Can MR neurography of the common peroneal nerve predict a residual motor deficit in patients with foot drop?
OBJECTIVE:To determine if MR neurography of the common peroneal nerve (CPN) predicts a residual motor deficit at 12-month clinical follow-up in patients presenting with foot drop. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective search for MR neurography cases evaluating the CPN at the knee was performed. Patients were included if they had electrodiagnostic testing (EDX) within 3Â months of imaging, ankle and/or forefoot dorsiflexion weakness at presentation, and at least 12-month follow-up. Two radiologists individually evaluated nerve size (enlarged/normal), nerve signal (T2 hyperintense/normal), muscle signal (T2 hyperintense/normal), muscle bulk (normal/Goutallier 1/Goutallierâ€‰>â€‰1), and nerve and muscle enhancement. Discrepancies were resolved via consensus review. Multivariable logistical regression was used to evaluate for association between each imaging finding and a residual motor deficit at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS:Twenty-three 3Â T MRIs in 22 patients (1 bilateral, mean age 52Â years, 16 male) met inclusion criteria. Eighteen cases demonstrated common peroneal neuropathy on EDX, and median duration of symptoms was 5Â months. Six cases demonstrated a residual motor deficit at 12-month follow-up. Fourteen cases underwent CPN decompression (1 bilateral) within 1Â year of presentation. Three cases demonstrated Goutallierâ€‰>â€‰1 anterior compartment muscle bulk. Multivariable logistical regression did not show a statistically significant association between any of the imaging findings and a residual motor deficit at 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:MR neurography did not predict a residual motor deficit at 12-month follow-up in patients presenting with foot drop, though few patients demonstrated muscle atrophy in this study.
Nerve Imaging in the Wrist
Neuropathic symptoms involving the wrist are a common clinical presentation that can be due to a variety of causes. Imaging plays a key role in differentiating distal nerve lesions in the wrist from more proximal nerve abnormalities such as a cervical radiculopathy or brachial plexopathy. Imaging complements electrodiagnostic testing by helping define the specific lesion site and by providing anatomical information to guide surgical planning. This article reviews nerve anatomy, normal and abnormal findings on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and common and uncommon causes of neuropathy.
Intravenous contrast does not improve detection of nerve lesions or active muscle denervation changes in MR neurography of the common peroneal nerve
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of intravenous (IV) contrast on sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) neurography of the knee with attention to the common peroneal nerve (CPN) in identifying nerve lesions and active muscle denervation changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective search for contrast-enhanced MR neurography cases evaluating the CPN at the knee was performed. Patients with electrodiagnostic testing (EDX) within 3Â months of imaging were included and those with relevant prior surgery were excluded. Two radiologists independently reviewed non-contrast sequences and then 4Â weeks later evaluated non-contrast and contrast sequences. McNemar's tests were performed to detect a difference between non-contrast only and combined non-contrast and contrast sequences in identifying nerve lesions and active muscle denervation changes using EDX as the reference standard. RESULTS:Forty-four exams in 42 patients (2 bilateral) were included. Twenty-eight cases had common peroneal neuropathy and 29, 21, and 9 cases had active denervation changes in the anterior, lateral, and posterior compartment/proximal muscles respectively on EDX. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of non-contrast versus combined non-contrast and contrast sequences for common peroneal neuropathy were 50.0%, 56.2%, and 52.3% versus 50.0%, 56.2%, and 52.3% for reader 1 and 57.1%, 50.0%, and 54.5% versus 64.3%, 56.2%, and 61.4% for reader 2. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of non-contrast and combined non-contrast and contrast sequences in identifying active denervation changes for anterior, lateral, and posterior compartment muscles were not significantly different. McNemar's tests were all negative. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:IV contrast does not improve the ability of MR neurography to detect CPN lesions or active muscle denervation changes.
US-guided Musculoskeletal Interventions of the Body Wall and Core with MRI and US Correlation
Chest, abdominal, and groin pain are common patient complaints that can be due to a variety of causes. Once potentially life-threatening visceral causes of pain are excluded, the evaluation should include musculoskeletal sources of pain from the body wall and core muscles. Percutaneous musculoskeletal procedures play a key role in evaluating and managing pain, although most radiologists may be unfamiliar with applications for the body wall and core muscles. US is ideally suited to guide these less commonly performed procedures owing to its low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and real-time visualization of superficial soft-tissue anatomy. US provides the operator with added confidence that the needle will be placed at the intended location and will not penetrate visceral or vascular structures. The authors review both common and uncommon US-guided procedures targeting various portions of the chest wall, abdominal wall, and core muscles with the hope of familiarizing radiologists with these techniques. Procedures include anesthetic and corticosteroid injection as well as platelet-rich plasma injection to promote tendon healing. Specific anatomic structures discussed include the sternoclavicular joint, costochondral joint, interchondral joint, intercostal nerve, scapulothoracic bursa, anterior abdominal cutaneous nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, iliohypogastric nerve, genitofemoral nerve, pubic symphysis, common aponeurotic plate, and adductor tendon origin. Relevant US anatomy is depicted with MRI correlation, and steps to performing successful safe US-guided injections are discussed. Confidence in performing these procedures will allow radiologists to continue to play an important role in diagnosis and management of many musculoskeletal pathologic conditions. Â©RSNA, 2021.
Lesion characteristics and biopsy techniques influencing diagnostic yield of CT-guided spine biopsy
Imaging Evaluation of Medial and Lateral Elbow Pain: Acute and Chronic Tendon Injuries of the Humeral Epicondyles
Medial and lateral elbow pain are often due to degenerative tendinosis and less commonly due to trauma. The involved structures include the flexor-pronator tendon origin in medial-sided pain and the extensor tendon origin in lateral-sided pain. Multimodality imaging is often obtained to verify the clinically suspected diagnosis, evaluate the extent of injury, and guide treatment decisions. Image-guided procedures can provide symptom relief to support physical therapy and also induce tendon healing. Surgical debridement and repair are typically performed in refractory cases, resulting in good to excellent outcomes in most cases. In this article, we review and illustrate pertinent anatomical structures of the distal humerus, emphasizing the structure and contributions of the flexor-pronator and extensor tendon origins in acute and chronic tendon abnormalities. We also discuss approaches to image-guided treatment and surgical management of medial and lateral epicondylitis.
3D MRI of the Shoulder
Magnetic resonance imaging provides a comprehensive evaluation of the shoulder including the rotator cuff muscles and tendons, glenoid labrum, long head biceps tendon, and glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joint articulations. Most institutions use two-dimensional sequences acquired in all three imaging planes to accurately evaluate the many important structures of the shoulder. Recently, the addition of three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions with 3D reconstructions has become clinically feasible and helped improve our understanding of several important pathologic conditions, allowing us to provide added value for referring clinicians. This article briefly describes techniques used in 3D imaging of the shoulder and discusses applications of these techniques including measuring glenoid bone loss in anterior glenohumeral instability. We also review the literature on routine 3D imaging for the evaluation of common shoulder abnormalities as 3D imaging will likely become more common as imaging software continues to improve.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal biopsies: our experience and technique
OBJECTIVE:To present our experience with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided musculoskeletal soft tissue biopsies in a busy interventional clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:After IRB approval was obtained and informed consent was waived, we retrospectively reviewed all CEUS-guided musculoskeletal biopsies performed from December 1, 2018 to March 2, 2020. Relevant pre-procedure imaging was reviewed. Number of samples, suspected necrosis on pre-procedure imaging, specimen adequacy for pathologic analysis, correlation with pathologic diagnosis of surgical resection specimens, and procedural complications were recorded. RESULTS:Thirty-six CEUS-guided musculoskeletal biopsies were performed in 32 patients (mean age 57, range 26-88; 22 males, 10 females). All procedures were performed using 16-gauge biopsy needles, and all procedures provided adequate samples for pathologic analysis as per the final pathology report. Between two and seven core specimens were obtained (mean 3.7). In 30/36 cases (83%), a contrast-enhanced MRI was obtained prior to biopsy, and 10/30 (33%) of these cases showed imaging features suspicious for necrosis. In 15/36 cases, surgical resection was performed, and the core biopsy and surgical resection specimens were concordant in 14/15 cases (93%). One patient noted transient leg discomfort at the time of microbubble bursting. Otherwise, no adverse reactions or procedural complications were observed. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:CEUS is an accurate way to safely target representative areas of soft tissue lesions for biopsy and can be implemented in a busy interventional clinic. Our early experience has shown this to be a promising technique, especially in targeting representative areas of heterogeneous lesions and lesions with areas of suspected necrosis on prior imaging.
Ultrasound-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of inguinal neuralgia
Chronic groin pain can be due to a variety of causes and is the most common complication of inguinal hernia repair surgery. The etiology of pain after inguinal hernia repair surgery is often multifactorial though injury to or scarring around the nerves in the operative region, namely the ilioinguinal nerve, genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, and the iliohypogastric nerve, is thought to be a key factor in causing chronic post-operative hernia pain or inguinal neuralgia. Inguinal neuralgia is difficult to treat and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by providing accurate image-guided injections to alleviate patient symptoms and identify the pain generator. Recently, ultrasound-guided microwave ablation has emerged as a safe technique, capable of providing durable pain relief in the majority of patients with this difficult to treat condition. The objectives of this paper are to review the complex nerve anatomy of the groin, discuss diagnostic ultrasound-guided nerve injection and patient selection for nerve ablation, and illustrate the microwave ablation technique used at our institution.
Imaging of the post-operative medial elbow in the overhead thrower: common and abnormal findings after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction and ulnar nerve transposition
Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is now being performed more commonly and on younger patients than in prior decades. As a result, radiologists will increasingly be asked to evaluate elbow imaging of patients presenting with pain who have had UCL reconstruction. It is essential for radiologists to understand the normal and abnormal imaging appearances after UCL reconstruction and ulnar nerve transposition, which is also commonly performed in overhead-throwing athletes. Doing so will allow radiologists to provide accurate interpretations that appropriately guide patient management.