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Proteogenomic insights suggest druggable pathways in endometrial carcinoma

Dou, Yongchao; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Gritsenko, Marina A; Hu, Yingwei; Reva, Boris; Hong, Runyu; Wang, Yi-Ting; Kolodziejczak, Iga; Lu, Rita Jui-Hsien; Tsai, Chia-Feng; Bu, Wen; Liu, Wenke; Guo, Xiaofang; An, Eunkyung; Arend, Rebecca C; Bavarva, Jasmin; Chen, Lijun; Chu, Rosalie K; Czekański, Andrzej; Davoli, Teresa; Demicco, Elizabeth G; DeLair, Deborah; Devereaux, Kelly; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M; Dottino, Peter; Dover, Bailee; Fillmore, Thomas L; Foxall, McKenzie; Hermann, Catherine E; Hiltke, Tara; Hostetter, Galen; Jędryka, Marcin; Jewell, Scott D; Johnson, Isabelle; Kahn, Andrea G; Ku, Amy T; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Kurzawa, Paweł; Lazar, Alexander J; Lazcano, Rossana; Lei, Jonathan T; Li, Yi; Liao, Yuxing; Lih, Tung-Shing M; Lin, Tai-Tu; Martignetti, John A; Masand, Ramya P; Matkowski, Rafał; McKerrow, Wilson; Mesri, Mehdi; Monroe, Matthew E; Moon, Jamie; Moore, Ronald J; Nestor, Michael D; Newton, Chelsea; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Omenn, Gilbert S; Payne, Samuel H; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Robles, Ana I; Rodriguez, Henry; Ruggles, Kelly V; Rykunov, Dmitry; Savage, Sara R; Schepmoes, Athena A; Shi, Tujin; Shi, Zhiao; Tan, Jimin; Taylor, Mason; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Wang, Joshua M; Weitz, Karl K; Wen, Bo; Williams, C M; Wu, Yige; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Yi, Xinpei; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Rui; Mutch, David; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Smith, Richard D; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Wang, Pei; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Ding, Li; Mani, D R; Zhang, Hui; Anderson, Matthew L; Rodland, Karin D; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Tao; Fenyö, David; ,
We characterized a prospective endometrial carcinoma (EC) cohort containing 138 tumors and 20 enriched normal tissues using 10 different omics platforms. Targeted quantitation of two peptides can predict antigen processing and presentation machinery activity, and may inform patient selection for immunotherapy. Association analysis between MYC activity and metformin treatment in both patients and cell lines suggests a potential role for metformin treatment in non-diabetic patients with elevated MYC activity. PIK3R1 in-frame indels are associated with elevated AKT phosphorylation and increased sensitivity to AKT inhibitors. CTNNB1 hotspot mutations are concentrated near phosphorylation sites mediating pS45-induced degradation of β-catenin, which may render Wnt-FZD antagonists ineffective. Deep learning accurately predicts EC subtypes and mutations from histopathology images, which may be useful for rapid diagnosis. Overall, this study identified molecular and imaging markers that can be further investigated to guide patient stratification for more precise treatment of EC.
PMID: 37567170
ISSN: 1878-3686
CID: 5594022

KaryoCreate: A CRISPR-based technology to study chromosome-specific aneuploidy by targeting human centromeres

Bosco, Nazario; Goldberg, Aleah; Zhao, Xin; Mays, Joseph C; Cheng, Pan; Johnson, Adam F; Bianchi, Joy J; Toscani, Cecilia; Di Tommaso, Elena; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Annuar, Dania; Mei, Sally; Faitelson, Roni E; Pesselev, Ilan Y; Mohamed, Kareem S; Mermerian, Angela; Camacho-Hernandez, Elaine M; Gionco, Courtney A; Manikas, Julie; Tseng, Yi-Shuan; Sun, Zhengxi; Fani, Somayeh; Keegan, Sarah; Lippman, Scott M; Fenyö, David; Giunta, Simona; Santaguida, Stefano; Davoli, Teresa
Aneuploidy, the presence of chromosome gains or losses, is a hallmark of cancer. Here, we describe KaryoCreate (karyotype CRISPR-engineered aneuploidy technology), a system that enables the generation of chromosome-specific aneuploidies by co-expression of an sgRNA targeting chromosome-specific CENPA-binding ɑ-satellite repeats together with dCas9 fused to mutant KNL1. We design unique and highly specific sgRNAs for 19 of the 24 chromosomes. Expression of these constructs leads to missegregation and induction of gains or losses of the targeted chromosome in cellular progeny, with an average efficiency of 8% for gains and 12% for losses (up to 20%) validated across 10 chromosomes. Using KaryoCreate in colon epithelial cells, we show that chromosome 18q loss, frequent in gastrointestinal cancers, promotes resistance to TGF-β, likely due to synergistic hemizygous deletion of multiple genes. Altogether, we describe an innovative technology to create and study chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy in the context of cancer and beyond.
PMID: 37075754
ISSN: 1097-4172
CID: 5464502

Spatial PD-L1, immune-cell microenvironment, and genomic copy-number alteration patterns and drivers of invasive-disease transition in prospective oral precancer cohort

William, William N; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhao, Xin; Parra, Edwin R; Uraoka, Naohiro; Lin, Heather Y; Peng, S Andrew; El-Naggar, Adel K; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Song, Jaejoon; Gillenwater, Ann M; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Myers, Jeffrey N; Gold, Kathryn A; Ferrarotto, Renata; Hwu, Patrick; Davoli, Teresa; Lee, J Jack; Heymach, John V; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Lippman, Scott M
BACKGROUND:Studies of the immune landscape led to breakthrough trials of programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors for recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma therapy. This study investigated the timing, influence of somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs), and clinical implications of PD-L1 and immune-cell patterns in oral precancer (OPC). METHODS:) and PD-L1 (membranous expression in cytokeratin-positive intraepithelial neoplastic cells and CD68) patterns by multiplex immunofluorescence in a 188-patient prospective OPC cohort, characterized by clinical, histologic, and SCNA risk factors and protocol-specified primary end point of invasive cancer. The authors used Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests, linear mixed effect models, mediation, and Cox regression and recursive-partitioning analyses. RESULTS:Epithelial, but not CD68 immune-cell, PD-L1 expression was detected in 28% of OPCs, correlated with immune-cell infiltration, 9p21.3 loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and inferior oral cancer-free survival (OCFS), notably in OPCs with low CD3/8 cell density, dysplasia, and/or 9p21.3 LOH. High CD3/8 cell density in dysplastic lesions predicted better OCFS and eliminated the excess risk associated with prior oral cancer and dysplasia. PD-L1 and CD3/8 patterns revealed inferior OCFS in PD-L1 high intrinsic induction and dysplastic immune-cold subgroups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This report provides spatial insight into the immune landscape and drivers of OPCs, and a publicly available immunogenomic data set for future precancer interrogation. The data suggest that 9p21.3 LOH triggers an immune-hot inflammatory phenotype; whereas increased 9p deletion size encompassing CD274 at 9p24.1 may contribute to CD3/8 and PD-L1 depletion during invasive transition. The inferior OCFS in PD-L1-high, immune-cold OPCs support the development of T-cell recruitment strategies.
PMID: 36597662
ISSN: 1097-0142
CID: 5409942

Somatic 9p24.1 alterations in HPV- head and neck squamous cancer dictate immune microenvironment and anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor activity

Zhao, Xin; Cohen, Ezra E W; William, William N; Bianchi, Joy J; Abraham, Jim P; Magee, Daniel; Spetzler, David B; Gutkind, J Silvio; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Cavenee, Webster K; Lippman, Scott M; Davoli, Teresa
Somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), generally (1) losses containing interferons and interferon-pathway genes, many on chromosome 9p, predict immune-cold, immune checkpoint therapy (ICT)-resistant tumors (2); however, genomic regions mediating these effects are unclear and probably tissue specific. Previously, 9p21.3 loss was found to be an early genetic driver of human papillomavirus-negative (HPV-) head and neck squamous cancer (HNSC), associated with an immune-cold tumor microenvironment (TME) signal, and recent evidence suggested that this TME-cold phenotype was greatly enhanced with 9p21 deletion size, notably encompassing band 9p24.1 (3). Here, we report multi-omic, -threshold and continuous-variable dissection of 9p21 and 9p24 loci (including depth and degree of somatic alteration of each band at each locus, and each gene at each band) and TME of four HPV- HNSC cohorts. Preferential 9p24 deletion, CD8 T-cell immune-cold associations were observed, driven by 9p24.1 loss, and in turn by an essential telomeric regulatory gene element, JAK2-CD274. Surprisingly, same genetic region gains were immune hot. Related 9p21-TME analyses were less evident. Inherent 9p-band-level influences on anti-PD1 ICT survival rates, coincident with TME patterns, were also observed. At a 9p24.1 whole-transcriptome expression threshold of 60th percentile, ICT survival rate exceeded that of lower expression percentiles and of chemotherapy; below this transcript threshold, ICT survival was inferior to chemotherapy, the latter unaffected by 9p24.1 expression level (P-values < 0.01, including in a PD-L1 immunohistochemistry-positive patient subgroup). Whole-exome analyses of 10 solid-tumor types suggest that these 9p-related ICT findings could be relevant to squamous cancers, in which 9p24.1 gain/immune-hot associations exist.
PMID: 36395141
ISSN: 1091-6490
CID: 5371662

Proteogenomic analysis of cancer aneuploidy and normal tissues reveals divergent modes of gene regulation across cellular pathways

Cheng, Pan; Zhao, Xin; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Camacho-Hernandez, Elaine M; Mermerian, Angela; Mays, Joseph C; Lippman, Scott M; Rosales-Alvarez, Reyna Edith; Moya, Raquel; Shwetar, Jasmine; Grun, Dominic; Fenyo, David; Davoli, Teresa
How cells control gene expression is a fundamental question. The relative contribution of protein-level and RNA-level regulation to this process remains unclear. Here, we perform a proteogenomic analysis of tumors and untransformed cells containing somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs). By revealing how cells regulate RNA and protein abundances of genes with SCNAs, we provide insights into the rules of gene regulation. Protein complex genes have a strong protein-level regulation while non-complex genes have a strong RNA-level regulation. Notable exceptions are plasma membrane protein complex genes, which show a weak protein-level regulation and a stronger RNA-level regulation. Strikingly, we find a strong negative association between the degree of RNA-level and protein-level regulation across genes and cellular pathways. Moreover, genes participating in the same pathway show a similar degree of RNA- and protein-level regulation. Pathways including translation, splicing, RNA processing, and mitochondrial function show a stronger protein-level regulation while cell adhesion and migration pathways show a stronger RNA-level regulation. These results suggest that the evolution of gene regulation is shaped by functional constraints and that many cellular pathways tend to evolve one predominant mechanism of gene regulation at the protein level or at the RNA level.
PMID: 36129397
ISSN: 2050-084x
CID: 5335092


Legut, M; Gajic, Z; Guarino, M; Daniloski, Z; Rahman, J; Xue, X; Lu, C; Lu, L; Mimitou, E; Hao, S; Davoli, T; Diefenbach, C; Smibert, P; Sanjana, N
The engineering of patient T-cells for adoptive cell therapies has revolutionized the treatment of several cancer types. However, further improvements are needed to increase durability and response rate. While CRISPR-based loss-of-function screens have shown promise for high-throughput identification of genes that modulate T-cell response, these methods have been limited thus far to negative regulators of T-cell functions, and raise safety concerns due to the permanent nature of genome modification. Here we identify positive T-cell regulators via overexpression of ~12,000 barcoded human open reading frames (ORFs). Using this genome-scale ORF screen, we find modulator genes that may not normally be expressed by T-cells. The top-ranked genes increased primary human T-cell proliferation, activation, and secretion of key cytokines. In addition, we developed a single-cell genomics method for high-throughput quantification of the transcriptome and surface proteome in ORF-engineered T-cells. The top-ranked ORF, lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTBR), is typically expressed by myeloid cells but absent in lymphocytes. When expressed in T-cells, LTBR induced profound transcriptional and epigenomic remodeling, resulting in an increase in T-cell stemness and effector functions, as well as resistance to apoptosis and exhaustion in chronic stimulation settings. Using mutagenesis and epistasis approaches, we demonstrated that LTBR constitutive activates the canonical NFkB pathway via ligand shortcircuiting and tonic signaling. Expression of several top-ranked genes, including LTBR, improved antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell responses in healthy donors and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Finally, the top-ranked genes discovered in alphabeta T-cells also improved antigen-specific responses of gammadelta T-cells, highlighting the potential for cancer-agnostic therapies. Our results provide several strategies for improving next generation T-cell therapies via induction of new synthetic cell programs
ISSN: 1557-7422
CID: 5251822

A genome-scale screen for synthetic drivers of T cell proliferation

Legut, Mateusz; Gajic, Zoran; Guarino, Maria; Daniloski, Zharko; Rahman, Jahan A; Xue, Xinhe; Lu, Congyi; Lu, Lu; Mimitou, Eleni P; Hao, Stephanie; Davoli, Teresa; Diefenbach, Catherine; Smibert, Peter; Sanjana, Neville E
The engineering of autologous patient T cells for adoptive cell therapies has revolutionized the treatment of several types of cancer1. However, further improvements are needed to increase response and cure rates. CRISPR-based loss-of-function screens have been limited to negative regulators of T cell functions2-4 and raise safety concerns owing to the permanent modification of the genome. Here we identify positive regulators of T cell functions through overexpression of around 12,000 barcoded human open reading frames (ORFs). The top-ranked genes increased the proliferation and activation of primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and their secretion of key cytokines such as interleukin-2 and interferon-γ. In addition, we developed the single-cell genomics method OverCITE-seq for high-throughput quantification of the transcriptome and surface antigens in ORF-engineered T cells. The top-ranked ORF-lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTBR)-is typically expressed in myeloid cells but absent in lymphocytes. When overexpressed in T cells, LTBR induced profound transcriptional and epigenomic remodelling, leading to increased T cell effector functions and resistance to exhaustion in chronic stimulation settings through constitutive activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway. LTBR and other highly ranked genes improved the antigen-specific responses of chimeric antigen receptor T cells and γδ T cells, highlighting their potential for future cancer-agnostic therapies5. Our results provide several strategies for improving next-generation T cell therapies by the induction of synthetic cell programmes.
PMID: 35296855
ISSN: 1476-4687
CID: 5183922

Development of Novel CAR Therapies for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Using Genome-Wide Overexpression Screens [Meeting Abstract]

Legut, M; Gajic, Z; Guarino, M; Mimitou, E; Hao, S; Rahman, J; Davoli, T; Smibert, P; Diefenbach, C S; Sanjana, N
Despite recent therapeutic advances in the management of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), up to 50% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) relapse after first line therapy, and for DLBCL patients who relapse within 12 months after subsequent stem cell transplant (SCT), the median overall survival (OS) is 6.3 months. Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown remarkable activity in relapsed DLBCL with complete response (CR) rate of 40% and 54% for the two of the FDA-approved CAR T-cell products, tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel, respectively. However, at a median follow-up of 18 months, only 36% of patients treated with tisagenlecleucel remained in CR; with longer follow-up for axicabtagene ciloleucel the median progression free survival (PFS) was 5.9 months. Immune escape and immune evasion are primary mechanisms of CAR-T resistance; clearly improvements are needed to increase response rate and cure. While CRISPR-based loss-of-function screens have shown promise for high-throughput identification of genes that modulate T-cell response, these methods have been limited thus far to negative regulators of T-cell functions, and raise safety concerns due to the permanent nature of genome modification. Here we identify positive T-cell regulators via overexpression of ~12,000 barcoded human open reading frames (ORFs). Using this genome-scale ORF screen, we found modulator genes which increased primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation, including activation markers like CD25 and CD40L, and secretion of key cytokines like interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma. In addition, we developed a single-cell genomics method (OverCITE-seq) for high-throughput quantification of the transcriptome and surface proteome in ORF-engineered T-cells. The top-ranked ORF, lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTBR), is typically expressed in a subset of myeloid cells but absent in lymphocytes. When expressed in T-cells, LTBR induces a profound transcriptional remodelling, resulting in increased resistance to exhaustion and activation-induced apoptosis, as well as upregulation of a plethora of proinflammatory cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules and antigen presentation machinery. In order to investigate the mechanism of action of LTBR, we developed an epistasis assay which allows for simultaneous gene knockout and LTBR overexpression in primary T cells. Thus, LTBR appears to induce both canonical and non-canonical NFkB pathways - but the phenotype observed in T cells is dependent only on the former. Finally, we co-expressed several top-ranked genes, including LTBR, with FDA approved CD19-targeting CARs utilizing either 4-1BB or CD28 co-stimulatory domains. In line with previous results, co-expression of top-ranked ORFs increased proinflammatory cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity against CD19+ positive cancer cell lines. This functional improvement was also observed when top-ranked ORFs and CARs were delivered to T cells isolated from DLBCL patients as shown in Figure 1. Our results provide several strategies for improving next generation CAR T-cell therapies via induction of new synthetic cell programs which may optimize immune activation and enhance the efficacy of these important therapies, a high priority for patients with relapsed and refractory DLBCL and other lymphomas. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Mimitou: Immunai: Current Employment. Smibert: Immunai: Current Employment. Diefenbach: Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; IMab: Research Funding; Gilead: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company; Celgene: Research Funding; AbbVie: Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Merck Sharp & Dohme: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; IGM Biosciences: Research Funding; Morphosys: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; MEI: Consultancy, Research Funding; Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone Health: Current Employment; Incyte: Research Funding; Trillium: Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Genentech, Inc./ F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Sanjana: Qiagen: Consultancy; Vertex: Consultancy.
ISSN: 0006-4971
CID: 5098712

De novo assembly and delivery to mouse cells of a 101 kb functional human gene

Mitchell, Leslie A; McCulloch, Laura H; Pinglay, Sudarshan; Berger, Henri; Bosco, Nazario; Brosh, Ran; Bulajić, Milica; Huang, Emily; Hogan, Megan S; Martin, James A; Mazzoni, Esteban O; Davoli, Teresa; Maurano, Matthew T; Boeke, Jef D
Design and large-scale synthesis of DNA has been applied to the functional study of viral and microbial genomes. New and expanded technology development is required to unlock the transformative potential of such bottom-up approaches to the study of larger mammalian genomes. Two major challenges include assembling and delivering long DNA sequences. Here we describe a workflow for de novo DNA assembly and delivery that enables functional evaluation of mammalian genes on the length scale of 100 kilobase pairs (kb). The DNA assembly step is supported by an integrated robotic workcell. We demonstrate assembly of the 101 kb human HPRT1 gene in yeast from 3 kb building blocks, precision delivery of the resulting construct to mouse embryonic stem cells, and subsequent expression of the human protein from its full-length human gene in mouse cells. This workflow provides a framework for mammalian genome writing. We envision utility in producing designer variants of human genes linked to disease and their delivery and functional analysis in cell culture or animal models.
PMID: 33742653
ISSN: 1943-2631
CID: 4821992

Immune evasion in HPV- head and neck precancer-cancer transition is driven by an aneuploid switch involving chromosome 9p loss

William, William N; Zhao, Xin; Bianchi, Joy J; Lin, Heather Y; Cheng, Pan; Lee, J Jack; Carter, Hannah; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Abraham, Jim P; Spetzler, David B; Dubinett, Steven M; Cleveland, Don W; Cavenee, Webster; Davoli, Teresa; Lippman, Scott M
An aneuploid-immune paradox encompasses somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs), unleashing a cytotoxic response in experimental precancer systems, while conversely being associated with immune suppression and cytotoxic-cell depletion in human tumors, especially head and neck cancer (HNSC). We present evidence from patient samples and cell lines that alterations in chromosome dosage contribute to an immune hot-to-cold switch during human papillomavirus-negative (HPV-) head and neck tumorigenesis. Overall SCNA (aneuploidy) level was associated with increased CD3+ and CD8+ T cell microenvironments in precancer (mostly CD3+, linked to trisomy and aneuploidy), but with T cell-deficient tumors. Early lesions with 9p21.3 loss were associated with depletion of cytotoxic T cell infiltration in TP53 mutant tumors; and with aneuploidy were associated with increased NK-cell infiltration. The strongest driver of cytotoxic T cell and Immune Score depletion in oral cancer was 9p-arm level loss, promoting profound decreases of pivotal IFN-γ-related chemokines (e.g., CXCL9) and pathway genes. Chromosome 9p21.3 deletion contributed mainly to cell-intrinsic senescence suppression, but deletion of the entire arm was necessary to diminish levels of cytokine, JAK-STAT, and Hallmark NF-κB pathways. Finally, 9p arm-level loss and JAK2-PD-L1 codeletion (at 9p24) were predictive markers of poor survival in recurrent HPV- HNSC after anti-PD-1 therapy; likely amplified by independent aneuploidy-induced immune-cold microenvironments observed here. We hypothesize that 9p21.3 arm-loss expansion and epistatic interactions allow oral precancer cells to acquire properties to overcome a proimmunogenic aneuploid checkpoint, transform and invade. These findings enable distinct HNSC interception and precision-therapeutic approaches, concepts that may apply to other CN-driven neoplastic, immune or aneuploid diseases, and immunotherapies.
PMID: 33952700
ISSN: 1091-6490
CID: 4866502