in syndromic metabolic diseases and plurisystemic ciliopathies. Using exome sequencing in a multiplex family and three simplex case subjects with an atypical association of LCA with early-onset hearing loss, we identified two heterozygous mutations affecting Arg391 in Î²-tubulin 4B isotype-encoding (TUBB4B). Inspection of the atomic structure of the microtubule (MT) protofilament reveals that the Î²-tubulin Arg391 residue contributes to a binding pocket that interacts with Î±-tubulin contained in the longitudinally adjacent Î±Î²-heterodimer, consistent with a role in maintaining MT stability. Functional analysis in cultured cells overexpressing FLAG-tagged wild-type or mutant TUBB4B as well as in primary skin-derived fibroblasts showed that the mutant TUBB4B is able to fold, form Î±Î²-heterodimers, and co-assemble into the endogenous MT lattice. However, the dynamics of growing MTs were consistently altered, showing that the mutations have a significant dampening impact on normal MT growth. Our findings provide a link between sensorineural disease and anomalies in MT behavior and describe a syndromic LCA unrelated to ciliary dysfunction.
Uner Tan syndrome caused by a homozygous TUBB2B mutation affecting microtubule stability
The integrity and dynamic properties of the microtubule cytoskeleton are indispensable for the development of the mammalian brain. Consequently, mutations in the genes that encode the structural component (the alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimer) can give rise to severe, sporadic neurodevelopmental disorders. These are commonly referred to as the tubulinopathies. Here we report the addition of recessive quadrupedalism, also known as Uner Tan syndrome (UTS), to the growing list of diseases caused by tubulin variants. Analysis of a consanguineous UTS family identified a biallelic TUBB2B mutation, resulting in a p.R390Q amino acid substitution. In addition to the identifying quadrupedal locomotion, all three patients showed severe cerebellar hypoplasia. None, however, displayed the basal ganglia malformations typically associated with TUBB2B mutations. Functional analysis of the R390Q substitution revealed that it did not affect the ability of beta-tubulin to fold or become assembled into the alpha/beta-heterodimer, nor did it influence the incorporation of mutant-containing heterodimers into microtubule polymers. The 390Q mutation in S. cerevisiae TUB2 did not affect growth under basal conditions, but did result in increased sensitivity to microtubule-depolymerizing drugs, indicative of a mild impact of this mutation on microtubule function. The TUBB2B mutation described here represents an unusual recessive mode of inheritance for missense-mediated tubulinopathies and reinforces the sensitivity of the developing cerebellum to microtubule defects.
Infantile neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations in TBCD, an essential gene in the tubulin heterodimer assembly pathway
A patient with lissencephaly, developmental delay, and infantile spasms, due to de novo heterozygous mutation of KIF2A
BACKGROUND: Microtubules are dynamic polymers of alpha/beta tubulin heterodimers that play a critical role in cerebral cortical development, by regulating neuronal migration, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Mutations in genes that encode either alpha- or beta-tubulin or a spectrum of proteins involved in the regulation of microtubule dynamics lead to clinically devastating malformations of cortical development, including lissencephaly. METHODS: This is a single case report or a patient with lissencephaly, developmental delay, nystagmus, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and infantile spasms, and undertook a neurogenetic workup. We include studies of mutant function in Escherichia coli and HeLa cells. RESULTS: The patient was found to have a novel de novo mutation in kinesin family member 2A (KIF2A). This mutation results in a substitution of isoleucine at a highly conserved threonine residue within the ATP-binding domain. The KIF2A p.Thr320Ile mutant protein exhibited abnormal solubility, and KIF2A p.Thr320Ile overexpression in cultured cells led to the formation of aberrant microtubule networks. CONCLUSION: Findings support the pathogenic link between KIF2A mutation and lissencephaly, and expand the range of presentation to include infantile spasms and congenital anomalies.
Mutations in TUBB8 cause a multiplicity of phenotypes in human oocytes and early embryos
BACKGROUND: TUBB8 is a primate-specific beta-tubulin isotype whose expression is confined to oocytes and the early embryo. We previously found that mutations in TUBB8 caused oocyte maturation arrest. The objective was to describe newly discovered mutations in TUBB8 and to characterise the accompanying spectrum of phenotypes and modes of inheritance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with oocyte maturation arrest were sequenced with respect to TUBB8. We investigated the effects of identified mutations in vitro, in cultured cells and in mouse oocytes. Seven heterozygous missense and two homozygous mutations were identified. These mutations cause a range of folding defects in vitro, different degrees of microtubule disruption upon expression in cultured cells and interfere to varying extents in the proper assembly of the meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes. Several of the newly discovered TUBB8 mutations result in phenotypic variability. For example, oocytes harbouring any of three missense mutations (I210V, T238M and N348S) could extrude the first polar body. Moreover, they could be fertilised, although the ensuing embryos became developmentally arrested. Surprisingly, oocytes from patients harbouring homozygous TUBB8 mutations that in either case preclude the expression of a functional TUBB8 polypeptide nonetheless contained identifiable spindles. CONCLUSIONS: Our data substantially expand the range of dysfunctional oocyte phenotypes incurred by mutation in TUBB8, underscore the independent nature of human oocyte meiosis and differentiation, extend the class of genetic diseases known as the tubulinopathies and provide new criteria for the qualitative evaluation of meiosis II (MII) oocytes for in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Mutations in TUBB8 and Human Oocyte Meiotic Arrest
Background Human reproduction depends on the fusion of a mature oocyte with a sperm cell to form a fertilized egg. The genetic events that lead to the arrest of human oocyte maturation are unknown. Methods We sequenced the exomes of five members of a four-generation family, three of whom had infertility due to oocyte meiosis I arrest. We performed Sanger sequencing of a candidate gene, TUBB8, in DNA samples from these members, additional family members, and members of 23 other affected families. The expression of TUBB8 and all other beta-tubulin isotypes was assessed in human oocytes, early embryos, sperm cells, and several somatic tissues by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay. We evaluated the effect of the TUBB8 mutations on the assembly of the heterodimer consisting of one alpha-tubulin polypeptide and one beta-tubulin polypeptide (alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimer) in vitro, on microtubule architecture in HeLa cells, on microtubule dynamics in yeast cells, and on spindle assembly in mouse and human oocytes. Results We identified seven mutations in the primate-specific gene TUBB8 that were responsible for oocyte meiosis I arrest in 7 of the 24 families. TUBB8 expression is unique to oocytes and the early embryo, in which this gene accounts for almost all the expressed beta-tubulin. The mutations affect chaperone-dependent folding and assembly of the alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimer, disrupt microtubule behavior on expression in cultured cells, alter microtubule dynamics in vivo, and cause catastrophic spindle-assembly defects and maturation arrest on expression in mouse and human oocytes. Conclusions TUBB8 mutations have dominant-negative effects that disrupt microtubule behavior and oocyte meiotic spindle assembly and maturation, causing female infertility. (Funded by the National Basic Research Program of China and others.).
Mutations in Either TUBB or MAPRE2 Cause Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze Type
Circumferential skin creases Kunze type (CSC-KT) is a specific congenital entity with an unknown genetic cause. The disease phenotype comprises characteristic circumferential skin creases accompanied by intellectual disability, a cleft palate, short stature, and dysmorphic features. Here, we report that mutations in either MAPRE2 or TUBB underlie the genetic origin of this syndrome. MAPRE2 encodes a member of the microtubule end-binding family of proteins that bind to the guanosine triphosphate cap at growing microtubule plus ends, and TUBB encodes a beta-tubulin isotype that is expressed abundantly in the developing brain. Functional analyses of the TUBB mutants show multiple defects in the chaperone-dependent tubulin heterodimer folding and assembly pathway that leads to a compromised yield of native heterodimers. The TUBB mutations also have an impact on microtubule dynamics. For MAPRE2, we show that the mutations result in enhanced MAPRE2 binding to microtubules, implying an increased dwell time at microtubule plus ends. Further, in vivo analysis of MAPRE2 mutations in a zebrafish model of craniofacial development shows that the variants most likely perturb the patterning of branchial arches, either through excessive activity (under a recessive paradigm) or through haploinsufficiency (dominant de novo paradigm). Taken together, our data add CSC-KT to the growing list of tubulinopathies and highlight how multiple inheritance paradigms can affect dosage-sensitive biological systems so as to result in the same clinical defect.