Reproductive Health Counseling in Adolescent Women With Epilepsy: A Single-Center Study
BACKGROUND:Counseling adolescent women with epilepsy (WWE) about reproductive health (contraception, sexual activity, and menstruation) is important given the teratogenicity of many antiseizure medications and high rates of contraception failure. Only a third of adolescent WWE report discussing contraception with their epileptologists, demonstrating a significant gap in counseling. METHODS:We assessed factors associated with reproductive health counseling by pediatric neurologists via a retrospective chart review of adolescent (aged 12-18 years) WWE seen at a pediatric neurology clinic from 2018 to 2020. RESULTS:We analyzed 219 visits among 89 unique WWE. There were 23 documented discussions on contraception (11% of visits), 8 on sexual activity (4%), and 127 on menstruation (58%). When contraception was discussed, sexual activity and menstruation were more frequently discussed. Female providers were more likely to document a discussion of menstruation (ORÂ = 3.2, 95% CIÂ = [1.6, 6.4]). WWE who were older at the time of visit or who had their first seizure at an older age were more likely to have documented discussions of contraception and sexual activity. Neither details of treatment regimen nor epilepsy type was associated with documentation of counseling. CONCLUSIONS:A minority of adolescent WWE have documented reproductive health discussions, demonstrating a need for quality improvement projects to address this gap in care.
Pediatric Inflammatory and Autoimmune Neurologic Disorders at a Tertiary Medical Center
OBJECTIVES:To describe the spectrum of pediatric inflammatory neurologic diseases and compare the sensitivity of ancillary testing for these diagnoses. METHODS:We analyzed clinical features and outcomes of 98 children with an immune-mediated central nervous system disorder. We compared sensitivities of each diagnostic modality. RESULTS:-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDAR encephalitis) (n = 15; 15.3%), encephalitis not otherwise specified (n = 12; 12.2%), and "Other" (n = 26; 26.5%). "Other" included acute transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, central nervous system lupus, primary central nervous system vasculitis, Rasmussen encephalitis, opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, and clinically isolated syndrome. The mean age of onset of all diagnoses was 7.9 Â± 5.5 years. The diagnostic sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis was 92.3% and 94.4%, respectively. Cerebrospinal fluid was sensitive for multiple sclerosis in 92.3%, where 75% of patients had cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coupled with cerebrospinal fluid studies was highly sensitive for anti-NMDAR encephalitis (100%). EEG was sensitive for acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis and encephalitis not otherwise specified (77.8% and 80%). No diagnostic studies were sensitive for acute cerebellar ataxia. Seventy-three percent of patients with multiple sclerosis had residual deficits. Thirty-six percent of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients were nonverbal and wheel-chair bound. CONCLUSIONS:We found that MRI is useful for detecting multiple sclerosis and acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, cerebrospinal fluid is helpful in diagnosing multiple sclerosis and anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and EEG is often abnormal in suspected anti-NMDAR encephalitis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, and encephalitis not otherwise specified. Neurologic outcome at follow-up was unfavorable in patients with multiple sclerosis and anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Neurologic infections during pregnancy
Neurologic infections during pregnancy represent a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Immunologic alterations during pregnancy increase the susceptibility of the premature brain to damage. This chapter summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations in the pregnant woman and the infant, and the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the major viral, parasitic, and bacterial infections known to affect pregnancy. These organisms include herpes virus, parvovirus, cytomegalovirus, varicella, rubella, Zika virus, toxoplasmosis, malaria, group B streptococcus, listeriosis, syphilis, and tuberculosis. There is an emphasis on the important differences in diagnosis, treatment, and fetal outcome between trimesters. An additional overview is provided on the spectrum of neurologic sequelae of an affected infant, which ranges from developmental delay to hydrocephalus and seizures.
Exploring mTOR inhibition as treatment for mitochondrial disease [Case Report]
Leigh syndrome and MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) are two of the most frequent pediatric mitochondrial diseases. Both cause severe morbidity and neither have effective treatment. Inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been shown in model mice of Leigh syndrome to extend lifespan and attenuate both the clinical and pathological progression of disease. Based on this observation, we treated two children with everolimus, a rapamycin analogue. The child with Leigh syndrome showed sustained benefit, while the child with MELAS failed to respond and died of progressive disease. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying these disparate responses to mTOR inhibition.
Effect of dementia on the use of drugs for secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease
Background. Dementia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are frequently comorbid. The presence of dementia may have an effect on how CVD is treated. Objective. To examine the effect of dementia on the use of four medications recommended for secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease (IHD): angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, lipid-lowering medications, and antiplatelet medications. Design. Retrospective analysis of data from the Cardiovascular Health Study: Cognition Study. Setting and Subjects. 1,087 older adults in four US states who had or developed IHD between 1989 and 1998. Methods. Generalized estimating equations to explore the association between dementia and the use of guideline-recommended medications for the secondary prevention of IHD. Results. The length of follow-up for the cohort was 8.7 years and 265 (24%) had or developed dementia during the study. Use of medications for the secondary prevention of IHD for patients with and without dementia increased during the study period. In models, subjects with dementia were not less likely to use any one particular class of medication but were less likely to use two or more classes of medications as a group (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.36-0.99). Conclusions. Subjects with dementia used fewer guideline-recommended medications for the secondary prevention of IHD than those without dementia.