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The Application and Pitfalls of Immunohistochemical Markers in Challenging Diagnosis of Genitourinary Pathology

Li, Jianhong; Wilkerson, Myra L; Deng, Fang-Ming; Liu, Haiyan
CONTEXT.—/UNASSIGNED:The morphologic features of different entities in genitourinary pathology overlap, presenting a diagnostic challenge, especially when diagnostic materials are limited. Immunohistochemical markers are valuable when morphologic features alone are insufficient for definitive diagnosis. The World Health Organization classification of urinary and male genital tumors has been updated for 2022. An updated review of immunohistochemical markers for newly classified genitourinary neoplasms and their differential diagnosis is needed. OBJECTIVE.—/UNASSIGNED:To review immunohistochemical markers used in the diagnosis of genitourinary lesions in the kidney, bladder, prostate, and testis. We particularly emphasized difficult differential diagnosis and pitfalls in immunohistochemistry application and interpretation. New markers and new entities in the 2022 World Health Organization classifications of genitourinary tumors are reviewed. Recommended staining panels for commonly encountered difficult differential diagnosis and potential pitfalls are discussed. DATA SOURCES.—/UNASSIGNED:Review of current literature and our own experience. CONCLUSIONS.—/UNASSIGNED:Immunohistochemistry is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of problematic lesions of genitourinary tract. However, the immunostains must be carefully interpreted in the context of morphologic findings with a thorough knowledge of pitfalls and limitations.
PMID: 37074862
ISSN: 1543-2165
CID: 5466192

Stimulated Raman Histology Interpretation by Artificial Intelligence Provides Near-Real-Time Pathologic Feedback for Unprocessed Prostate Biopsies

Mannas, M P; Deng, F M; Ion-Margineanu, A; Jones, D; Hoskoppal, D; Melamed, J; Pastore, S; Freudiger, C; Orringer, D A; Taneja, S S
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:Stimulated Raman histology is an innovative technology that generates real-time, high-resolution microscopic images of unprocessed tissue, significantly reducing prostate biopsy interpretation time. This study aims to evaluate the ability for an artificial intelligence convolutional neural network to interpretate prostate biopsy histologic images created with stimulated Raman histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Unprocessed, unlabeled prostate biopsies were prospectively imaged using a stimulated Raman histology microscope. Following stimulated Raman histology creation, the cores underwent standard pathological processing and interpretation by at least 2 genitourinary pathologists to establish a ground truth assessment. A network, trained on 303 prostate biopsies from 100 participants, was used to measure the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of detecting prostate cancer on stimulated Raman histology relative to conventional pathology. The performance of the artificial intelligence was evaluated on an independent 113-biopsy test set. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Prostate biopsy images obtained through stimulated Raman histology can be generated within a time frame of 2 to 2.75 minutes. The artificial intelligence system achieved a rapid classification of prostate biopsies with cancer, with a potential identification time of approximately 1 minute. The artificial intelligence demonstrated an impressive accuracy of 96.5% in detecting prostate cancer. Moreover, the artificial intelligence exhibited a sensitivity of 96.3% and a specificity of 96.6%. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Stimulated Raman histology generates microscopic images capable of accurately identifying prostate cancer in real time, without the need for sectioning or tissue processing. These images can be interpreted by artificial intelligence, providing physicians with near-real-time pathological feedback during the diagnosis or treatment of prostate cancer.
PMID: 38100831
ISSN: 1527-3792
CID: 5589002

Stimulated Raman histology, a novel method to allow for rapid pathologic examination of unprocessed, fresh prostate biopsies

Mannas, Miles P; Jones, Derek; Deng, Fang-Ming; Hoskoppal, Deepthi; Melamed, Jonathan; Orringer, Daniel A; Taneja, Samir S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Delay between targeted prostate biopsy (PB) and pathologic diagnosis can lead to a concern of inadequate sampling and repeated biopsy. Stimulated Raman histology (SRH) is a novel microscopic technique allowing real-time, label-free, high-resolution microscopic images of unprocessed, unsectioned tissue. This technology holds potential to decrease the time for PB diagnosis from days to minutes. We evaluated the concordance of pathologist interpretation of PB SRH as compared with traditional hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides. METHODS:, to create SRH images. The cores were then processed as per normal pathologic protocols. Sixteen PB containing a mix of benign and malignant histology were used as an SRH training cohort for four genitourinary pathologists, who were then tested on a set of 32 PBs imaged by SRH and processed by traditional H&E. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and concordance for prostate cancer (PCa) detection on SRH relative to H&E were assessed. RESULTS:The mean pathologist accuracy for the identification of any PCa on PB SRH was 95.7%. In identifying any PCa or ISUP grade group 2-5 PCa, a pathologist was independently able to achieve good and very good concordance (κ: 0.769 and 0.845, respectively; p < 0.001). After individual assessment was completed a pathology consensus conference was held for the interpretation of the PB SRH; after the consensus conference the pathologists' concordance in identifying any PCa was also very good (κ: 0.925, p < 0.001; sensitivity 95.6%; specificity 100%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SRH produces high-quality microscopic images that allow for accurate identification of PCa in real-time without need for sectioning or tissue processing. The pathologist performance improved through progressive training, showing that ultimately high accuracy can be obtained. Ongoing SRH evaluation in the diagnostic and treatment setting hold promise to reduce time to tissue diagnosis, while interpretation by convolutional neural network may further improve diagnostic characteristics and broaden use.
PMID: 37154588
ISSN: 1097-0045
CID: 5509242

Significance of the Percentage of Gleason Pattern 4 at Prostate Biopsy in Predicting Adverse Pathology on Radical Prostatectomy: Application in Active Surveillance

Ordner, Jeffrey; Flaifel, Abdallah; Serrano, Antonio; Graziano, Rebecca; Melamed, Jonathan; Deng, Fang-Ming
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To determine the prognostic significance of the maximum allowable percentage of Gleason pattern 4 (GP4) at prostate biopsy compared with adverse pathology observed at radical prostatectomy (RP) to expand active surveillance eligibility among a cohort with intermediate risk of prostate cancer. METHODS:A retrospective study of patients with grade group (GG) 1 or 2 prostate cancer on prostate biopsy with subsequent RP was performed at our institution. A Fisher exact test was used to understand the relationship among GP4 subgroups (0%, ≤5%, 6%-10%, and 11%-49%) assigned at biopsy and adverse pathologic findings at RP. Additional analyses comparing the GP4 ≤5% cohort's prebiopsy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and GP4 length with adverse pathology at RP were also performed. RESULTS:No statistically significant difference in adverse pathology at RP was observed between the active surveillance-eligible control (GP4 0%) and the GP4 ≤5% subgroup. In total, 68.9% of the GP4 ≤5% cohort showed favorable pathologic outcomes. A separate analysis of the GP4 ≤5% subgroup revealed that neither prebiopsy serum PSA levels nor GP4 length showed statistical correlation with adverse pathology at RP. CONCLUSIONS:Active surveillance may be a reasonable option for management of patients in the GP4 ≤5% group until long-term follow-up data become available.
PMID: 36897217
ISSN: 1943-7722
CID: 5432932

Stimulated Raman histology as a method to determine the adequacy of renal mass biopsy and identify malignant subtypes of renal cell carcinoma

Mannas, Miles P; Deng, Fang-Ming; Belanger, Eric C; Jones, Derek; Ren, Joyce; Huang, William; Orringer, Daniel A; Taneja, Samir S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Renal tumor biopsy requires adequate tissue sampling to aid in the investigation of small renal masses. In some centers the contemporary nondiagnostic renal mass biopsy rate may be as high as 22% and may be as high as 42% in challenging cases. Stimulated Raman Histology (SRH) is a novel microscopic technique which has created the possibility for rapid, label-free, high-resolution images of unprocessed tissue which may be viewed on standard radiology viewing platforms. The application of SRH to renal biopsy may provide the benefits of routine pathologic evaluation during the procedure, thereby reducing nondiagnostic results. We conducted a pilot feasibility study, to assess if renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes may be imaged and to see if high-quality hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) could subsequently be generated. METHODS/MATERIALS/METHODS:. The cores were then processed as per routine pathologic protocols. The SRH images and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides were then viewed by a genitourinary pathologist. RESULTS:The SRH microscope took 8 to 11 minutes to produce high-quality images of the renal biopsies. Total of 25 renal tumors including 1 oncocytoma, 3 chromophobe RCC, 16 clear cells RCC, 4 papillary RCC, and 1 medullary RCC were included. All renal tumor subtypes were captured, and the SRH images were easily differentiated from adjacent normal renal parenchyma. High quality H&E slides were produced from each of the renal biopsies after SRH was completed. Immunostains were performed on selected cases and the staining was not affected by the SRH image process. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SRH produces high quality images of all renal cell subtypes that can be rapidly produced and easily interpreted to determine renal mass biopsy adequacy, and on occasion, may allow renal tumor subtype identification. Renal biopsies remained available to produce high quality H&E slides and immunostains for confirmation of diagnosis. Procedural application has promise to decrease the known rate of renal mass nondiagnostic biopsies, and application of convolutional neural network methodology may further improve diagnostic capability and increase utilization of renal mass biopsy among urologists.
PMID: 37225634
ISSN: 1873-2496
CID: 5508442

Single-cell analysis of localized prostate cancer patients links high Gleason score with an immunosuppressive profile

Adorno Febles, Victor R; Hao, Yuan; Ahsan, Aarif; Wu, Jiansheng; Qian, Yingzhi; Zhong, Hua; Loeb, Stacy; Makarov, Danil V; Lepor, Herbert; Wysock, James; Taneja, Samir S; Huang, William C; Becker, Daniel J; Balar, Arjun V; Melamed, Jonathan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Ren, Qinghu; Kufe, Donald; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Adeegbe, Dennis O; Deng, Jiehui; Wise, David R
BACKGROUND:Evading immune surveillance is a hallmark for the development of multiple cancer types. Whether immune evasion contributes to the pathogenesis of high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) remains an area of active inquiry. METHODS:Through single-cell RNA sequencing and multicolor flow cytometry of freshly isolated prostatectomy specimens and matched peripheral blood, we aimed to characterize the tumor immune microenvironment (TME) of localized prostate cancer (PCa), including HGPCa and low-grade prostate cancer (LGPCa). RESULTS: TILs. The PCa TME was infiltrated by macrophages but these did not clearly cluster by M1 and M2 markers. CONCLUSIONS:T cell exhaustion in localized PCa, a finding enriched in HGPCa relative to LGPCa. These studies suggest a possible link between the clinical-pathologic risk of PCa and the associated TME. Our results have implications for our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of PCa pathogenesis and the implementation of immunotherapy for localized PCa.
PMID: 36988342
ISSN: 1097-0045
CID: 5463282

Prostate magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy global grade correlates better than highest grade with prostatectomy grade

Ren, Joyce; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S; Wysock, James S; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Deng, Fang-Ming
BACKGROUND:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy has become an increasingly common method of diagnosing prostate cancer. A previous study from our institution demonstrated that the biopsy global Grade Group (gGG, aggregate GG of all positive cores) and highest Grade Group (hGG in any core) both show substantial concordance with the Grade Group at radical prostatectomy (RPGG) while the discordance predominantly consists of upgrading in gGG and downgrading in hGG. We performed a larger cohort study focused on biopsy cases in which gGG and hGG differ, to determine their relative concordance with RPGG. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of radical prostatectomy specimens with prior MRI-targeted biopsies from our institution between 2016 and 2020. Separate gGG and hGG were assigned to each MRI-targeted lesion. Targeted lesions with different gGG versus hGG were segregated from those with identical gGG and hGG. The concordance of biopsy GG with RPGG was evaluated using κ coefficient analysis. RESULTS:Of the 489 lesions with MRI-targeted biopsies, 82 (17%) differed in gGG versus hGG. The gGG of 46 (56%), 33 (40%), and 3 (4%) lesions were unchanged, upgraded, and downgraded at radical prostatectomy, respectively (κ= 0.302, weighted κ = 0.334). The hGG of 24 (29%), 9 (11%), and 49 (60%) lesions were unchanged, upgraded, and downgraded at radical prostatectomy, respectively (κ = 0.040, weighted κ = 0.198). When stratified by the biopsy GG, gGG showed the highest concordance in GG2 (61%) and GG3 (54%) lesions. The hGG resulted in substantial downgrading (60%) with less optimal concordance regardless of the biopsy GG. Neither the prebiopsy prostate specific antigen level nor the PI-RADS score was predictive of upgrading of gGG. CONCLUSIONS:When gGG and hGG differ, gGG method more accurately predicts the RPGG than hGG, particularly in GG2 and GG3 lesions which comprised the majority of targeted lesions.
PMID: 36461793
ISSN: 1097-0045
CID: 5374232

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of literature [Case Report]

Ahmadi, Maryam; Osman, Adam; Lee, Peng; Deng, Fangming; Liao, Guanghong
The most common histological type of urinary bladder cancer is urothelial carcinoma (UC). Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the urinary bladder is a rare histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma in the urinary tract. The tumor primarily affects women and has histomorphological features resembling CCA of the female genital tract (or Müllerian origin). Clear cell adenocarcinoma consists of cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, arranged in solid, glandular, or tubulocystic patterns. Patients typically present with gross hematuria, dysuria, and discharge. In this study, we report a case of a 50-year-old male, presenting with gross hematuria, which was subsequently diagnosed with CCA at our pathology department. Furthermore, we provide a short systematic review of the literature for this rare histopathological entity and a brief discussion about its morphological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics.
PMID: 37645618
ISSN: 2330-1910
CID: 5618312

Cytomorphology of Low-Grade Urothelial Neoplasia (LGUN) in Urine Cytology [Meeting Abstract]

Xia, R; Sun, W; Chen, F; Lin, L; Shafizadeh, N; Shi, Y; Deng, F -M; Simsir, A; Brandler, T
Introduction: The utility of The Paris System (TPS) in diagnosing low-grade urothelial neoplasm (LGUN) on urine cytology is controversial due to the strict requirement for fibrovascular cores, and low sensitivity/specificity. Many LGUNs are classified as atypical urothelial cells (AUC) on cytology, which compromises the performance and utility of TPS. Here, we studied cytomorphologic features of LGUN in urine samples to determine which features were commonly observed.
Material(s) and Method(s): Twenty-two urine cytology cases with corresponding (within 2 months) LGUN histologic diagnosis were retrieved for this pilot study and were evaluated by one cytopathologist for the presence of clusters, cercariform cells, hyperchromasia, irregular nuclear rim, papillary architecture +/-fibrovascular core, and nucleus:cytoplasm (N:C) ratio (Figure 1). Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward's Method) was used to classify the features.
Result(s): Of the 22 urines, one was voided (4.5%) and 21 were instrumented (95.5%). Majority (77.3%) were diagnosed as AUC, 1 was suspicious for urothelial carcinoma (4.5%), 4 cases were graded as LGUN (18.2%, Table 1). Clustering analysis demonstrated that the morphologic features abundantly present in the urine specimen of LGUN included: clusters (77.3%), N:C ratio >50% (85.4%), and papillary architecture without a core (72.7%). The features that were mostly absent in LGUN specimens included: irregular nuclear rim (0%), papillary formation with a core (0%), hyperchromasia (9.1%), coarse chromatin (22.7%), and cercariform cells (36.3%). (Table 2).
Conclusion(s): Papillary formation with a fibrovascular core, the most convincing feature of LGUN, was not present in our pilot cohort of LGUN urines. However, our study describes additional cytomorphologic features that may be useful in identifying LGUN in urine cytology. Our research will continue with the evaluation of a larger cohort of LGUN cases with corresponding urine cytology in order to further investigate these findings
ISSN: 1938-2650
CID: 5512122

Histologic Findings in Gynecologic Tissue From Transmasculine Individuals Undergoing Gender-Affirming Surgery

Lin, Lawrence Hsu; Hernandez, Andrea; Marcus, Alan; Deng, Fang-Ming; Adler, Esther
CONTEXT.—/UNASSIGNED:Gender-affirming surgery is part of a multidisciplinary approach in gender transitioning. Deeper histologic examination may strengthen care for transmasculine individuals and increase the understanding of the influence of hormonal therapy in specific organs. OBJECTIVE.—/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate and catalogue histologic findings of tissue obtained from gender-affirming gynecologic surgery and cervical cytology specimens. DESIGN.—/UNASSIGNED:This is an institutional review board-approved retrospective study that included transmasculine individuals who underwent gender-affirming gynecologic surgery from January 2015 to June 2020. All surgical gynecologic pathology and cervical cytology slides were reviewed by 2 pathologists. RESULTS.—/UNASSIGNED:Fifty-five patients were included, which represented 40 uteri, 35 bilateral ovaries, 15 vaginectomy specimens, and 24 cervical cytology results. The median age was 27 years (range, 18-56) and 94% (50 of 53) of patients were receiving testosterone for at least 1 year. Seventy-five percent (30 of 40) of endometria were inactive, while 25% (10 of 40) showed evidence of cycling. Transitional cell metaplasia was the most common finding in the cervix (17 of 40) and vagina (15 of 15), reflecting a high percentage (4 of 24) of unsatisfactory or ASC-US (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cervical cytologies. Prostatic-type glands were identified in 20% (8 of 40) of cervices and 67% (10 of 15) of vaginectomy specimens. Multiple bilateral cystic follicles and evidence of follicular maturation were present in 57% (20 of 35) of cases. Four cases showed paratubal epididymis-like mesonephric remnant hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS.—/UNASSIGNED:A comprehensive evaluation of tissue from gender-affirming surgery increases knowledge of the changes following androgen therapy in transmasculine individuals and may contribute to optimal patient care by raising awareness of normal histologic variations in this population.
PMID: 34591101
ISSN: 1543-2165
CID: 5178472