Demographics, Care Patterns, and Outcomes of Patients Admitted to Cardiac Intensive Care Units: The Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network Prospective North American Multicenter Registry of Cardiac Critical Illness
Importance/UNASSIGNED:Single-center and claims-based studies have described substantial changes in the landscape of care in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). Professional societies have recommended research to guide evidence-based CICU redesigns. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To characterize patients admitted to contemporary, advanced CICUs. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This study established the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network (CCCTN), an investigator-initiated multicenter network of 16 advanced, tertiary CICUs in the United States and Canada. For 2 months in each CICU, data for consecutive admissions were submitted to the central data coordinating center (TIMI Study Group). The data were collected and analyzed between September 2017 and 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:Demographics, diagnoses, management, and outcomes. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of 3049 participants, 1132 (37.1%) were women, 797 (31.4%) were individuals of color, and the median age was 65 years (25th and 75th percentiles, 55-75 years). Between September 2017 and September 2018, 3310 admissions were included, among which 2557 (77.3%) were for primary cardiac problems, 337 (10.2%) for postprocedural care, 253 (7.7%) for mixed general and cardiac problems, and 163 (4.9%) for overflow from general medical ICUs. When restricted to the initial 2 months of medical CICU admissions for each site, the primary analysis population included 3049 admissions with a high burden of noncardiovascular comorbidities. The top 2 CICU admission diagnoses were acute coronary syndrome (969 [31.8%]) and heart failure (567 [18.6%]); however, the proportion of acute coronary syndrome was highly variable across centers (15%-57%). The primary indications for CICU care included respiratory insufficiency (814 [26.7%]), shock (643 [21.1%]), unstable arrhythmia (521 [17.1%]), and cardiac arrest (265 [8.7%]). Advanced CICU therapies or monitoring were required for 1776 patients (58.2%), including intravenous vasoactive medications (1105 [36.2%]), invasive hemodynamic monitoring (938 [30.8%]), and mechanical ventilation (652 [21.4%]). The overall CICU mortality rate was 8.3% (95% CI, 7.3%-9.3%). The CICU indications that were associated with the highest mortality rates were cardiac arrest (101 [38.1%]), cardiogenic shock (140 [30.6%]), and the need for renal replacement therapy (51 [34.5%]). Notably, patients admitted solely for postprocedural observation or frequent monitoring had a mortality rate of 0.2% to 0.4%. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In a contemporary network of tertiary care CICUs, respiratory failure and shock predominated indications for admission and carried a poor prognosis. While patterns of practice varied considerably between centers, a substantial, low-risk population was identified. Multicenter collaborative networks, such as the CCCTN, could be used to help redesign cardiac critical care and to test new therapeutic strategies.
Epidemiology of Shock in Contemporary Cardiac Intensive Care Units
Background Clinical investigations of shock in cardiac intensive care units (CICUs) have primarily focused on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMICS). Few studies have evaluated the full spectrum of shock in contemporary CICUs. Methods and Results The Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network is a multicenter network of advanced CICUs in North America. Anytime between September 2017 and September 2018, each center (n=16) contributed a 2-month snap-shot of all consecutive medical admissions to the CICU. Data were submitted to the central coordinating center (TIMI Study Group, Boston, MA). Shock was defined as sustained systolic blood pressure <90 mmâ€‰Hg with end-organ dysfunction ascribed to the hypotension. Shock type was classified by site investigators as cardiogenic, distributive, hypovolemic, or mixed. Among 3049 CICU admissions, 677 (22%) met clinical criteria for shock. Shock type was varied, with 66% assessed as cardiogenic shock (CS), 7% as distributive, 3% as hypovolemic, 20% as mixed, and 4% as unknown. Among patients with CS (n=450), 30% had AMICS, 18% had ischemic cardiomyopathy without AMI, 28% had nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and 17% had a cardiac cause other than primary myocardial dysfunction. Patients with mixed shock had cardiovascular comorbidities similar to patients with CS. The median CICU stay was 4.0 days (interquartile range [IQR], 2.5-8.1 days) for AMICS, 4.3 days (IQR, 2.1-8.5 days) for CS not related to AMI, and 5.8 days (IQR, 2.9-10.0 days) for mixed shock versus 1.9 days (IQR, 1.0-3.6) for patients without shock ( P<0.01 for each). Median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were higher in patients with mixed shock (10; IQR, 6-13) versus AMICS (8; IQR, 5-11) or CS without AMI (7; IQR, 5-11; each P<0.01). In-hospital mortality rates were 36% (95% CI, 28%-45%), 31% (95% CI, 26%-36%), and 39% (95% CI, 31%-48%) in AMICS, CS without AMI, and mixed shock, respectively. Conclusions The epidemiology of shock in contemporary advanced CICUs is varied, and AMICS now represents less than one-third of all CS. Despite advanced therapies, mortality in CS and mixed shock remains high. Investigation of management strategies and new therapies to treat shock in the CICU should take this epidemiology into account.