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How Has the Total Hip Arthroplasty Patient Population Changed? A Ten-Year Analysis of Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients from 2013 to 2022: A Retrospective, Single-Center Study

Ruff, Garrett; Thomas, Jeremiah; Ashkenazi, Itay; Grossman, Eric; Davidovitch, Roy; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Over the past decades, utilization of total hip arthroplasty (THA) has steadily increased. Understanding the demographic trends of THA patients can assist in projecting access to care. This study sought to assess the temporal trends in THA patient baseline characteristics and socioeconomic factors. METHODS:, 2022. Demographic data, including age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), insurance, and socioeconomic status (SES), as determined by median income by patients' zip code, were collected. The trends of these data were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. RESULTS:Over the past decade at our institution, patient age (2013: 62.1 years to 2022: 65.1 years, P = 0.001), BMI (2013: 29.0 to 2022: 29.5, P = 0.020), and mean CCI (2013: 2.4 to 2022: 3.1, P = 0.001) increased. The proportion of Medicare patients increased from 48.4% in 2013 to 54.9% in 2022 (P = 0.001). The proportion of African American patients among the THA population increased from 11.3% in 2013 13.0% in 2022 (P = 0.012). Over this period, 90-day readmission and 1-year revision rates did not significantly change (2013: 4.8 and 3.0% to 2022: 3.4 and 1.4%, P = 0.107 and P = 0.136, respectively). The proportion of operations using robotic devices also significantly increased (2013: 0% to 2022: 19.1%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the past decade, the average age, BMI, and comorbidity burden of THA patients have significantly increased, suggesting improved access to care for these populations. Similarly, there have been improvements in access to care for African American patients. Along with these changes in patient demographics, we found no change in 90-day readmission or 1-year revision rates. Continued characterization of the THA patient population is vital to understanding this demographic shift and educating future strategies and improvements in patient care.
PMID: 38830434
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5665062

Outcomes in Arthroplasty Procedures Performed for Femoral Neck Fractures Does Approach Affect Outcome?

Lott, Ariana; Davidovitch, Roy I; Konda, Sanjit R; Egol, Kenneth A
BACKGROUND:The surgical approach used for arthroplasty in the setting of hip fracture has traditionally been decided based on surgeon preference. This study analyzed the ef-fect of the surgical approach on hospital quality measures, complications, and mortality in patients treated with hip arthroplasty for fracture fixation. METHODS:A cohort of consecutive acute hip fracture pa-tients who were 60 years of age or older and who underwent hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA) at one academic medical center between January 2014 and January 2018 was included. Patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), surgery details, complications, ambulation at dis-charge, discharge location, readmission, and mortality were recorded. Two cohorts were included based on the surgical approach: the anterior-based cohort included the direct an-terior and anterolateral approaches and the posterior-based cohort included direct lateral and posterior approaches. RESULTS:Two hundred five patients were included: 146 underwent HA (81 anterior-based and 65 posterior-based) and 79 underwent THA (37 anterior-based and 42 posterior-based). The mean age of the HA and THA cohorts was 84.1 ± 7.5 and 73.7 ± 8.0 years, respectively. There was no dif-ference in LOS, time to surgery, or surgical time between the two cohorts for HA and THA. There were no differences in perioperative complications, including dislocation, ob-served based on surgical approach. No difference was found between readmission rates and mortality. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this cohort of hip fracture arthroplasty patients, there was no difference observed in hospital quality measures, readmission, or mortality in patients based on sur-gical approach. These results are in contrast with literature in elective arthroplasty patients supporting the use of an anterior approach for potential improved short-term outcomes.
PMID: 38739658
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5658562

Trends in Revenue, Cost, and Contribution Margin of Patients Who Have a High Comorbidity Burden Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty From 2013 to 2021

Ashkenazi, Itay; Katzman, Jonathan; Thomas, Jeremiah; Davidovitch, Roy; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:With the increasing utilization of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients who have a high comorbidity burden (HCB), coinciding with modifications to reimbursement models over the past decade, an evaluation of the financial impact of HCB on THA over time is warranted. This study aimed to investigate trends in revenue and cost associated with THA in HCB patients. METHODS:Of 13,439 patients who had primary, elective THA between 2013 and 2021 at our institution, we retrospectively reviewed 978 patients considered to have HCB (Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 5 and American Society of Anesthesiology scores 3 or 4). We collected patient demographics, perioperative data, revenue, cost, and contribution margin (CM) of the inpatient episode. We analyzed changes as a percentage of 2013 values over time for these financial markers. Linear regression determined trend significance. The final analysis included 978 HCB patients who had complete financial data. RESULTS:Between 2013 and 2021, direct costs increased significantly (P = .002), along with a nonsignificant increase in total costs (P = .056). While revenue remained steady during the study period (P = .486), the CM decreased markedly to 38.0% of 2013 values, although not statistically significant (P = .222). Rates of 90-day complications and home discharge remained steady throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing costs for HCB patients undergoing THA were not matched by an equivalent increase in revenue, leading to dwindling CMs throughout the past decade. Re-evaluation of reimbursement models for THA that account for patients' HCB may be necessary to preserve broad access to care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 38677346
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5657942

Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Matched Cohort Analysis of Revenue and Contribution Margin

Rajahraman, Vinaya; Ashkenazi, Itay; Thomas, Jeremiah; Bosco, Joseph; Davidovitch, Roy; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Though previous studies have demonstrated improved cost benefits associated with simultaneous versus staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty (simBTHA and staBTHA), further investigation is needed regarding the revenues and contribution margins (CMs) of these procedures. In this study, we compared revenue, CM, and surgical outcomes between simBTHA and staBTHA. METHODS:All patients who underwent simBTHA (both procedures completed the same day) and staBTHA (procedures completed on different days within one year) between 2011 and 2021 at a single high-volume orthopedic specialty hospital were identified. Of the 1,517 identified patients (n = 139 simBTHA, n = 1,378 staBTHA), 232 were included in a 1:1 propensity match based on baseline demographics (116 per cohort). Revenue, costs, CM, and surgical outcomes were compared between cohorts. RESULTS:Compared to staBTHA, simBTHA procedures had significantly lower total costs (P < .001), direct costs (P < .001), and patient revenue. There was no significant difference in CM between groups (P = .361). Additionally, there were no significant differences in length of stay (P = .173), operative time (P = .438), 90-day readmissions (P = .701), 90-day revisions (P = .313), or all-cause revisions (P = .701) between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:Though simBTHA procedures have lower revenues than staBTHA, they also have lower costs, resulting in similar CM between procedures. As both procedures have similar postoperative complication rates, further research is required to evaluate specifically which patients may benefit from simBTHA versus staBTHA regarding clinical and patient-reported outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 38677345
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5657932

Are we getting better at cementing femoral stems in total hip arthroplasty? A 5-year institutional trend

Shichman, Ittai; Oakley, Christian T; Beaton, Geidily; Davidovitch, Roy I; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Femoral stem cementation provides excellent implant longevity with a low periprosthetic fracture rate among patients with compromised bone quality or abnormal anatomy. We radiologically evaluated the quality of the femoral cement mantle in patients undergoing THA to examine whether cementation quality improved with increased institutional experience. METHODS:A retrospective study of 542 primary elective THAs performed using cemented stems from 2016 to 2021 at a high-volume orthopedic specialty center was conducted. Immediate post-operative anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs were evaluated to assess cement mantle quality based on the Barrack classification. Cement mantles were deemed satisfactory (Barrack A and B) or unsatisfactory (Barrack C and D). Regression was performed to identify predictors of unsatisfactory cementation quality. RESULTS:The annual cemented primary THA volume increased throughout the study period from 14 cases in 2016 to 201 cases in 2021. Overall, the majority of cement mantles were deemed satisfactory; 91.7% on AP radiographs and 91.0% on lateral radiographs. Satisfactory cementation on AP radiograph achievement rates improved during the study period, which coincided with greater annual volume (p < 0.001). No association was found between posterior and direct anterior surgical approaches and satisfactory cementation quality on both AP and lateral radiographs. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Majority of femoral stems had satisfactory cementation quality. Higher institutional annual cemented THA volume was associated with improved cementation quality. Residency and fellowship training programs should place greater emphasis on the importance of femoral stem cementation for appropriately indicated patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, retrospective cohort study.
PMID: 36593365
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5409852

Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Role of Operating Room Size on Air Quality in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty" [Comment]

Derry, Kendall H; Sicat, Chelsea S; Shen, Michelle; Davidovitch, Roy I; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
PMID: 37001622
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5534982

Does Surgical Approach to the Hip Play a Role in Same-Day Discharge Outcomes?

Passano, Brandon; Simcox, Trevor; Singh, Vivek; Anil, Utkarsh; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Davidovitch, Roy I
BACKGROUND:Different approaches for total hip arthroplasty (THA) may offer advantages in regard to achieving same-day-discharge (SDD) success. METHODS:We retrospectively identified patients aged ≥ 18 years who underwent elective primary THA from 2015 to 2020 who were formally enrolled in a single institution's SDD program. A total of 1,127 and 207 patients underwent THA via direct anterior approach and posterior approach, respectively, were included. Cohorts were assigned based on approach. The primary outcome was failure-to-launch, defined as hospital stay extending past 1 midnight. Secondary outcomes included Forgotten Joint Score-12, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement, 90-day readmission and revision rate, and surgical time. Patient-reported outcomes were collected at 3 and 12 months. RESULTS:After controlling for demographic differences, posterior approach patients had higher rates of failure-to-launch (12.1% versus 5.9%, P = .002) and longer surgical times (99 versus 80 minutes; P < .001) compared to direct anterior approach patients. The cohorts had similar readmission (1.7% versus 1.4%; P = .64) and revision rates (1% versus 1%; P = .88). The magnitude of improvement in Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement scores from preoperative to 12 months was similar between cohorts (35.3 versus 34.5; P = .42). The differences in outcome scores between cohorts at each time point were not considered clinically significant. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis suggests that patient selection and surgical approach may be important for achieving SDD. Surgical approach did not significantly impact readmission or revision rates nor did it have a meaningful impact on patient-reported outcomes in the first year after surgery.
PMID: 36608836
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5419002

Role of Operating Room Size on Air Quality in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

Derry, Kendall H; Sicat, Chelsea S; Shen, Michelle; Davidovitch, Roy I; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
BACKGROUND:Airborne biologic particles (ABPs) can be measured intraoperatively to evaluate operating room (OR) sterility. Our study examines the role of OR size on air quality and ABP count in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:at a single academic institution from April 2019 to June 2020. Temperature, humidity, and ABP count per minute were recorded with a particle counter intraoperatively and cross-referenced with surgical data from the electronic health records using procedure start and end times. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate differences in variables. P-values were calculated using t-test and chi-squared test. RESULTS:A total of 116 primary THA cases were included: 18 (15.5%) in the "small" OR and 98 (84.5%) in the "large" OR. Between-group comparisons revealed significant differences in temperature (small OR: 20.3 ± 1.23 C versus large OR: 19.1 ± 0.85 C, P < .0001) and relative humidity (small OR: 41.1 ± 7.24 versus large OR: 46.9 ± 7.56, P < .001). Significant percent decreases in ABP rates for particles measuring 2.5 um (-125.0%, P = .0032), 5.0 um (-245.0%, P = .00078), and 10.0 um (-413.9%, P = .0021) were found in the large OR. Average time spent in the OR was significantly longer in the large OR (174 ± 33 minutes) compared to the small OR (151 ± 14 minutes) (P = .00083). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Temperature and humidity differences and significantly lower ABP counts were found in the large compared to the small OR despite longer average time spent in the large OR, suggesting the filtration system encounters less particle burden in larger rooms. Further research is needed to determine the impact this may have on infection rates.
PMID: 36529201
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5418892

Hospital Revenue, Cost, and Contribution Margin in Inpatient vs. Outpatient Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty

Christensen, Thomas H; Bieganowski, Thomas; Malarchuk, Alex W; Davidovitch, Roy I; Bosco, Joseph A; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Macaulay, William; Slover, James; Lajam, Claudette M
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Removal of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) from the inpatient-only (IPO) list has financial implications for both patients and institutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare financial parameters between patients designated for inpatient versus outpatient total joint arthroplasty (TJA) surgery. METHODS:We reviewed all patients who underwent TKA or THA after these procedures were removed from the IPO list. Patients were stratified into cohorts based on inpatient or outpatient status, procedure type, and insurance type. This included 5,284 patients, of which 4,279 were designated inpatient while 1,005 were designated outpatient. Patient demographic, perioperative, and financial data including per patient revenues, total and direct costs, and contribution margins (CMs) were collected. Data were compared using t-tests and Chi-square tests. RESULTS:Among Medicare patients receiving THA, CM was 89.1% lower for the inpatient cohort when compared to outpatient (p<0.001), though there was no significant difference between cohorts for TKA (p=0.501). Among patients covered by Medicaid or Government-managed plans, CM was 120.8% higher for inpatients receiving THA (p<0.001) when compared to outpatients and 136.3% higher for inpatients receiving TKA (p<0.001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our analyses showed that recent costs associated with inpatient stay inconsistently match or outpace additional revenue, causing CM to vary drastically depending on insurance and procedure type. For Medicare patients receiving THA, inpatient surgery is financially disincentivized leaving this vulnerable patient population at risk of losing access to care.
PMID: 35987495
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5300472

Validation of Single-Outcome Questionnaire in Primary TKA and THA

Cieremans, David A; Huang, Shengnan; Konopka, Jaclyn A; Davidovitch, Roy I; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Slover, James D
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can be used to evaluate post-operative health care quality and patient satisfaction. The Patient's Joint Perception (PJP) question gathers a single PRO to measure how patients appraise their joint. This study compares PJP to the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) at 21-months post-operation to assess its value. METHODS:A retrospective review was performed at an orthopedic specialty hospital for patients who completed both PJP and FJS questionnaires in 2020-2021 and underwent either a unilateral elective primary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) or Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). Spearman's correlation coefficients and p-values were calculated to determine external validity of PJP. Floor and ceiling effects were analyzed and considered significant if ≥15% of patients achieved the worst or best score (0-4 for PJP and 0-100 for FJS). RESULTS:In total, 534 patients (327 THA and 207 TKA) were surveyed at 21 months post-operation. External validity against FJS was assessed for both TKA (r=0.66, p<0.01) and THA (r=0.69, p<0.01). For TKA, the floor and ceiling effects were 0.97% and 25.12% for PJP and 3.86% and 4.83% for FJS, respectively. For THA, the floor and ceiling effects were 0.92% and 50.46% for PJP and 2.47% and 20.50% for FJS, respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:PJP was correlated with FJS moderately for both TKA and THA and can be collected with less burden. However, ceiling effects were significantly higher in both TKA and THA for PJP compared with FJS. Further studies are needed to investigate the questionnaires at additional timepoints and to evaluate the implications of high ceiling effects.
PMID: 35490979
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5215732