Treatment Options for Posttraumatic Headache: A Current Review of the Literature
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:We evaluate evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic headache (PTH), a secondary headache disorder resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), comprising nearly 4% of all symptomatic headache disorders. Utilizing recent publications, we aim to inform clinicians of current treatment methods. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:There is limited research on PTH treatment. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of metoclopramide with diphenhydramine for acute PTH found that the treatment group (N = 81) experienced more significant pain improvement than placebo by 1.4 points. For persistent PTH, an open-label study of erenumab (N = 89) found that 28% of participants reported ≥ 50% reduction in moderate-to-severe headache days, but an RCT of fremanezumab showed a non-significant reduction in moderate-to-severe headache days. A randomized crossover study of 40 patients with persistent PTH found that onabotulinum toxin-A decreased cumulative number of headaches/week by 43.3% in the treatment group and increased by 35.1% among placebos. In a study of military veterans with severe posttraumatic stress disorder and persistent/delayed onset PTH (N = 193), patients who received Cognitive Behavioral Therapy reported significant improvements in headache-related disability compared to usual care (aggregate mean HIT-6, -3.4). A transcranial magnetic stimulation (N = 24) study found that 58% of participants with mild TBI-related headache experienced a 50% reduction in headache frequency. New studies indicate promise in improving clinically important outcomes of PTH. However, more research is necessary to determine the optimal treatment and whether combining pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment versus a single modality is more effective.
Narrative review of migraine management in patients with renal or hepatic disease
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Treatment of migraine in the setting of either renal or hepatic disease can be daunting for clinicians. Not only does the method of metabolism have to be considered, but also the method of elimination/excretion of the parent drug and any active or toxic metabolites. Furthermore, it is difficult to think about liver or kidney disease in isolation, as liver disease can sometimes contribute to impaired renal function and renal disease can sometimes impair hepatic metabolism, through the cytochrome P450 system. METHODS:A detailed search for terms related to liver disease, renal disease, and migraine management was performed in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library.For each medication, product labels were retrieved and reviewed using the US FDA website, with additional review of IBM Micromedex, LiverTox, and the Renal Drug Handbook. RESULTS:This manuscript provides an overview of migraine drug metabolism and how it can be affected by liver and renal impairment. It reviews the standard terminology recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration for the different stages of hepatic and renal failure. The available evidence regarding the use of abortive and preventative medicines in the setting of organ failure is discussed in detail, including more recent therapies such as lasmiditan, gepants, and calcitonin gene-related peptide antibodies. CONCLUSIONS:For acute therapy, the use of NSAIDS should be limited, as these carry risk for both severe hepatic and renal disease. Triptans can be selectively used, often with dose guideline adjustments. Ubrogepant may be used in severe hepatic disease with dose adjustment and lasmiditan can be used in end stage renal disease. Though non-medicine strategies may be the most reasonable initial approach, many preventative medications can be used in the setting of hepatic and renal disease, often with dose adjustment. This review provides tables of guidelines, including reduced dosing recommendations, for the use of abortive and preventative migraine medications in hepatic and renal failure.
Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome in the Postpartum Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
(1) Background: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) encompasses a clinical and radiological diagnosis characterized by recurrent thunderclap headache, with or without focal deficits due to multifocal arterial vasoconstriction and dilation. RCVS can be correlated to pregnancy and exposure to certain drugs. Currently, the data on prevalence of RCVS in the postpartum period is lacking. We aim to investigate the prevalence of RCVS in the postpartum period and the rate of hemorrhagic complications of RCVS among the same group of patients; (2) Methods: We conducted the metanalysis by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), and Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) protocol. To analyze the Bias, we used the Ottawa Newcastle scale tool. We included only full-text observational studies conducted on humans and written in English. We excluded Literature Reviews, Systematic Reviews, and Metanalysis. Additionally, we excluded articles that did not document the prevalence of RCVS in the postpartum period (3). Results: According to our analysis, the Prevalence of RCVS in the postpartum period was 129/1083 (11.9%). Of these, 51/100 (52.7%) patients had hemorrhagic RCVS vs. 49/101 (49.5%) with non-hemorrhagic RCVS. The rates of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) were (51.6% and 10.7%, respectively. ICH seems to be more common than.; (4) Conclusions: Among patients with RCVS, the prevalence in PP patients is relativity high. Pregnant women with RCVS have a higher recurrence of hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic RCVS. Regarding the type of Hemorrhagic RCVS, ICH is more common than SAH among patients in the postpartum period. Female Sex, history of migraine, and older age group (above 45) seem to be risk factors for H-RCVS. Furthermore, recurrence of RCVS is associated with a higher age group (above 45). Recurrence of RCVS is more commonly idiopathic than being triggered by vasoactive drugs in the postpartum period.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:This comprehensive review of mood disorders brings together the past and current literature on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of the depressive and bipolar disorders. It highlights the primary mood disorders and secondary neurologic causes of mood disorders that are commonly encountered in a clinical setting. As the literature and our understanding evolve, recent additions to the current literature are important to bring forth to the readers. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Advancements in clinical medicine have strengthened our understanding of the associations of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. This article highlights the medications frequently used with newly identified mood disorders and the common side effects of these medications. A paradigm shift has moved toward newer treatment modalities, such as the use of ketamine, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and complementary and alternative medicine. The risks and benefits of such therapies, along with medications, are reviewed in this article. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Mood disorders are extraordinarily complex disorders with significant association with many neurologic disorders. Early identification of these mood disorders can prevent significant morbidity and mortality associated with them. With further expansion of pharmacologic options, more targeted therapy is possible in improving quality of life for patients.
The Cognitive-Enhancing Outcomes of Caffeine and L-theanine: A Systematic Review
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects multiple cognitive domains, including impaired attention, hyperactivity, and increased impulsivity. According to the CDC, 9.4% of children between 2 and 17 years old have been diagnosed with ADHD. Neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and dopamine have been suggested as crucial players in the pathophysiology of ADHD and are often targets of modern medication. Adenosine receptors types A1 and A2a in the brain are inhibited by caffeine: a stimulant known to augment attention by increasing cholinergic and dopaminergic transmission. The cognitive function of attention is also enhanced by the amino acid: L-theanine. The mechanism of action is that it behaves like a glutamate reuptake inhibitor while also acting in the hippocampus as a competitive low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist. It's also shown to have a neuroprotective effect by its action on the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors. Our systematic review investigates the literature and clinical trials on the cognitive-enhancing effects of caffeine and L-theanine.
Post-Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus and Outcomes Amongst Neonates With Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis
Introduction Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates. IVH leads to complications such as posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), which commonly occurs in neonates with a more severe degree of IVH. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of PHH in neonates with IVH. Methods We performed a systematic review of cases reported from January 1978 to December 2020 through the PubMed database, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the keywords 'intraventricular hemorrhage,'Â 'cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage,' and 'newborn.'Â A total of 79 articles were considered for analysis, and data on neonatal and maternal characteristics and outcomes were collected. The analysis was performed by using the Ï‡2 test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and multivariate logistic regression model. Results We analyzed a total of 101 IVH cases, 54.5% were male and 62.4% preterm. Thirteen point nine percent (13.9%) presented with grade I, 35.6% grade II, and grade III respectively, and 8% grade IV IVH. Among the 59 (58.4%) neonates with PHH, 33.6% had resolved PHH and 24.8% had unresolved. In adjusted regression analysis, we found that neonates with resolved PHH have lower odds of having neurodevelopmental delay (OR:0.15, 95%CI:0.03-0.74; p=0.02) and death (OR:0.9;95%CI:0.01-0.99; p=0.049) as compared to unresolved PHH. Conclusion Our study showed that neonates with resolved PHH have a statistically significant lower risk of neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) and mortality. Future studies should be planned to evaluate the role of treatment and its effect on outcomes in IVH neonates with PHH as a complication.
The Relationship between Headache Severity and Convergence Insufficiency in a Post-Concussive Population [Meeting Abstract]
Association between Concussion Profiles and Neurocognitive Functioning [Meeting Abstract]