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Histologic Findings in Gynecologic Tissue From Transmasculine Individuals Undergoing Gender-Affirming Surgery

Lin, Lawrence Hsu; Hernandez, Andrea; Marcus, Alan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Adler, Esther
CONTEXT.—/UNASSIGNED:Gender-affirming surgery is part of a multidisciplinary approach in gender transitioning. Deeper histologic examination may strengthen care for transmasculine individuals and increase the understanding of the influence of hormonal therapy in specific organs. OBJECTIVE.—/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate and catalogue histologic findings of tissue obtained from gender-affirming gynecologic surgery and cervical cytology specimens. DESIGN.—/UNASSIGNED:This is an institutional review board-approved retrospective study that included transmasculine individuals who underwent gender-affirming gynecologic surgery from January 2015 to June 2020. All surgical gynecologic pathology and cervical cytology slides were reviewed by 2 pathologists. RESULTS.—/UNASSIGNED:Fifty-five patients were included, which represented 40 uteri, 35 bilateral ovaries, 15 vaginectomy specimens, and 24 cervical cytology results. The median age was 27 years (range, 18-56) and 94% (50 of 53) of patients were receiving testosterone for at least 1 year. Seventy-five percent (30 of 40) of endometria were inactive, while 25% (10 of 40) showed evidence of cycling. Transitional cell metaplasia was the most common finding in the cervix (17 of 40) and vagina (15 of 15), reflecting a high percentage (4 of 24) of unsatisfactory or ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cervical cytologies. Prostatic-type glands were identified in 20% (8 of 40) of cervices and 67% (10 of 15) of vaginectomy specimens. Multiple bilateral cystic follicles and evidence of follicular maturation were present in 57% (20 of 35) of cases. Four cases showed paratubal epididymis-like mesonephric remnant hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS.—/UNASSIGNED:A comprehensive evaluation of tissue from gender-affirming surgery increases knowledge of the changes following androgen therapy in transmasculine individuals and may contribute to optimal patient care by raising awareness of normal histologic variations in this population.
PMID: 34591101
ISSN: 1543-2165
CID: 5178472

Comparison of the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer in US and Chinese populations

Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Xia, Rong; Chen, Fei; Wang, Xin; Bao, Jia; Shao, Yongzhao; Lu, Xian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jili; Tun, May Thu; Melamed, Jonathan; Lepor, Hebert; Deng, Fang-Ming; Wang, Dongwen; Ren, Guoping
BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant tumor found among men in the United States. Incidence rates of PCa have recently grown in Asian countries, partially due to the comprehensive implementation of early detection systems. Interestingly, a prospective cohort study showed that adopting a westernized dietary pattern was associated with a higher risk of being diagnosed with PCa among Korean and Japanese men. However, a comparison of current clinicopathological features of PCa between American and Chinese men is lacking. In this study, we report the current clinicopathological features of PCa in Chinese men and compare them to those of patients in the USA. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Case cohorts included, in total, 871 PCa cases with prostatectomy sequentially treated since 2017, including 299 cases from USA and 572 cases from two different academic hospitals in China. The parameters, including patient's age, preoperative Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, Grade Group, stage and tumor focality, were collected, analyzed and compared using two sample t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, Pearson's Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS:Significant differences were demonstrated in the mean age of patients, preoperative PSA levels, extra-prostatic extension, Gleason scores, and Grade Groups (p < 0.05). PCa patients in the Chinese group were older than patients in the USA group (67.81 vs. 63.53, p < 0.01). The preoperative PSA levels in the Chinese group were higher than those in the USA group (11.69 v.s 6.30, p < 0.01). A higher percentage of high Grade Groups (Groups 4 and 5) was observed in the Chinese group (25.7%) compared to the USA cohort (17.11%), while Grade Group 2 was more common in the USA group than in the Chinese group (51.68% vs. 32.52%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:All these data suggest that the clinicopathologic features of PCa are different between the USA and Chinese populations, which may be influenced by treatment strategies (including surgical case selection criteria).
PMID: 35525175
ISSN: 1618-0631
CID: 5216582

Malignant lymphoma of the lower urinary tract: A single institutional experience

Hoskoppal, Deepthi; Ren, Qinghu; Huang, Hongying; Park, Kyung; Deng, Fang-Ming
Lymphoma of the urinary tract is relatively rare and comprises of < 5% of all primary extra nodal lymphoma. Diagnoses of these lesions at anearly stage is important as they can disseminate or transform into high grade lesion if there is a delay in the diagnoses. There are only few case series and case reports on the malignant lymphoma of the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to characterize lymphoma involving the urinary bladder and prostate. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and histologic findings of the malignant lymphoma involving urinary bladder and prostate at our institution. Lymphoma involving the lower urinary tract clinically presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and usually with concurrent associated urinary bladder cancer or prostatic cancer in our series. Lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnoses especially in patients with prior history of lymphoid disorders. There should be a high index of suspicion when there is any atypical lymphoid infiltrate in routine urinary bladder and prostate surgical specimens.
PMID: 35526304
ISSN: 1618-0631
CID: 5213972

Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma in Hospitalized Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Ortigoza, Mila B; Yoon, Hyunah; Goldfeld, Keith S; Troxel, Andrea B; Daily, Johanna P; Wu, Yinxiang; Li, Yi; Wu, Danni; Cobb, Gia F; Baptiste, Gillian; O'Keeffe, Mary; Corpuz, Marilou O; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Amin, Amee; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Jayaweera, Dushyantha T; Wu, Yanyun; Philley, Julie V; Devine, Megan S; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S; Santin, Alessandro D; Anjan, Shweta; Mathew, Reeba; Patel, Bela; Nigo, Masayuki; Upadhyay, Rabi; Kupferman, Tania; Dentino, Andrew N; Nanchal, Rahul; Merlo, Christian A; Hager, David N; Chandran, Kartik; Lai, Jonathan R; Rivera, Johanna; Bikash, Chowdhury R; Lasso, Gorka; Hilbert, Timothy P; Paroder, Monika; Asencio, Andrea A; Liu, Mengling; Petkova, Eva; Bragat, Alexander; Shaker, Reza; McPherson, David D; Sacco, Ralph L; Keller, Marla J; Grudzen, Corita R; Hochman, Judith S; Pirofski, Liise-Anne; Parameswaran, Lalitha; Corcoran, Anthony T; Rohatgi, Abhinav; Wronska, Marta W; Wu, Xinyuan; Srinivasan, Ranjini; Deng, Fang-Ming; Filardo, Thomas D; Pendse, Jay; Blaser, Simone B; Whyte, Olga; Gallagher, Jacqueline M; Thomas, Ololade E; Ramos, Danibel; Sturm-Reganato, Caroline L; Fong, Charlotte C; Daus, Ivy M; Payoen, Arianne Gisselle; Chiofolo, Joseph T; Friedman, Mark T; Wu, Ding Wen; Jacobson, Jessica L; Schneider, Jeffrey G; Sarwar, Uzma N; Wang, Henry E; Huebinger, Ryan M; Dronavalli, Goutham; Bai, Yu; Grimes, Carolyn Z; Eldin, Karen W; Umana, Virginia E; Martin, Jessica G; Heath, Timothy R; Bello, Fatimah O; Ransford, Daru Lane; Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Shenoi, Sheela V; Akide-Ndunge, Oscar Bate; Thapa, Bipin; Peterson, Jennifer L; Knauf, Kelly; Patel, Shivani U; Cheney, Laura L; Tormey, Christopher A; Hendrickson, Jeanne E
Importance/UNASSIGNED:There is clinical equipoise for COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To determine the safety and efficacy of CCP compared with placebo in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving noninvasive supplemental oxygen. Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:CONTAIN COVID-19, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19, was conducted at 21 US hospitals from April 17, 2020, to March 15, 2021. The trial enrolled 941 participants who were hospitalized for 3 or less days or presented 7 or less days after symptom onset and required noninvasive oxygen supplementation. Interventions/UNASSIGNED:A unit of approximately 250 mL of CCP or equivalent volume of placebo (normal saline). Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary outcome was participant scores on the 11-point World Health Organization (WHO) Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement on day 14 after randomization; the secondary outcome was WHO scores determined on day 28. Subgroups were analyzed with respect to age, baseline WHO score, concomitant medications, symptom duration, CCP SARS-CoV-2 titer, baseline SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, and enrollment quarter. Outcomes were analyzed using a bayesian proportional cumulative odds model. Efficacy of CCP was defined as a cumulative adjusted odds ratio (cOR) less than 1 and a clinically meaningful effect as cOR less than 0.8. Results/UNASSIGNED:Of 941 participants randomized (473 to placebo and 468 to CCP), 556 were men (59.1%); median age was 63 years (IQR, 52-73); 373 (39.6%) were Hispanic and 132 (14.0%) were non-Hispanic Black. The cOR for the primary outcome adjusted for site, baseline risk, WHO score, age, sex, and symptom duration was 0.94 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.75-1.18) with posterior probability (P[cOR<1] = 72%); the cOR for the secondary adjusted outcome was 0.92 (95% CrI, 0.74-1.16; P[cOR<1] = 76%). Exploratory subgroup analyses suggested heterogeneity of treatment effect: at day 28, cORs were 0.72 (95% CrI, 0.46-1.13; P[cOR<1] = 93%) for participants enrolled in April-June 2020 and 0.65 (95% CrI, 0.41 to 1.02; P[cOR<1] = 97%) for those not receiving remdesivir and not receiving corticosteroids at randomization. Median CCP SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titer used in April to June 2020 was 1:175 (IQR, 76-379). Any adverse events (excluding transfusion reactions) were reported for 39 (8.2%) placebo recipients and 44 (9.4%) CCP recipients (P = .57). Transfusion reactions occurred in 2 (0.4) placebo recipients and 8 (1.7) CCP recipients (P = .06). Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this trial, CCP did not meet the prespecified primary and secondary outcomes for CCP efficacy. However, high-titer CCP may have benefited participants early in the pandemic when remdesivir and corticosteroids were not in use. Trial Registration/ Identifier: NCT04364737.
PMID: 34901997
ISSN: 2168-6114
CID: 5084962

Stimulated raman histology allows for rapid pathologic examination of unprocessed, fresh prostate biopsies [Meeting Abstract]

Mannas, M; Jones, D; Deng, F -M; Hoskoppal, D; Melamed, J; Orringer, D; Taneja, S S
Introduction & Objectives: Delay between prostate biopsy (PB) and pathologic diagnosis leads to a concern of inadequate sampling and repeated biopsy. Stimulated Raman Histology (SRH) is a novel microscopic technique allowing real time, label-free, high-resolution microscopic images of unprocessed, un-sectioned tissue. We evaluated the accuracy of pathologist interpretation of PB SRH as compared to traditional hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides.
Material(s) and Method(s): Men undergoing prostatectomy were included in an IRB approved prospective study. 18-gauge PB cores, taken ex vivo from prostatectomy specimen, were scanned in a SRH microscope at 20 microns depth over 10-14 minutes using two Raman shifts: 2845cm-1 and 2930cm-1, to create SRH images. The cores were then processed as per normal pathologic protocols. 16 PB containing benign/prostate cancer histology were used as a SRH training cohort for 4 GU pathologists (1, 3, 2x >15 yrs experience), who were then tested on a set of 32 PB imaged by SRH and processed by traditional H&E. Sensitivity, specificity, and concordance for PCa detection on SRH relative to a consensus H&E were assessed. With a two-sided alpha level of 5%, it was calculated 32 SRH imaged biopsies would provide 90% power to detect concordance (k).
Result(s): PB cores were imaged in 2-3 separate strips (11-21 minutes) shown in Figure 1. In identifying any cancer, pathologists achieved moderate concordance (k=0.570; p<0.001) which improved when identifying GGG 2-5 PCa only (k=0.640, p<0001; sensitivity 96.4%; specificity 58.3%). In predicting Gleason score, the concordance for each pathologist varied from poor to moderate (k range -0.163 to 0.457). After individual assessment was completed a pathology consensus conference was held for the interpretation of the SRH PB. In identifying any prostate cancer, pathologists achieved near perfect concordance (k=0.925; p<0.001; sensitivity 95.6%; specificity 100%). When evaluating SRH in a consensus conference, the group prediction of Gleason score improved to moderate concordance (k=0.470; p<0.001). (Figure Presented) (Figure Presented)
Conclusion(s): SRH produces high quality microscopic images that allow for accurate identification of PCa in real-time without need for sectioning or tissue-processing. Individual pathologist performance varied highly suggesting potential for improvement with further training. Future SRH interpretation by convolutional neural network may further enhance GGG prediction
ISSN: 1873-7560
CID: 5184442

Optimal Method for Reporting Prostate Cancer Grade in MRI-targeted Biopsies

Deng, Fang-Ming; Isaila, Bogdan; Jones, Derek; Ren, Qinghu; Kyung, Park; Hoskoppal, Deepthi; Huang, Hongying; Mirsadraei, Leili; Xia, Yuhe; Melamed, Jonathan
When multiple cores are biopsied from a single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted lesion, Gleason grade may be assigned for each core separately or for all cores of the lesion in aggregate. Because of the potential for disparate grades, an optimal method for pathology reporting MRI lesion grade awaits validation. We examined our institutional experience on the concordance of biopsy grade with subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) grade of targeted lesions when grade is determined on individual versus aggregate core basis. For 317 patients (with 367 lesions) who underwent MRI-targeted biopsy followed by RP, targeted lesion grade was assigned as (1) global Grade Group (GG), aggregated positive cores; (2) highest GG (highest grade in single biopsy core); and (3) largest volume GG (grade in the core with longest cancer linear length). The 3 biopsy grades were compared (equivalence, upgrade, or downgrade) with the final grade of the lesion in the RP, using κ and weighted κ coefficients. The biopsy global, highest, and largest GGs were the same as the final RP GG in 73%, 68%, 62% cases, respectively (weighted κ: 0.77, 0.79, and 0.71). For cases where the targeted lesion biopsy grade scores differed from each other when assigned by global, highest, and largest GG, the concordance with the targeted lesion RP GG was 69%, 52%, 31% for biopsy global, highest, and largest GGs tumors (weighted κ: 0.65, 0.68, 0.59). Overall, global, highest, and largest GG of the targeted biopsy show substantial agreement with RP-targeted lesion GG, however targeted global GG yields slightly better agreement than either targeted highest or largest GG. This becomes more apparent in nearly one third of cases when each of the 3 targeted lesion level biopsy scores differ. These results support the use of global (aggregate) GG for reporting of MRI lesion-targeted biopsies, while further validations are awaited.
PMID: 34115670
ISSN: 1532-0979
CID: 4900372

Identification of novel biomarkers differentially expressed between African-American and Caucasian-American prostate cancer patients

Ye, Fei; Han, Xiaoxia; Shao, Yonzhao; Lo, Jingzhi; Zhang, Fengxia; Wang, Jinhua; Melamed, Jonathan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo; Ren, Guoping; Wang, Dongwen; Zhang, David; Lee, Peng
Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality rate vary among racial and ethnic groups with the highest occurrence in African American (AA) men who have mortality rates twice that of Caucasians (CA). In this study, we focused on differential expression of proteins in AA prostate cancer compared to CA using Protein Pathway Array Analysis (PPAA), in order to identify protein biomarkers associated with PCa racial disparity. Fresh frozen prostate samples (n=90) obtained from radical prostatectomy specimens with PCa, including 25 AA tumor, 21 AA benign, 23 CA tumor, 21 CA benign samples were analyzed. A total of 286 proteins and phosphoproteins were assessed using PPAA. By PPAA analysis, 33 proteins were found to be significantly differentially expressed in tumor tissue (n=48, including both CA and AA) in comparison to benign tissue (n=42). We further compared protein expression levels between AA and CA tumor groups and found that 3 proteins were differentially expressed (P<0.05 and q<5%). Aurora was found to be significantly increased in AA tumors, while Cyclin D1 and HNF-3a proteins were downregulated in AA tumors. Predicted risk score was significantly different between AA and CA ethnic groups using logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, we identified Aurora, Cyclin D1 and HNF-3a proteins as being differentially expressed between AA and CA in PCa tissue. Our study suggests that these proteins might be involved in different pathways that lead to aggressive PCa behavior in AA patients, potentially serving as biomarkers for the PCa racial disparity.
PMID: 35530298
ISSN: 2156-6976
CID: 5214062

Methylation Profiling of Papillary Renal Neoplasm with Reverse Polarity [Meeting Abstract]

Park, Kyung; Serrano, Jonathan; Tran, Ivy; Feng, Xiaojun; Chen, Fei; Vasudevaraja, Varshini; Mirsadraei, Leili; Snuderl, Matija; Deng, Fang-Ming
ISSN: 0023-6837
CID: 5208632

Methylation Profiling of Papillary Renal Neoplasm with Reverse Polarity [Meeting Abstract]

Park, Kyung; Serrano, Jonathan; Tran, Ivy; Feng, Xiaojun; Chen, Fei; Vasudevaraja, Varshini; Mirsadraei, Leili; Snuderl, Matija; Deng, Fang-Ming
ISSN: 0893-3952
CID: 5208642

The Spectrum of Biopsy Site Histologic Change in the Radical Prostatectomy Specimen [Meeting Abstract]

Melamed, Jonathan; Ren, Joyce; Deng, Fang-Ming; Hoskoppal, Deepthi; Huang, Hongying; Jones, Derek
ISSN: 0023-6837
CID: 5243202