Updates in percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy: should we strive for combined placement during one procedure?
DeMaio, Andrew; Yarmus, Lonny
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy are minimally invasive procedures among the most common performed in intensive care units. Practices across centres vary considerably, and questions remain about the optimal timing, performance and postoperative care related to these procedures. RECENT FINDINGS:The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a reevaluation of the practice of percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy in the ICU. Combined percutaneous tracheostomy and gastrostomy at the bedside has potential benefits, including improved nutrition, decreased exposure to anaesthetics, decreased patient transport and decreased hospital costs. Percutaneous ultrasound gastrostomy is a novel technique that eliminates the need for an endoscope that may allow intensivists to perform gastrostomy at the bedside. SUMMARY:Multidisciplinary care is essential to the follow up of critically ill patients receiving tracheostomy and gastrostomy. Combined tracheostomy and gastrostomy has numerous potential benefits to patients and hospital systems. Interventional pulmonologists are uniquely qualified to perform both procedures and serve on a tracheostomy and gastrostomy team.
Getting closer: localization techniques for small pulmonary nodules [Editorial]
Geraci, Travis C; DeMaio, Andrew J
Accuracy of Pulmonary Nodule Sampling Using Robotic Assisted Bronchoscopy with Shape Sensing, Fluoroscopy, and Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound (The ACCURACY Study)
Thiboutot, Jeffrey; Argento, A Christine; Akulian, Jason; Lee, Hans J; DeMaio, Andrew; Kapp, Christopher M; Wahidi, Momen M; Yarmus, Lonny
BACKGROUND:Despite recent advances in guided bronchoscopy, the yield of bronchoscopic biopsy of a peripheral pulmonary nodule (PPN) remains highly variable. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to evaluate which features of robotic assisted bronchoscopy (RAB) contribute to a successful biopsy in a cadaver model. METHODS:A preclinical, prospective, single-blinded trial using a ventilated human cadaveric model assessed the successful puncture of implanted pulmonary nodules using various localization techniques with RAB. The different approaches included positioning the robotic catheter at predefined distances from the target nodule (<10 mm, 10-20 mm, 20-30 mm), bronchoscopist correction of divergence between the software virtual map and bronchoscopic view if observed, and impact of fluoroscopy and radial endobronchial ultrasound (rEBUS). The primary endpoint was a central target hit (defined as an inner 2/3 target puncture) verified by cone-beam computed tomography. RESULTS:Thirty-eight RAB procedures were performed to target 16 PPNs. Median nodule size was 16.2 mm. All targets were located in the outer 1/3 of the lung with a bronchus sign in 31.3%. Central target hit rates were improved when the robotic catheter tip was closer to the nodule (<10 mm 68%, 10-20 mm 66%, 20-30 mm 11%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis confirmed the strongest predictor of a central target hit was robotic catheter distance to nodule (OR 0.89 per increase in 1 mm, p < 0.001), independent of the presence of a bronchus sign, divergence or concentric rEBUS view. CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing a RAB platform, closer proximity of the robotic catheter to the target nodule results in an increase in peripheral nodule biopsy success.
Management of Pneumothorax
DeMaio, Andrew; Semaan, Roy
Pneumothorax is a common medical condition encountered in a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from asymptomatic to life threatening. When symptomatic, it is important to remove air from the pleural space and provide re-expansion of the lung. Additionally, patients who experience a spontaneous pneumothorax are at high risk for recurrence, so treatment goals also include recurrence prevention. Several recent studies have evaluated less invasive management strategies for pneumothorax, including conservative or outpatient management. Future studies may help to identify who is greatest at risk for recurrence and direct earlier definitive management strategies, including thoracoscopic surgery, to those patients.
Bronchoscopic intratumoural therapies for non-small cell lung cancer
DeMaio, Andrew; Sterman, Daniel
The past decade has brought remarkable improvements in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with novel therapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, although response rates remain suboptimal. Direct intratumoural injection of therapeutic agents via bronchoscopic approaches poses the unique ability to directly target the tumour microenvironment and offers several theoretical advantages over systemic delivery including decreased toxicity. Increases in understanding of the tumour microenvironment and cancer immunology have identified many potential options for intratumoural therapy, especially combination immunotherapies. Herein, we review advances in the development of novel bronchoscopic treatments for NSCLC over the past decade with a focus on the potential of intratumoural immunotherapy alone or in combination with systemic treatments.
[S.l.] : PulmCCM, 2020
Tracheostomy in COVID-19: Who, When, How?
DeMaio, Andrew; Feller-Kopman, David(Website)
Yield of Malignant Pleural Effusion for Detection of Oncogenic Driver Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma
DeMaio, Andrew; Clarke, Jeffrey M; Dash, Rajesh; Sebastian, Siby; Wahidi, Momen M; Shofer, Scott L; Cheng, George Z; Li, Xuechan; Wang, Xiaofei; Mahmood, Kamran
BACKGROUND:Pleural fluid can be used to assess targetable mutations in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The primary objective of this study was to assess the yield of pleural fluid cytology for targetable oncogenic mutations (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ALK, and ROS1 gene rearrangements). We also assessed pleural fluid volume necessary for molecular testing. METHODS:Retrospective review was performed of 134 consecutive patients with lung adenocarcinoma associated malignant pleural effusions. EGFR and KRAS testing was done using PCR amplification followed by DNA sequencing, or next generation sequencing in more recent cases that included BRAF assessment. Fluorescence in situ hybridization employing break-apart probes was used to test for ALK and ROS1 rearrangements. RESULTS:Mutation analysis on pleural fluid cell-block was performed on 56 patients. It was adequate for complete analysis ordered including EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ALK, and ROS1 rearrangements on 40 (71.4%) samples. For individual mutations, EGFR testing was possible in 38 of 49 (77.6%); KRAS 22 of 28 (78.6%); BRAF 10 of 13 (76.9%), ALK gene rearrangement 42 of 51 (82.4%) and ROS1 gene rearrangement in 21 of 28 (75%) pleural fluid specimens. The analysis was satisfactory in 13 of 19 (68.4%) samples with â‰¤100â€‰mL versus 27 of 37 (72.9%) with >100â€‰mL of fluid tested (P-value=0.7). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Genetic mutation analysis can be performed on malignant pleural effusions secondary to lung adenocarcinoma, independent of fluid volume.