Assessment of Healthcare Delivery Systems in Orthopaedic Surgery: A Large Retrospective Cohort Evaluation
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to assess how quality and volume of common orthopaedic care varies across private, municipal, and federal healthcare delivery systems (HDSs). METHODS:Hip and knee arthroplasty, knee and shoulder arthroscopy, and hip fracture repair were audited over a two-year period. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, diagnosis, lengths of stay (LoSs), surgical wait times, inpatient complication, readmission, and revision surgery rates. Multivariate regression controlled for differences in age, sex, diagnosis, and Charlson Comorbidity Index to determine how HDS correlated with surgical wait time, length of stay, complication rates, readmission, and revision surgery. RESULTS:The 5,696 included patients comprise 87.4% private, 8.6% municipal, and 4.0% federal HDSs. Compared with private HDS for arthroplasty, federal surgical wait times were 18 days shorter (95% CI = 9 to 26 days, P < 0.001); federal LoS was 4 days longer (95% CI = 3.6 to 4.3 days, P < 0.001); municipal LoS was 1 day longer (95% CI = 0.8 to 1.4, P < 0.001); municipal 1-year revision surgery odds were increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3 to 5.4, P = 0.045); and complication odds increased for municipal (OR = 12.2, 95% CI = 5.2 to 27.4, P < 0.001) and federal (OR = 12.0, 95% CI = 4.5 to 30.8, P < 0.001) HDSs. Compared with private HDS for arthroscopy, municipal wait times were 57 days longer (95% CI = 48 to 66 days, P < 0.001) and federal wait times were 34 days longer (95% CI = 21 to 47 days, P < 0.001). Compared with private HDS for fracture repair, municipal wait times were 0.6 days longer (95% CI = 0.2 to 1.0, P = 0.02); federal LoS was 7 days longer (95% CI = 3.6 to 9.4 days, P < 0.001); and municipal LoS was 4 days longer (95% CI = 2.4 to 4.8, P < 0.001). Only private HDS fracture repair patients received bone health consultations. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:The private HDS provided care for a markedly larger volume of patients seeking orthopaedic care. In addition, private HDS patients experienced reduced surgical wait times, LoSs, and complication odds for inpatient elective cases, with better referral patterns for nonsurgical orthopaedic care after hip fractures within the private HDS. These results may guide improvements for federal and municipal HDSs.
The Cam-Post Dislocation in Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty A Case Series
Cam-post dislocations are a unique complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) designs that utilize a cam-post mechanism, representing an extreme form of deep flexion instability. They are rare complications and are poorly defined in the existing literature. The purpose of this case study is to present a series of six cam-post dislocation cases to improve understanding of this complication and its mechanism, presentation, and available treatment options. All patients experienced cam-post dislocations after a deep flexion moment that were identified clinically and confirmed radiographically. Affected implants included both primary and revision components and all utilized a cam-post mecha- nism. Three patients underwent revision surgery whereas the remaining three were treated with closed reduction only. Cam-post dislocations are rare complications of posterior- stabilized TKA that should be understood and recognized by adult reconstruction surgeons. Closed reduction may be achieved with hyperflexion and anterior drawer or with hyperextension, but these patients may ultimately require a revision procedure.
Dual Mobility in Total Hip Arthroplasty
Dual mobility designs in total arthroplasty allow for increased range of motion prior to impingement and dislocation. While valuable for reducing dislocation, dual mobility has its own unique complication profile that includes intraprosthetic dislocation, corrosion, and femoral notching. Despite these relatively rare complications, dual mobility articulations are valuable options for patients at higher risk of dislocation-both early and contemporary reports on dual mobility in total hip arthroplasty suggest that it can reduce the risk of dislocation without leading to unacceptable rates of complication or early revision. Cost analyses and longer follow-up studies on newer dual mobility designs will help determine the future of dual mobility in total hip arthroplasty.
Dual Mobility in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Biomechanics, Indications and Complications-Current Concepts
Dual-mobility (DM) articulations are increasingly utilized to prevent or manage hip instability after total hip arthroplasty (THA). DM cups offer enhanced stability due to the dual articulation resulting in larger jump distance and greater range of motion before impingement. Improvement in design features and biomaterials has contributed to increased interest in dual-mobility articulations due to lower risk of complications compared to their historic rates. The incidence of implant-specific complications like intra-prosthetic dislocation (IPD) and wear has reduced with newer-generation implants. DM THAs are used in primary THA in patients with high risk for dislocation, e.g. neuromuscular disorder, femoral neck fracture, spinopelvic deformity, etc. They offer an attractive alternative option to constrained liner for treatment of hip instability in revision THA. The medium- to short-term results with DM THA have been encouraging in primary and revision THA. However, there are concerns of fretting, corrosion and long-term survivorship with DM THA. Hence, longer-term studies and surveillance are required for the safe use of DM THA in clinical practice.
Aseptic Loosening of Porous Metaphyseal Sleeves and Tantalum Cones in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review
Bone loss often complicates revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Management of metaphyseal defects varies, with no clearly superior technique. Two commonly utilized options for metaphyseal defect management include porous-coated metaphyseal sleeves and tantalum cones. A systematic review was conducted according to the international Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We combined search terms "Total knee arthroplasty" AND/OR "Sleeve," "Cone" as either keywords or medical subject heading (MeSH) terms in multiple databases according to PRISMA recommendations. All retrieved articles were reviewed and assessed using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 27 studies (12 sleeves and 15 cones) of revision TKAs were included. In the 12 studies on sleeve implantation in revision TKAs, 1,617 sleeves were implanted in 1,133 revision TKAs in 1,025 patients. The overall rate of reoperation was 110/1,133 (9.7%) and the total rate of aseptic loosening per sleeve was 13/1,617 (0.8%). In the 15 studies on tantalum cone implantation in revision TKAs, 701 cones were implanted into 620 revision TKAs in 612 patients. The overall rate of reoperation was 116/620 (18.7%), and the overall rate of aseptic loosening per cone was 12/701 (1.7%). Rates of aseptic loosening of the two implants were found to be similar, while the rate of reoperation was nearly double in revision TKAs utilizing tantalum cones. Variability in the selected studies and the likely multifactorial nature of failure do not allow for any definitive conclusions to be made. This review elucidates the necessity for additional literature examining revision TKA implants.
Cementless Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Will this be the Future?
Cementless fixation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) offers the potential for biologically active osseointegration and the potential for life-long fixation. With early cementless TKA designs, several design issues were identified related to early failure, particularly with the tibial and patellar components. However, in the recent two decades, with improvements upon the early designs, particularly in porous metal technology as well as improved early biomechanical stability, interest was re-established in cementless TKA. The surgical technique for cementless TKA is more exacting than cemented technique, with an important emphasis on indications, accurate resections, and component alignment. Modern cementless TKA designs have demonstrated excellent early- and mid-term survivorship equivalent to cemented TKA. More long-term studies are needed to study this comparison. While implant cost maybe higher with cementless designs, there is emerging evidence that there may be an overall cost saving with the use of cementless components given the shorter operative time and the savings in the cost of supplies associated with the use of cement. As the population undergoing TKA is becoming younger and more active, interest in the use of cementless implants will likely increase.
Improved Sexual Function After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee is known to affect sexual activity. For patients with osteoarthritis, pain during sexual activity can lead to decreased quality of life and other associated health issues. The authors designed a prospective study to evaluate the effect of total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty on the psychosocial and physical aspects of sexuality pre- and postoperatively. Between April 2009 and December 2011, patients received questionnaires in the mail preoperatively. They were asked to return the pre-operative questionnaire before surgery and the postoperative questionnaire 6 months after surgery. Data were analyzed to evaluate the psychosocial and physical aspects of sexuality and participants' subjective assessment of their appearance. Preoperatively, 91% and 67% of patients reported psychosocial and physical issues, respectively. After the arthroplasty procedure, 84% (P<.001) and 47% (P<.001) of patients reported improvement psychosocially and physically, respectively. Of the patients, 16% reported that arthroplasty adversely affected sexual function, with their predominant fear being joint damage (63%). A greater number of women and patients undergoing hip procedures reported improvement in sexual activity after surgery compared with men (P=.02) and patients undergoing knee procedures (P=.002). Both hip and knee osteoarthritis and arthroplasty had a significant effect on overall sexual function-psychosocially, physically, and in terms of patients' assessment of their external appearance-with higher rates of improvement seen after hip arthroplasty. Because of the effect of osteoarthritis and arthroplasty on sexual function, this topic should be addressed both pre- and postoperatively. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(x):xx-xx.].
No difference in failure rates or clinical outcomes between non-stemmed constrained condylar prostheses and posterior-stabilized prostheses for primary total knee arthroplasty
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:There has been an increase in the use of unlinked constrained condylar knee (CCK) prostheses in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for cases with significant deformities that cannot be adequately balanced in flexion and extension. However, the literature on its outcomes is limited. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether there are any clinic or radiographic outcome differences for a primary, non-stemmed, unlinked constrained TKA as compared to a control group of posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA using the same implant design. METHODS:Clinical and radiographic outcome measures for 404 cemented, non-stemmed, primary TKAs performed by two surgeons at the same institution were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent primary, non-stemmed components; 241 used CCK inserts and 163 used PS inserts. Preoperative deformity, knee society scores (KSS), range-of-motion (ROM), radiographic data and revision rates were compared between the CCK and PS groups. RESULTS:Both groups had comparable demographics and preoperative ROM and KSS. At similar mean follow-up times (6.1â€‰Â±â€‰1.0Â years for the CCK group and 6.3â€‰Â±â€‰1.2Â years for the PS group), no significant difference was found in ROM, KSS or radiographic outcomes. Revision rates were higher for the CCK group (2%) as compared to the HF-PS (0.6%) group (n.s). CONCLUSIONS:The particular design of cemented, primary, non-stemmed, unlinked CCK-TKA examined in this study provided similar clinical and radiographic outcomes to that of PS-TKA at midterm follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
Subsidence Following Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Modular and Monolithic Components
BACKGROUND:The ideal femoral component in revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) remains undetermined; however, tapered, fluted, titanium (TFT) stems are now widely used with favorable results in all types of revision scenarios. With both modular and monoblock TFT stem options, neither has been proven to be superior. Femoral stem subsidence has been linked to aseptic loosening, instability, and leg length discrepancy. This study aims to assess stem subsidence of modular and monoblock TFT stems at a single urban orthopedic specialty hospital within a tertiary academic medical center. METHODS:Electronic medical records of rTHAs performed between January 2013 and March 2018 utilizing modular and monoblock TFT stems were examined. Data collected included baseline demographics, surgical indication, femoral Paprosky classification, and stem subsidence at most recent follow up (3 months to 3 years). Two-sample t-tests and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:A total of 186 patients (106 modular, 80 monoblock) were included in the analysis. Modular stems underwent significantly greater subsidence than monoblock stems at latest radiographic follow-up (3.9Â Â±Â 2.6 vs 2.3Â Â±Â 2.5 mm, P < .001). A significantly greater proportion of modular stems underwent >5 mm of subsidence at latest follow-up (29.2% vs 11.3%, P < .001). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Monoblock TFT stems have displayed promising clinical results in prior studies, and now have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative subsidence. With the potential for stem subsidence to lead to aseptic loosening, limb length discrepancy, and instability, the orthopedic surgeon should weigh the risks and benefits of utilizing modular vs monoblock TFT stems in rTHA.
Does femoral morphology and stem alignment influence outcomes of cementless total hip arthroplasty with proximally coated double-tapered titanium stems?
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Stem subsidence and thigh pain can cause significant patient dissatisfaction after cementless THA. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of proximal-femoral morphology and stem alignment on clinical outcomes using a double-tapered, cementless titanium femoral component. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We retrospectively reviewed 281 consecutive, primary THAs from 2012 to 2014 with a mean follow-up of 4â€‰years. Preoperative radiographs were used to assess femoral neck shaft angle (FNS), canal flare index (CFI), Dorr classification, and greater trochanter (GT) overhang. Postoperative radiographs were used to determine stem alignment and 6-week follow-up radiographs were used to determine subsidence. Clinical outcomes included thigh pain, leg-length discrepancy (LLD), patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and revision surgeries. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:â€‰0.03) and FNS was inversely associated with postoperative HOOS scores. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Subsidence and proximal-femoral morphology are potential sources of postoperative morbidity in certain cementless THA patients. In accordance with prior studies, CFI was identified as a potential risk factor for intraoperative calcar fractures. More research into preoperative femoral morphologies, such as GT overhang and FNS, is warranted as these may contribute to unsatisfactory results related to cementless THA.