Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: How Gigantic Can It Get? [Meeting Abstract]
Botros, Youssef; Chowdhury, Deepshikha Nag; Szczech, Emily; Bollu, Janardhan; Damani, Tanuja; Baddoura, Walid
Abnormal glucose tolerance testing after gastric bypass
Roslin, Mitchell S; Oren, Jonathan H; Polan, Barrett N; Damani, Tanuja; Brauner, Rachel; Shah, Paresh C
BACKGROUND: Symptoms secondary to dumping have been suggested to help patients refrain from simple carbohydrate ingestion after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). During follow-up examinations, we noted many patients with weight regain complaining of fatigue shortly after eating. Thus, we decided to study the glucose tolerance test (GTT) results in a cohort of post-RYGB patients. METHODS: A total of 63 RYGB patients, >6 months postoperatively, were studied with a GTT and measurement of insulin levels. The mean age was 48.5 +/- 10.8 years, mean preoperative body mass index was 49.0 +/- 6.5 kg/m(2), mean percentage of excess body mass index lost was 64.5% +/- 29.0%, mean weight regain at follow-up was 11.6 +/- 12.4 lb, and mean follow-up period was 47.9 months. RESULTS: Of the 63 patients, 49 had abnormal GTT results. Of the 63 patients, 6 were diabetic; however, only 1 of these patients had an elevated fasting glucose level. All 6 patients were diabetic preoperatively. Of the 63 patients, 43 had evidence of reactive hypoglycemia at 1-2 hours after the glucose load. Of these patients, 22 had a maximum/minimum glucose ratio >3:1, including 7 with a ratio >4:1. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study have demonstrated that an abnormal GTT result is a common finding after RYGB. Reactive hypoglycemia was found in 43 of 63 patients, with insulin values that do not support nesidioblastosis. It is our hypothesis, that rather than preventing simple carbohydrate ingestion, the induced hypoglycemia that occurs might contribute to weight regain and maladaptive eating in certain post-RYGB patients.
Comparison between RYGB, DS, and VSG effect on glucose homeostasis
Roslin, Mitchell S; Dudiy, Yuriy; Weiskopf, Joanne; Damani, Tanuja; Shah, Paresh
BACKGROUND: Our group has reported a high incidence of reactive hypoglycemia following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with specific interest in postprandial insulin and the ratio of 1- to 2-h serum glucose levels. The purpose of this study is to compare the 6-month response to oral glucose challenge in patients undergoing RYGB, duodenal switch (DS), and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). METHODS: Thirty-eight patients meeting the NIH criteria for bariatric surgery who have reached the 6-month postoperative mark are the basis of this report. Preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up, patients underwent blood draw to determine levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, C peptide, and 2 h oral liquid glucose challenge test (OGTT). HOMA-IR and 1 to 2 h ratios of glucose and fasting to 1 h ratio of insulin were calculated. RESULTS: All patients underwent a successful laparoscopic bariatric procedure (VSG =13, DS =13, and RYGB = 12). All operations reduced BMI, HgbA1c, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin. HOMA IR and glucose tolerance improved with all procedures. In response to OGTT at 6 months, there was a 20-fold increase in insulin at 1 h in RYGB, which was not seen in DS. At 6 months, 1-h insulin was markedly lower in DS (p < .05), yet HbA1C was also lower in DS (p < .05). This resulted in 1- to 2-h glucose ratio of 1.9 for RYGB, 1.8 for VSG, and 1.3 for DS (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: All operations improve insulin sensitivity and decrease HgbA1c. Six-month weight loss was substantial in all groups between 22-29% excess body weight. RYGB results in marked rise in glucose following challenge with corresponding rise in 1-h insulin. VSG has a similar response to RYGB. In comparison, at 6 months following surgery, DS causes a much lower rise in 1-h insulin, with this difference being statistically significant at p < .05. As a result, DS results in a less abrupt reduction in blood glucose. Although 1-h insulin is lower, DS patients had the lowest HbA1C at 6 months (p < .05). We believe that these findings have important implications for the choice of bariatric procedure for both diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
Abnormal glucose tolerance testing following gastric bypass demonstrates reactive hypoglycemia
Roslin, Mitchell; Damani, Tanuja; Oren, Jonathan; Andrews, Robert; Yatco, Edward; Shah, Paresh
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia have been reported by patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery who experience maladaptive eating behavior and weight regain. A 4-h glucose tolerance test (GTT) was used to assess the incidence and extent of hypoglycemia. METHODS: Thirty-six patients who were at least 6 months postoperative from RYGB were administered a 4-h GTT with measurement of insulin levels. Mean age was 49.4+/-11.4 years, mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 48.8+/-6.6 kg/m2, percent excess BMI lost (%EBL) was 62.6 +/- 21.6%, mean weight change from nadir weight was 8.2+/-8.6 kg, and mean follow-up time was 40.5+/-26.7 months. Twelve patients had diabetes preoperatively. RESULTS: Thirty-two of 36 patients (89%) had abnormal GTT. Six patients (17%) were identified as diabetic based on GTT. All six of these patients were diabetic preoperatively. Twenty-six patients (72%) had evidence of reactive hypoglycemia at 2 h post glucose load. Within this cohort of 26 patients, 14 had maximum to minimum glucose ratio (MMGR)>3:1, 5 with a ratio>4:1. Eleven patients had weight regain greater than 10% of initial weight loss (range 4.9-25.6 kg). Ten of these 11 patients (91%) with weight recidivism showed reactive hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal GTT is a common finding post RYGB. Persistence of diabetes was noted in 50% of patients with diabetes preoperatively. Amongst the nondiabetic patients, reactive hypoglycemia was found to be more common and pronounced than expected. Absence of abnormally high insulin levels does not support nesidioblastosis as an etiology of this hypoglycemia. More than 50% of patients with reactive hypoglycemia had significantly exaggerated MMGR. We believe this may be due to the nonphysiologic transit of food to the small intestine due to lack of a pyloric valve after RYGB. This reactive hypoglycemia may contribute to maladaptive eating behaviors leading to weight regain long term. Our data suggest that GTT is an important part of post-RYGB follow-up and should be incorporated into the routine postoperative screening protocol. Further studies on the impact of pylorus preservation are necessary.
Laparoscopic Gastrectomy: A Single-Center Experience [Meeting Abstract]
Kowalski, Rebecca; Montes, Jennifer; Damani, Tanuja; Shah, Paresh C.
Esophageal mucosal damage may promote dysmotility and worsen esophageal acid exposure
Meneghetti, Adam T; Tedesco, Pietro; Damani, Tanuja; Patti, Marco G
This study determines the relationship among esophageal dysmotility, esophageal acid exposure, and esophageal mucosal injury in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 827 patients with GERD (confirmed by ambulatory pH monitoring) were divided into three groups based on the degree of mucosal injury: group A, no esophagitis, 493 patients; group B, esophagitis grades I to III, 273 patients; and group C, Barrett's esophagus, 61 patients. As mucosal damage progressed from no esophagitis to Barrett's esophagus, there was a significant decrease in lower esophageal sphincter pressure and amplitude of peristalsis in the distal esophagus, with a subsequent increase in the number of reflux episodes in 24 hours, the number of reflux episodes longer than 5 minutes, and the reflux score. These data suggest that in patients with GERD, worsening of esophageal mucosal injury may determine progressive deterioration of esophageal motor function with impairment of acid clearance and increase of esophageal acid exposure. These findings suggest that Barrett's esophagus is an end-stage form of gastroesophageal reflux, and that if surgical therapy is performed early in the course of the disease, this cascade of events might be blocked.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: how often is it really idiopathic?
Patti, Marco G; Tedesco, Pietro; Golden, Jeffrey; Hays, Steven; Hoopes, Charles; Meneghetti, Adam; Damani, Tanuja; Way, Lawrence W
The cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. The pathology suggests that IPF results from serial lung injury. It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may relate to the cause or the progression of the disease. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of GERD, the clinical presentation of GERD, and the manometric and reflux profiles in patients with end-stage IPF. Between July 2003 and October 2004, 18 patients with IPF on the lung transplant waiting list were referred for evaluation to the Swallowing Center of the University of California San Francisco. On the basis of the results of the pH monitoring test (5 and 20 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter), the patients were divided into two groups: group A, 12 patients (66%), GERD+; group B, 6 patients (34%), GERD-. The incidence of heartburn and regurgitation was similar between GERD+ and GERD- patients; reflux was clinically silent in one third of GERD+ patients. Reflux was associated with a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter and abnormal esophageal peristalsis, and it was present in the upright and supine position. The reflux often extended into the proximal esophagus. These results show the following: (1) Two thirds of patients with IPF had GERD; (2) symptoms could not distinguish between those with and without GERD; (3) reflux occurred in the presence of a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter and abnormal esophageal peristalsis; and (4) reflux occurred in the upright and supine positions, and often extended into the proximal esophagus. We conclude that patients with IPF should be screened for GERD, and if GERD is present, a fundoplication should be performed before or shortly after lung transplantation.
Predictors of early discharge following open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair
Tassiopoulos, Apostolos K; Kwon, Sung S; Labropoulos, Nicos; Damani, Tanuja; Littooy, Fred N; Mansour, M Ashraf; Kang, Steven S; Baker, William H
Patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair have lower perioperative morbidity and leave the hospital earlier than patients undergoing open repair. However, potential complications require continuous surveillance of endografts and there are few data regarding their long-term fate. If an open operation were well tolerated, this might be a preferable alternative. The purpose of this study was to identify patients with lower morbidity and shorter hospital stay following open AAA repair and to analyze factors that might point to open repair as the preferred approach. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent AAA repair between 1995 and 2000 at our institution. All patients with ruptured aneurysms and those that required renal, celiac, or superior mesenteric reconstructions during the AAA repair were excluded. Patient demographics, preoperative comorbid conditions, intraoperative data, and postoperative complications were analyzed in detail. A total of 115 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There was only one perioperative death (0.9%). The mean hospital stay was 8.1 days. A history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and longer operative time were independent factors associated with prolonged hospital stay. Forty-one patients (35.6%) left the hospital in 5 or less days. Compared to the group with hospital stay >5 days, these patients had a lower incidence of COPD (7.3% vs. 25.7%, p < 0.05) and smaller-size AAAs (5.6 vs. 6.4 cm, p < 0.0001), and were more often operated on via a retroperitoneal approach (61% vs. 40.5%, p < 0.05). Their time in the operating room was less (3.5 vs. 4.5 hr, p < 0.0001), and they had less estimated blood loss (750 vs. 1500 cc, p < 0.001) and fewer transfusions (0.95 vs. 2.45 units, p < 0.0001). Patients without COPD and smaller AAAs that can be repaired via a retroperitoneal approach have a lower incidence of perioperative complications and a shorter hospital stay following open AAA repair. Until long-term results for endografts are available, our data suggest that these patients are well served with an open repair.